2,500 years ago in India by Guatama Sidhartha, the Buddha or "Enlightened One",
it is one of the Heterodox schools of Hindu philosophy.
Major Scriptures : The
Tripitaka, Anguttra-Nikaya, Dhammapada, Sutta-Nipata, Samyutta-Nikaya, etc.
Life's goal is Nirvana - the end of change, neither
existence nor non-existence. No creator or God, thus no union with Him.
Buddha's teachings : Four Noble Truths ("chatvari arya
The Truth of Suffering : Suffering (dukha) is the central
fact of life. Pain is being born, growing old, sickness, death union with what we dislike
is pain, separation from what we dislike, not fulfilling desires
The Truth of Origin (Samudaya) of Suffering : The cause of
suffering is desires (ichcha), craving (tanha) or thirst (tishna) for sensual pleasures,
for existence and experience, for worldly possessions and power. This craving binds one to
The Truth of Cessation (Nirodha) of Suffering : Suffering
can cease only by complete cessation of desires
The Truth of the Path (Marga) To Ending Suffering :
Suffering can be overcome by following eightfold path (arya ashtanga marga), right belief,
right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right
mindfulness and right meditation.
Rejects ritualistic aspects of the Vedas, but does not deny
the higher teachings of the Upanishads. Rejects caste system.
Believes in theory of karma and rebirth, but holds that
atman (individual spirit) does not transmigrate from one birth to another.
Holds that Self and World are both unreal.
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