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Founded about 2,500 years ago in India by Guatama Sidhartha, the Buddha or "Enlightened One", it is one of the Heterodox schools of Hindu philosophy.

Major Scriptures : The Tripitaka, Anguttra-Nikaya, Dhammapada, Sutta-Nipata, Samyutta-Nikaya, etc.

Life's goal is Nirvana - the end of change, neither existence nor non-existence. No creator or God, thus no union with Him.

Buddha's teachings : Four Noble Truths ("chatvari arya satyani")

The Truth of Suffering : Suffering (dukha) is the central fact of life. Pain is being born, growing old, sickness, death union with what we dislike is pain, separation from what we dislike, not fulfilling desires

The Truth of Origin (Samudaya) of Suffering : The cause of suffering is desires (ichcha), craving (tanha) or thirst (tishna) for sensual pleasures, for existence and experience, for worldly possessions and power. This craving binds one to rebirth, samsara.

The Truth of Cessation (Nirodha) of Suffering : Suffering can cease only by complete cessation of desires

The Truth of the Path (Marga) To Ending Suffering : Suffering can be overcome by following eightfold path (arya ashtanga marga), right belief, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right meditation.

Rejects ritualistic aspects of the Vedas, but does not deny the higher teachings of the Upanishads. Rejects caste system.

Believes in theory of karma and rebirth, but holds that atman (individual spirit) does not transmigrate from one birth to another.

Holds that Self and World are both unreal.

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