462.Alpinia galanga: cf. arattai galanga, alpinia (Ta.); aratta alpinia galanga (Ma.)(DEDR 206). ela_parn.i_ alpinia galanga (Car. Vi. 8.133). kulija_na (Skt.); kulinjan (B.H.) The aromatic tuber is used as carminative or fragrant adjunct in complex prescriptions. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.256). kulanja, kulanjana, kul.a_njana, kol.anja, kol.anjana, kol.anju the plant alpinia galanga and its root (Ka.); kulanjana, kuli_njana, ko_l.a_njana (M.)(Ka.lex.) Galangal is the rhizome of alpinia officinarum. Alpinia galanga: barakulanjana (H.B.); sugandhavacha (Skt.); baripankijar (M.); perarattai (Ta.); peddadumparashtram (Te.); rhizomes: used in rheumatism, fever and catarrhal affections, stomachic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, used as flavouring agent; essential oil: useful in respiratory troubles, especially of children; habitat: mainly in Eastern Himalayas and south-west India (GIMP, p.13). Alpinia officinarum: kulinjan (H.); sugandha bacha (B.); rhizomes: stomachic, stimulant, carminative; essential oil, galangin; a native of Chia (GIMP, p.13). Galanga. "The name in Arabic is calvegiam and you will find it written by all the moors chamligiam or galungem. (The rhizomes of alpinia officinarum the 'lesser galangale' of south-east China, and alpinia galanga, the 'greater galangale' of the Indian archipelago. The Arabs, Persians and Hindus give to the rhizomes of both plants the name of kulanjan, from the Chinese kauliangkiang. The correct Malayan name is langkvas.) There are two kinds of what we call galanga, one small with a strong scent, which is brought from China to these parts, and thence to Portugal and other Western countries. This is called lavandou in China. There is another larger which is found in Java and there called lancuaz... In India we call both lancuaz... in Java... used by the people as salads and in medicine, chiefly those who come from Java, who are midwives (called daias) and work as doctors... Dioscorides does not mention this simple, nor any of the Greeks... The use of galanga is for the stomach and for foul breath..." (G. De Orta, pp. 208-210). Alpinia officinarum: galangal, chinese ginger, china root, east Indian root; galgant (Ger.); racine de galanga (Fr.); part used: the dried rhizome; habitat: China; uses: aromatic stimulant, carminative and condiment. Galangal oil is used as a flavouring agent in French liquers, in bitters of the angostura type and in some tobacco. (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, pp. 227-228). Alpinia officinarum. Galanga. Part used: the dried rhizome. Habitat. China. Uses: aromatic stimulant, carminative and condiment. Galangal oil is used as a flavoring agent in French liquers, in bitters of the Angostura type and in some tobacco. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 227-228).

463.Soap-pod: ci_-kka_y, ci_ya-kkka_y, cikai-kka_y soap-pod wattle, acacia concinna (Pata_rtta. 721)(Ta.lex.) ci_kka-kka_yi, ci_ya-kka_yi mimosa abstergens (the fruit serves for cleansing the hair after bathing)(Ma.); si.x acacia dealbata and melanoxylon (two Australian species, much planted in the Nilgiris)(To.); si_ge a climbing prickly shrub, the pods of which are used like soap for washing the hair, etc., acacia concinna (the soap-nut tree is often called si_ge, but not correctly; it is an.t.ava_l.a etc. (Ka.); si_g, si_ge-ka_yi pods of mimosa abstergens reduced to fine powder and used as soap for cleansing, soap-nut (Tu.); si_-ka_ya acacia concinna; ci_kire_nu (Te.); ci_kire_n.i a certain medicinal tree, the leaves of which are ground and used as a soap (Te.); si_ko soap-nut tree; si_li mra_nu id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2607a). Acacia concinna: ban-ritha (B.); shika (M.); ritha (H.); saptala (Skt.); shikai (Ta.); shikaya (Te.); pods: aperitif, expectorant, emetic; leaves: cathartic, in biliousness; saponin; tropical jungles throughout India, especially in the Deccan (GIMP, p.2). According to Kirtikar and Basu, the soft parts of the dried berries of acacia concinna contain 5 percent saponin... used by Indians for washing the head. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.362). an.t.ava_l.a, an.t.aral.e, an.t.a_l.a, an.t.va_l.a, antaral.e, antuva_l.a, arat.a_l.a, arad.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arut.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arita_l.a, aris.t.a soap-nut tree, sapindus trifoliatus; phe_nila, nidigdhike, kan.t.aka_rike, ba_rhata, spr.ti, ks.udre (Ka.); an.t.aral.eka_yiburugu lather made of the soap-nut (Ka.lex.) aris.t.a soap-nut tree (Ya_j.); aris.t.aka (Mn.); arit.t.ha, arit.t.haka (Pali); arit.t.ha a partic. kind of tree; rit.t.ha soap-nut (Pkt.); hari_t.t.ha_, hari_t.ha_, re_t.ha_ (L.); ri_t.t.ha_, ri_t.ha_, ret.ha_ soap-nut tree, sapindus detergens (P.); rit.ho the tree; rit.h the berry (Ku.); rit.t.ho, rit.ho sapindus mukerossi (N.); ha_it.ha_ soap-nut (A.); rit.ha_ (B.Or.); it.ha_phal.a (Or.); harit.h, rit.t.hi_ (Mth.); ri_t.ha_ (Bhoj.); the tree sapindus detergens or saponaria, its berry (H.); ri_t.h, ari_t.ho, ari_t.hi_ the tree sapindus saponaria; ri_t.h, ari_t.hu~ its berry (G.); rit.ha_, rit.hi_ soap-nut (M.); rit.i the Upas tree, antiaris innoxia (Si.)(CDIAL 610). a_ri_t.ho the tree sapindus saponaria (S.)(CDIAL 1320). arit.am, ari_t.am < aris.t.a black hellebore, kat.ukuro_kan.i (Malai.; Pata_rtta. 991)(Ta.lex.) cf. kat.uro_kin.i christmas rose, herb, helleforus niger; kat.uro_n.i (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

464.Tiger-stopper: i_kai sp. of mimosa; tiger-stopper (Mysore thorn, caesalpinia sepiaria); i_kkai tiger-stopper; sp. of stinking swallow-wort (pentatropis microphylla); i_n:ku sp. of sensitive-tree; tiger-stopper; i_n:kai sp. of sensitive-tree, mimosa rubicaulis; sp. of stinking swallow-wort; i_yai tiger-stopper; sp. of sensitive-tree (Ta.); i_n.n.a mimosa intsia, the bark of which is used in bathing; ica, i_ca, i_a acacia intsia (Ma.); i_n.tu tiger-stopper; in.t.u eight-pinnate soap-pod, acacia instsia caesia; sensitive-plant, mimosa; mimosa rubicaulis; tiger-stopper; in.t.ai eight-pinnate soap-pod; trichotomous-flowering smooth jasmine; tiger-stopper; sp. of sensitive-tree; thorny caper (Ta.); an.t.arike, an.t.irike acacia intsia (Ka.); si_r.i a bush, the leaves of which are used as soap (Kuwi); s'ikeka_i_ a plant, also the pod of it, mimosa abstergens (M.)(DEDR 2607b and 2607c). an.t.arike, an.t.irike a prickly climbing shrub, acacia intsia (Ka.lex.) cf. an.t.ava_l.a, an.t.aral.e, an.t.a_l.a, an.t.va_l.a, antaral.e, antuva_l.a, arat.a_l.a, arad.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arita_l.a, aris.t.a the soap-nut tree, sapindus trifoliatus, sapindus detergens; its nuts are used e.g. also in washing woollen cloth; cf. pi_taphe_na (Ka.lex.) sega janum mimosa rubicaulis; kondro janum acacia intsia (Santali.lex.) ot kondro cassia mimossoides (Santali.lex.) Mimosa rubicaulis: shiah-kanta (H.B.); huziru (M.); khinkari (Garhwal); kattusinikka (Ma.); arlu (P.); ingai (Ta.); undra (Te.); leaves: in form of infusion prescribed in piles; bruised and applied to burns; root: in powder form, given when from weakness the patient vomits the food; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.167). Acacia intsia = acasia caesia: aila (H.); kondrojanum (Santali); chilari (M.); karijindu (Ta.); kodakorinda (Te.); flowers: used by Santal women in deranged courses; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards ascending to 4,000 ft. and found throughout India (GIMP, p.2).

465.Canarium strictum: Distribution: Konkan, W. Ghats of N. Kanara and of Madras Presidency in evergreen forests, upto about 5,000 ft. The gum is used with gingely oil in rheumatic pains. Bengal: kala dammar; Bombay: dhup, gugul; Canarese: halemaddu, karedupa, mandadupa, pandu, raladupa; English: black dammar tree; Gujarat: kala dammar; Hindi: kala dammar; Kadir: kungiliam, tubam, viraka; Malayalam: karuttukungiliam, kungiliam, kunturukkapayam, pantam, telli; Marathi: dhup, raldhup; Sanskrit: mandadhupa, raladhupa; Tamil: attam, karungundurukkam, karunkungiliyam, karuppudamar, karuppukkungiliyam, kundurukkam, kungiliam, kukkil kungulam; Telugu: nallarojanamu. Canarium bengalense: Distribution: Assam, Sylhet. The leaves and bark are used externally for rheumatic swellings. Assam: bisjang, dhuna; Garo: tekreng; Lepcha: narockpa; Nepal: goguldhup. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 531-533). har, harra_, har.r.ai_, harla_, hard.a_ green myrobalan (H.); hird.a_ (M.); hari_r hari_r. (S.); harad. hari_d. (P.); hari_taki_ (Skt.)(Bloch, p.415).

466.House: cf. varu_tham a family; protection; a house, residence (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) or.ak a house; to build a house; hopon or.ak small house; dolan or.ak brick house; kot.ha or.ak a house with timber and earth roof gud.o or.ak pavilion roofed house (Santali.lex.)

467.Image: cowry: vara_t.a, vara_l.a a cowry, cypraea moneta (used as a coin, 1/80 of a pan.a); vara_t.aka a cowry (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vara_t.aka cowrie (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

468.Image: rope: vara_t.a, vara_t.aka a rope, a cord (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

469.Tax: vara_d.a a public subscription; tax, impost (Ka.); viral.a, vira_l.a (Te.); vara_ta urging for payment, dunning (Ka.M.H.); vara_tu id. (Ka.); vari tax, cess; levy, contribution (Ka.Ta.Ma.); vari tege to gather or raise taxes (Ka.lex.) cf. ari tax, duty (Ta.)(DEDR 216).

470.Image: curved line of loops: a_r..i curved line of loops drawn on sand by a woman to divine whether her husband will return in safety, the sum of which, if even, indicating the safe return and, if odd, failure to return (Ain. Aim. 43)(Ta.lex.)

471.Image: tip of an elephant's trunk: a_r..i tip of an elephant's trunk (Ta.lex.)

472.Image: boar: cf. airis. boar (Dm.); a_ru hog (Skt.)(CDIAL 1321). cf. vara_ha boar (Skt.lex.) a_ru a hog (Ka.lex.)

473.Image: crab: a_ru a crab (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

474.An aquatic plant: a_rai aquatic cryptogamous plant, marsilia minuta coromandelica (Ta.); marsilea quadrifolia (Ma.)(DEDR 380).

475.Olibanum: alam nar-umpicin; a kind of incense, olibanum (Sa_mpacivam Pil.l.ai Akara_ti, Madras, The Research Institute of Siddha's Science, 1931; loc. cit. T.E.D.) nar-um-picin socotrine aloe, kariyapo_l.am, aloe succotrina; a kind of fragrant gum (Cilap. 6,76, Arum. Me_r-ko_l.)(Ta.lex.)

476.Olibanum: cf. a_ne-be_la the gum olibanum tree, boswellia serrata, gajabhaks.ye, suvahe; a_nelo_l.isara a kind of aloes (Ka.); a_neo_l.i sara (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) a_lu_kam bael, vilvam (Mu_. A.); cf. ma_lu_ra (Skt.); allu_ram id. (Malai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

477.Image: elephant: alliyan- (Ta.Ma.) stray elephant separated from the fold; alliyam (prob. ali) Kr.s.n.a's dance when he broke the tusk of the elephant that was set on him by Kamsa, one of 11 ku_ttu (Cilap. 6,48)(Ta.lex.) allian female elephant (Ma.)(DEDR 258). Image: elephant: *a_l elephant? [alakam elephant pepper climber, a_n-aittippili (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)] vya_la vicious elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 12212). vya_laka a vicious or wicked elephant (Skt.lex.) al-a_yya epithet o Inda (to be gone to)(RV. ix.67.30)(Vedic.lex.) alliyan- stray elephant separated from the fold (W.)(Ta.lex.) a_la_na the post to which an elephant is tied (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) a_lai elephant stable or stall (kalir-u ce_rn talkiya var..un:ka la_lai : Pur-ana_. 220,3)(Ta.lex.) alli-p-pa_vai puppets used to exhibit alliyam dance (Pur-ana_. 33); ali-p-pe_t.u a dance of Kr.s.n.a (Ta.lex.) aira_van.a Indra's male elephant (Skt.Ka.); regent of the east quarter; one of the chiefs of the serpent race (Ka.); aira_vata Indra's male elephant (Skt.); the elephant of the east quarter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ayira_van.am Indra's elephant (Pin..); elephant of Kaila_sa, said to have 2,000 tusks, vehicle of S'iva, kayila_yattil ul.l.a oru ya_n-ai (Te_va_. 713, 1; i_ra_yiramarup pe_yntut.ar-r-at tayan:kuntir-alayira_van.am : Tan.ikaippu. Kal.avu. 92); state elephant (Ci_vaka. 30,46); aira_van.an- Indra; aira_van.am state elephant forming a special feature of the paraphernalia of royalty (Ta.); ayira_n.i consort of Indra (Na_lat.i, 381); ayira_vatam Indra's elephant; aira_vatam Indra's elephant, said to be in the eastern quarter according to mythology, one of as.t.a-tik-kajam (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) ya_l.i < vya_l.a a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks (Kur-icip. 252); id. (Ka.); elephant (Aka. Ni.); ya_l.i-ya_n-ai id; ya_l.i-y-u_rti Ka_l.i as riding on a ya_l.i (Aric. Pu. Pa_yi. 9)(Ta.lex.) Synonym: pun.d.ari_ka the elephant of the south-east quarter, indhre_bha, ayira_vata; an elephant of one of the eight quarters (Ka.lex.) To dangle; to move: e_lu to hang, to dangle (Ka.); ve_lu, vre_lu (Te.); e_la_d.u to swing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) elugu to shake (Ka.lex.) alai-ttal to move, shake (Tiruvil.ai. Par..iya. 8)(Ta.); alaivu moving, shaking, waving (Ja_n-ava_. Vaira_k. 88)(Ta.); alavu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) al.l.a_t.i-t-tal.l.a_t.i redupl. unsteady swaying to and fro (Ta.lex.) ale that moves to and fro: a wave, a billow; ale to move about, to move to and fro, to shake, to dangle (Ka.); alai (Ta.); allu, agal, alla_t.a moving about; alla_d.isu to cause to be agitated or moved; to shake, to move about, to cause to swing or vibrate, to rock (Ka.); alugu, alaku, ?elugu to be agitated or unsteady, to move about, to shake; to he shaky or loose (Ka.); anajju to shake (Ma.); alan:gu, alun:gu to be in motion; to be weary (Ta.); alukisu to shake (Ka.); alasu, alacu to shake or agitate in water as a cloth, vegetables etc. (for cleansing); allaga_riga a washerman; agasa, at.t.aga_liga id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) alacutal to shake, be agitated (Man.i. 9,7); to rinse (Ta.); alacu (Te.); alasu (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) alambu to shake in or wash with, water (Ka.Tu.); alamu (Ta.Te.)(Ka.lex.) a_lambana hanging from down; a_lo_d.ana mixing, blending; stirring, shaking, agitating; a_lo_la trembling slightly, rolling as an eye; (Ka.); olahu swinging to and fro; a swing; ole, one to swing, to wave, to shake, to tremble; to move; to move in a swinging manner, i.e. to move with artificial appearance or show; to shake (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) {The possible transformation of a_l.- > a_n-- might have been influenced by the use of the common affixes: a_ne a common affix for the third person singular masculine of the present that is used in modern times (Ka.lex.); a_l.u, ahal.u the femine of a_nu, e.g. banda_l.u, bad.ida_l.u, idda_l.u; a_nu, ahanu a common affix for the third person singular masculine of the present, conveying the meaning of uncertainty or mere possibility (Ka.lex.) To connote a male elephant e.g., aira_vata, *a_l- > a_ne is a possibility}. Image: rope, elephant: a_la_na post to tie an elephant to (Mr.cch.); tethering rope for an elephant (Skt.); a_l.a_na, a_la_na elephant post (Pali); a_la_n.a, a_n.a_la bond, rope or post for tying an elephant (Pkt.); a_la_n elephant post (B.); ala_n post or rope for tying an elephant (Hi.); alana elephant post (Si.); alun.a post to which an animal, esp. elephant, is tied (Si.)(CDIAL 1372). a_la_van.a rope for binding (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1377). a_da_na fettering (AV.)(CDIAL 1148).

478.Image: be delivered of a child: alga tidy, clear (Kui); alga a_va to be tidy, clear, be delivered of a child (?Kui); ale to get clear (as water when left undisturbed); allna_ to become clear (of liquids left undisturbed)(Kur.)(DEDR 261). avakkhalita washed off (Pali); okhal dirt of body or clothes (A.)(CDIAL 734). cf. ks.al flow, wash; ks.alati flows (Dha_tup.); chalum wash (K.)(CDIAL 3664).

479.Sweeping: ayk- (aykt-) to sweep away; ayak (obl. ayk-) rubbish (Kol.); ayk- to sweep (Nk.); ay- id. (Nk.); ayp- (ayt-) id. (Pa.); ays-, ayk- (ayt-) id.; ayp- to clean, wipe (Ga.)(DEDR 194). i_ca_na_ to wipe, to wipe a part of one's person, esp. to blow the nose, to blow the nose (Go.); i~_jhrna_ to blow the nose; i~_jna_ to clean the nose; i~_jrna_ to clean one's nose (Kur.); inje to blow the nose (Malt.)(DEDR 537). ocg- (ocgy-) to sweep (Ko.); ud.ugu, ud.agu, ud.igu, hud.ugu id. (Ka.); od.ik- (od.iki-) id. (Kod..); od.ki id. (Kor.); orp- (orup-) to clean floor by hand (Ga.)(DEDR 953). errna_ (irryas) to sweep; errta'a_na_ to make sweep (Kur.); ere to sweep; erpo a broom (Malt.)(DEDR 828). at.i sweeping the house; at.ikka to sweep the ground; at.ippu sweeping (Ma.); ad.ipuni to sweep; ad.ipu sweeping (Tu.)(DEDR 73). ar..ukku dirt, stain, excrement, impurity of mind or soul, discharges after confinement (Ta.); ar..ukku, ar..un.n.u, ar..ukkal dirt, filth (Ma.); ad.aka, ad.ka, ad.ukaja_gu an unclean place, a burying place (Tu.); s-k dirty (To.)(DEDR 283). ar..un:ku (ar..un:ki-) to be spoiled, injured, disfigured; ar..un:kal ruin; ar..uku (ar..uki-) to rot, decompose, putrefy; ar..ukal rotten, fruit, putrefied matter, uncleanness; ar..an, ar..anam corpse (Ta.); ar..ukuka to rot, decay; ar..ukkuka to putrefy (Ma.); ol.g far- articles (par-) in the outer room or outer section of the room of ti. dairy (i.e. more exposed to pollution than those of the inner section)(To.); ar..ugu to decay, rot, spoil by being overboiled; ar..kame state of being decayed, dissolved, digested; ar..ku to be worn out, decayed, digested; ar..kisu, akkisu to digest; ar..gu to be dissolved, decay (Ka.)(DEDR 284). al.i (-v-, -nt-) to become mellow, be over-boiled; al.aivu becoming soft as rice by over-cooking (Ta.); al.iyuka to be over-ripe, decay; al.iccal mellowness, decay (Ma.); alun:guni to be soft (as a ripe fruit)(Tu.)(DEDR 302). cf. ar..i (-v-, -nt-) to perish, be ruined, decay, be mutilated, fail, be defeated, suffer, be used up; (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, spend, ruin, damage, efface, bring to a close; n. ruin, destruction (Ta.)(DEDR 277). aln:g (aln:kt-) to kill (Kol.); al.an.- id. (Nk.)(DEDR 309). alampu (alampi-) to wash, rinse; alacu (alaci-) to rinse; alaicu (alaici-) to wash, rinse; alaittal to wash clothes by moving them about in water (Ta.); alakkuka to wash clothes by beating; alakku washing; alampuka to shake clothes in water (Ma.); as-p- (as-py-) to clean (To.); alambu, alumbu, alabu, alubu to rinse, wash; ale to wash; alasu to shake or agitate in water (as a cloth, vegetables etc., for cleansing)(Ka.); alambuni to wash; alumbuni, lumbuni to plunge, wash, rinse (Ka.); alamu to smear, wash; ala~du to smear, daub, apply; aluku to smear the floor of a house or a mud wall, etc. with macerated cowdung (Te.); akali rinsing (Kui)(DEDR 246). urp- (urt-) to wash face (Ga.); kan:k u_r/u_r.- id.; ur- id. (Go.); u_rpa- (-t-) to wash (hands, feet, face etc.)(Kond.a); ur- (-t-) to wash face (Pe.); ru_p- (-it-) id.; mu_mbu_ ru_pali to wash one's face; mu_mbu ru_pi ki_ali to wash (another's) face; ru_binai to wash (Kuwi)(DEDR 670).

480.Image: side, groin: alle, al.le side, groin (Tu.lex.)

481.A law of inheritance: al.iya nephew (used on ly in the compound): al.iyakat.t.u line of inheritance in the female line (Tu.lex.) al.iya a daughter's husband, a son-in-law (Ka.); allud.u, alluva_d.u (Te.); al.iya a son-in-law, a nephew (Tu.); a brother-in-law (Ma.); al.iya-santa_na the law of inheritance in the female line, according to which the family property descends not from a man to his son, but to his sister and her children (Ka.lex.)

482.Feast for son-in-law; wife's brother; brother-in-law: alliyamu feast or entertainment given to son-in-law by father-in-law immediately after the marriage (Te.); al.iyan brother-in-law, wife's brother or sister's husband (Ma.); ayl. brother-in-law, male cross-cousin (male speaking); ayl. ba.vn brothers-in-law, male cross-cousins (collectively); mal ayl. son-in-law who lives in father-in-law's house (Ko.); al.iya son-in-law (Ka.Tu.); nephew (Tu.); al.iyatana state of being a son-in-law (Ka.); allu~d.u, alluva~_d.u son-in-law (Te.); sa.nzin (pl. sa.lnikul) younger sister's husband; sanma mother's younger sister; san.ma_ id., sister's daughter (Kol.); sa_nikul, sa_njin son-in-law, younger sister's husband (Nk.); sanjil bridegroom (Nk.); salid. (pl. -kil) son-in-law, younger sister's husband (Ga.); sann son-in-law; sanne-mi_a_r sister's daughter; sanne_-marri_ sister's son; se_la_r-sanne_ younger sister's husband; sanai son-in-law; san.e younger sister's husband; sar.e, sad.e, har.e, anne, ar.ne daughter's husband; sar.e_, hunn son-in-law (Go.); san.in, (with reference to 3rd person) san.isi id. (Kond.a); hone, honesi id. (Kuwi); sa_lum son-in-law; brother-in-law (Br.)(DEDR 2410). sya_l wife's brother (RV.); sya_laka (Ca_n..); sya_li_, sya_lika_ wife's younger sister (Skt.); sa_laka wife's younger brother (pali); sa_la wife's brother; sa_li_ wife's sister (Pkt.); sali (NiDoc.); salo, sali (Gypsy); sa_rt. wife's sister (Kt.); sa_la wife's brother (Gaw.Sv.); sa_l wife's sister, husband's brother's wife (K.); sa_lo wife's brother; sa_li_ wife's sister (S.); sa_l.a_, sa_l.i_ wife's younger brother and sister (L.M.); sa_la_ (P.); wife's brother (B.H.); sa_li_ wife's sister (H.); sa_i wife's sister (WPah.); sa_la_bhai her husband (WPah.); s'au sister's husband (Ku.); s'ai_ wife's sister (Ku.); sa_lo, sa_li wife's younger brother and sister (N.); xa_l wife's sister (A.); sa_li, ha_li wife's younger sister (B.); sa_l.a_, sa_l.i (Or.); sa_r wife's brother; sa_ri_ wife's sister (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); sa_l.o, sa_l.i_ wife's younger brother and sister (G.); sa_l.o (Konkan.i)[The masculine is frequently a term of abuse indicating that the sister of the person addressed has had sexual relations with the speaker.] sa_ra_n.i wife's sister (Dm.); sa_rani (Gaw.); sa_ren (Bshk.); sa_re_n.i (whence saro_n.u sister's husband, husband's brother)(Phal.); saro_n.i (Sh.)(CDIAL 13871). sa_la_t.ru wife's brother's son (S.)(CDIAL 13872). salha_j, sileha_j wife's brother's wife (L.); sarhaj, sarha_ji_ (Bhoj.); salaj, sarhaj (H.)(CDIAL 13873). sjiwa, sjuv wife's sister's husband (K.)(CDIAL 13874). e_ra_lu husband's brother's wife (Te.); serutra husband's younger brother's wife (Nk.); se_rand.u_, sernd.u, harnd.u, ervond., er..ond. spouse's younger brother (or spouse's younger sister's husband; fem. serand.al, serand.a_r, sernd.ar, harnd.ar spouses' younger sister; se_riya_r., se_riya_l elder brother's wife (Go.); se_r-on husband's younger brother (Kond.a); he_jun wife's younger brother (Mand..); sejenju husband's younger brother (Kui)(DEDR 2819). sa_n.d.u_ wife's sister's husband (Phal.); san.d.hu_ (S.); sa_n.d.hu, sa_d.hu_ (L.); sa_(n.)d.hu_ (P.); sa_r.u_ (Ku.); sa_r.(h)u (N.); sar.(h)u (Or.); sa_r.(h)u_ (H.); sa_d.(h)u (G.); sa_d.(h)u_ (M.); ma_sar.u mother's sister's husband (S.)(CDIAL 13875). cf. may(i)duna, may(i)da, maydana sister's husband (Ka.); maittun-i wife's sister (Ta.); maccin-an- wife's brother, sister's husband, son of maternal uncle or paternal aunt (Ta.)(DEDR App. 53a). For ser- in: sernd.u (Go.) cf.: Male: se_r-i kor-u cock (Kond.a); sehi male (Kuwi); sehi neh'ur.i male dog (Kuwi)(DEDR 2820). cf. e_r-u bull, male of certain animals (pig, deer, buffalo, sambar, tiger, lion)(Ta.)(DEDR 917). cf. sru_ horn (Av.)(CDIAL 12715). Hon. affix to names of relationship: s'ri_ light, beauty (RV.); welfare, riches (ASV.); -s hon. affix to names of relationship (e.g. a_ja_-s, a_ji_-s)(M.)(CDIAL 12708).

483.To mix, blend; to fit pieces into one another; tacking: al.a to mingle, blend (Ta.); al.i (-v-, -nt-) to mix, mingle (Ta.); al.ai to be mixed, mingled; to mix up, mingle (Ta.); al.ayuka to mix up, mingle (Ma.); al.a, al.avu, al.avi joining, contact, contiguity, nearness (Ka.); al.avuni to mix (Tu.); alamuni to mix with the hand (Tu.); la_yu to approach (Te.); alamu to seize, lay hold of, take; mix with, be one with (Te.); lap- (-t-) to join two pieces together, fit one into or on another (Kond.a); lab- (lapt-) to fit into (Pe.); lap- (-t-) to insert, fit into (Pe.); halling to seize, hold, buy, overtake, detect, tack together (a tear); get caught, stick (Br.)(DEDR 296). a_lagati adheres (Skt.); alondu, alnzu hanging down (K.); a_l- to put on (shoes)(Pas'.); alavanava_ to affix (Si.)(CDIAL 1354). ala_sin.o to stick to, take refuge (Ku.)(CDIAL 1379). a_li_yate_ comes close to (MBh.); crouches, stoops (Skt.); alli_yati sticks to (Pali); alli_ya_pe_ti brings to; a_layati clings to (Pali); a_li_i is attached to; alli_ai, alli_i, allii enters, unites; alliya_ve_i brings near; allivai hands over (Pkt.); a_l- to get up (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1387). cf. alarka a fabulous animal (MBh.)(CDIAL 705). Haste; to be joined: alavalai hasty action (Man.i. 17,51); alavan (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) alarti hastens towards (RV.); ara_ryate_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 10640). Image: to join: ral.an. to be joined, be mixed, fall into (of river into sea)(L.); rala_un.a_ to mix, join (P.); ral.vu~ to acquire, earn (G.); ralun to be mixed with (K.); ralan.u (S.); ralle unitedly (L.); ra_ln.o to join, mix (e.g. rice with lentils)(Ku.); ra_lna_ to mix, bruise (H.); ralna_ to be mixed or pounded together (H.); ra_ln.o to throw, put down (Marw.)(CDIAL 10640). Mixing: rala_, rala_u mixture, alloy, mingling of some foreign substance; rala_u one who joins with or connives at; rala_un. to mingle, to mix, to join, to unite; rala_wan to join, to unite. When used with bi_ja_ sugarcane cuttings, it means the plant; ralmil, ralma_n.i_ uniting (Punjabi.lex.) Attachment, desire: a_laya attachment, desire (Pali); a_l. longing for; a_l.i_ importunate begging (M.); liya wish, desire (Si.)(CDIAL 1366). al.i to be attached (Ta.); love, affection (Ma.); al.inta_r loving persons; al.iyan- one who has great love, gracious benefactor, one who deserves protection (Ta.); alikkuka to grant, bestow, protect; al.iyan one who is kind and affectionate (Ma.); ayl. mog twin children (Ko.); al.ipu, al.upu to be addicted to, long for; hankering after, desire, love; al.aviga friend (Ka.); la~_cu to long for, desire (Te.)(DEDR 301).

484.Image: water-snake: alagarda water-snake (Sus'r.); alagardha, ali_garda, ali_gardha id. (Skt.); alagarda_ large poisonous leech (Skt.); alagadda water-snake (Pali); ala_dh (Mth.)(CDIAL 699). ol.l.e, hol.l.e, ul.l.i a kind of amphisbaena (Ka.); ol.l.e pa.mbi water-snake (Kod..); ol.l.e, olle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1018).

485.Contrary; misfortune: ali_ka unpleasing (AV.); untrue (MBh.); a little (Skt.)[semant. 'lie' and 'little': cf. co_t. lie (Sh.) ~~ chot.o small (N.)]; alika contrary, false; lie (Pali); ali_ya, aliya useless, untrue; lie (Pkt.); ali a little (N.); al.ia_ untidy, unswept, rubbish, knotty question (Or.); ali_ misfortune (H.); ali_h untrue (H.); el.e idly, uselessly, in vain (G.)(CDIAL 718). allatu or, if not, or else, an adversative conjunction (Ci_vaka. 1745); except as (Tacaiva_. 129); allate_l if not (Kantapu. Mo_n-. 10); allatu_um besides, moreover (Kampara_. Pin.ivi_t.. 22); allal affliction, distress, evil, misfortune, privation (Kur-al., 787); id. (Ma.Ka.); allari id. (Te.); allavai sin, evil (Kur-al., 164); uselessness, fruitlessness; alla_ distress (Paripa_. 6,99); alla_ta adj. which is not, other than, different from (Ce_tupu. Kat.avu. 13); what are not, are different; alla_mal except, besides; without; alla_l prep. except, besides (Kur-al.. 197)(Ta.lex.) avila difficult (Pkt.); auro ill dispositioned (S.); auri_ difficulty, calamity (S.); avl.u~ contrary, obstinate (G.); avalo contrary, perverse, unpropitious (S.)(CDIAL 819).

486.To bring a boat to the shore: a_lawun to bring (a boat) to or near the shore (CDIAL 1377).

487.Image: claw of a crab: al.a the claw of a crab; al.a-chinno kakkat.ako; the nails (of finger or toe); al.a-chinna ?one whose nails are cut off (Pali.lex.) 487.Image: claw of a crab: al.a the claw of a crab; al.a-chinno kakkat.ako; the nails (of finger or toe); al.a-chinna ?one whose nails are cut off (Pali.lex.) Image: crab: alavan- crab (Ci_vaka. 516); male crab (Pin..); cancer of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) Image: forceps of an insect: a_l sting or forceps of an insect (B.); a_la source of pain (OG.); a_l.aka thorn, sting, dart (Pali); a_la poison (RV.); discharge of poisonous matter from venomous animals (Sus'r.); a_la_kta smeared with poison (RV.)(CDIAL 1352). Image: clamp: al. clamp, iron band to hold parts together (Pin..); block connecting the spring with the axle; alaku-p-pu_t.t.u locking the mouth by a wire running through the cheeks, in fulfilment of a vow (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: seizing: a_lambha seizing; a_labha taking hold, touching (Ka.lex.) alaku, alavu jaw, mandibles, bird's beak (Ta.); upper portion of the jawbone (Ma.); halaku the lower part of the cheek (Ka.)(DEDR 239).

488.Image: fish: alan:ku an armadillo; a kind of fish (tarpon or ox-eye herring)(Tu.lex.)

489.Greasy: aleji, al.eji grease, sticky substance, turbidity; mad.eji po_no_l.u aleji tappandu wherever mad.eji fish moves, turbidity will not be missed. (Tu.lex.)

490.Sacrifice: ale_j sacrifice (in which the patient witnesses the slaughter smeared with the blood)(Br.); la_ka_na, la_ka_nj the sacrifice after a successful hunt (Go.); r.a_k- (-t-) to offer worship, sacrifice; intens. r.a_bga-; r.a_kel ja_ni priest who offers sacrifice (Pe.); r.a_k- to offer worship, sacrifice (Mand..); la_ka (la_ki-) id.; n. a sacrifice, worship; la_ka so_ka a sacrifice, worship (Kui); la_k- to sacrifice; la_kinai to praise; la_kwinai to invoke; la_gu offering to a deity; r.a_k- (-it-) to sacrifice (Kuwi)(DEDR 297). da~r.e~ sacrifice; da~r.e~ saman. to offer sacrifice (Santali.lex.) il.aku (il.aki-) to shake, agitate; il.akku (il.akki-) to shake (Ta.); il.akula to move, shake, fluctuate; il.akkuka to move, shake, stir, disturb, interrupt; stir; il.akkikka to get into motion, set on (e.g. a dog); il.akkam shaking, fluctuation, irresolution (Ma.); el.g- (el.gy-) (something) is slightly raised or imperfectly fixed in place, lift one's body slightly from ground, (mind) is moved (by pity); el.k- (el.ky-) to lift slightly from position, lever out, pull (trigger); el.c- (blister) rises (Ko.); el.- (el.i-) to leave one's position, leave abruptly, be removed from one's position; el.ak (el.aki-) to make to leave a position, uproot, (god) possesses (man who devil-dances); el.aka uprooting from position, violent, shaking (as when possessed by a god)(Kod..); lakkuni to rise, get up, depart, start; lakka_vuni to lift, raise, wake, rouse, steal (Tu.); le_sk- to tremble, be possessed by gods; le_ske pl. le_sker medium through whom gods speak (he always shakes his head); le_s- to cast out evil spirits by means of spells; le_ske pl. le_sker priest, shaman (Go.); hilh fever (Br.)(DEDR 509). er.bna_ (ir.byas) to cut the throat of, slaughter, sacrifice (Kur.); er.we to sacrifice, propitiate, worship (Malt.)(DEDR 790). ra.n:g- (ra.n:kt-) to be possessed by (a god)(Kol.); r.a_nja (r.a_nji-) (spirit, demon) possesses, inspires, excites; n. spirit-possession, demon-possession (Kui)(DEDR 5165). sirileng to be possessed (i.e. by spirits, god etc.)(Kol.); ciral a medium (Pa.); ciral id.; siraha id. (also leski)(Go.); hira, sira id., shaman (Pe.); siraha (Or.); sira_ha_ (Halbi)(DEDR App. 37). al.l.ai devil, demon (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

491.Image: scorpion: callaki Indian turnsole (Ta.lex.) ce_lgon.d.i sting of a scorpion (Tu.)[kon.d.i the sting of a scorpion (Ka.Te.); a sting (Tu.)(DEDR 2080)]; te_lu scorpion (Te.); tele id. (Malt.); te_lh id. (Br.) te_l. scorpion (Ta.Ma.); ce_r..(u), te_r.. id. (Ka.); te.l.i black insect with poisonous bite (Kod..); ce_l.u, te_l.u, te_lu scorpion (Tu.)(DEDR 3470). te_l.i scorpion-fish, leaden, attaining more than 1 ft. in length, saccobranchus fossilis, poisonous and having nippers like a scorpion (ayiraiyun te_l.iyu ma_ra_lun. kottiye_ : Kur-r-a_.kur-a. 91, Anupal.); te_l.e_r-u sting of a scorpion (ve_le_r-u pat.a-t-te_l.e_r-u ma_ynta_r-po_la : Ir-ai. 2, Pak.39)(Ta.lex.) te_r-u sting (as of a wasp)(Ta.)(DEDR 3440).

492.Image: scorpion, hornet, bumble bee: a_li scorpion (Pali); bee, scorpion (VarBr.S.); ala sting in tail of scorpion or bee (Skt.); sa_d.a having a point or sting (as stick, scorpion, etc.); alini_ female bee (Pali); ali, alin.i_ bumble bee, (Pkt.); alin.a scorpion (Pkt.); ali_ black bee, scorpion (H.); al., al.i_, al.ai_ maggot in grain or fruit (M.); a_li bumble-bee (Pkt.); a_li_ scorpion, bumble bee (H.); aliya scorpion (Si.)(CDIAL 716). alikula swarm of bees (VarBr.S.); aliula (Pkt.); ali_la bees (OG.)(CDIAL 712). ran:gha_l hornet; an:ga_l (WPah.); alan.a_r (Ku.); ari~ga_l, ari~gal, arin.a_l (N.)(CDIAL 714). al., al.ai_, al.i_ fruit insects and grains, sort of caterpillar (M.); ala_i_ skin irritation (G.); el. insect (G.); ali_ a large black bee, scorpion (H.); ali (B.); scorpion (Si.); alin wasp, scorpion (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 298). a_la a scorpion's tail (Ka.lex.)

493.Image: buttocks and thighs: al.kat. waist on either side of belly (Ko.); al.k a.r- (a.c) to shake, walk in tired fashion (Ko.); al.k a.t.- (a.c-) to shake, wag (Ko.); al. belly (al. a.r.- belly shakes, i.e. fear comes)(Ko.); al.l.ai side of the body(Ta.); al.l.e that portion of the abdomen of man which is immediately below the coastal margin, is regarded as a very tender spot, tenderness, weakness; the flank of an animal (Ka.); the side, groin, hip (Tu.); alle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 294). alkul pudendum muliebre (Ta.); alki_t.am vulva (Ma.); algalv hindquarters (of person or animal), loins (Ko.); agel.f buttocks and thighs (To.); alga- the groin (Skt.)(DEDR 253). alkul side (Perumpa_n.. 244); alkit.am (Ma.); alkul waist (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 9,7)(Ta.lex.)

494.Image: loop on either end of grain sack: al.a~ge~ loop on either end of grain sack (M.); algan., algan.i_ line or stick to hang clothes on (P.); alagun.i (Or.); argani_ (Mth.); regni_ (Bi.); alagni_, ala~gni_ (H.); a_lagga fastened (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1356). ilgan., ilgan.i_, ilan:gan., ilan:gan.i_ line to hang clothes on (P.); hilagai gets entangled (OAw.); hilagna_ to be suspended, hang (H.); hilagn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 528). alam stick set up for the support of a climbing plant (H.)(CDIAL 1363). a_lambe_ti to hang up (Pali); almo_ id. (Kt.)(CDIAL 1364). ca_la thatch (Skt.)(CDIAL 4770). Image: to wind round (as snake): alc- to wind round (as snake or creeper round tree)(Pa.); alt.- to be twined around (Pa.); alt.ayp- (alt.ayt-) to wind round (Pa.)(DEDR 260). Image: to wind round: al.apn.e~ to bind round by wrapping (M.); al.pa_ wrapping round (M.); al.pan. anything to wrap with (M.)(CDIAL 1360). hela_ to lean; hila_ id. (B.); abhili_yate_ clings to (MBh.); ahila_n.a a kind of face-covering (Pkt.); wailya_y to cover, wrap up (Dm.); hela_na, hila_na to lean against (B.)(CDIAL 529). To knit, weave, build, intertwine, fabricate: allariyal that which is slightly woven or braided (Ta.lex.) Thinness, lightness of texture: alla_ri (Ta.Ma.) thinness, lightness of texture (Ta.lex.) Needlework pattern: al.l.u to be thickly interwoven, dense (Ta.)(DEDR 292). alli_ needlework pattern (Br.); allinai to intertangle, plait (Kuwi); al to plait (hair)(Kuwi); allu to knit, build, weave; to interlace closely (Ta.); to join, connect, knit nets, etc., plait, braid, wattle together (Ka.); to plait, braid, weave, wattle, intertwine, compose, fabricate (Te.); allud.u plaiting, braiding, netting (Te.); al to weave (Kol.); all to weave, dress (hair)(Kol.); all to weave, plait (Nk.Go.); alt. to be twined around (Pa.); alt.yap to wind round (Pa.); all to twine (Ga.); alpa to twist or twine, plait or weave a cot, weave a garland (Go.); ar.pa to spread as a creeper; alt.ay a_ to be interwoven, grow thickly and densely as a creeper; ar. (at.-, an.-) to plait, weave (Go.); alpa to weave sticks together into fence, interlace, plait, intertwine (Kui)(DEDR 260). alinu clothes-line, clothes-net (N.); a_la_n a pendent (A.); a_lan.a_ clothes-rack (Or.); a_len. network at the bottom of a cot (WPah.)(CDIAL 1355).

495.To reckon: alakit.utal to reckon, compute, measure, estimate; alaku number, calculation (Tiva_.); measure, quantity (Pin..); standard of measurement (Na_lat.i. 22); cowries, small shells, as signs of number in reckoning (Tiva_.); berries of mimusops elengi, makir..am vitai (Tiva_.; Tiv. Iyar-. 1,49); a lakh of areca-nuts (Api. Cin.); alaku-kar..ittal to subtract, deduct a number in reckoning with seeds (W.); alaku-kat.t.u-tal to settle accounts (W.); alaku-nilai result of a computation in addition, or multiplication (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cowry: alaku cowries (as signs of number in reckoning), number, calculation (Ta.); alu cowrie (?Kod..Mercara)(DEDR 238). [cf. kale_i, kalai counts (Pkt.); kalyoiki, kali_am to count, consider (Sh.); kal.iba_ to count (Or.); kalayati counts, thinks (Skt.); ka_layati counts, tells over (MBh.)(CDIAL 2918). kala_ a small part (RV.Pali.Pkt.); kala small amount, digit, division of time (Si.)(CDIAL 2926). kali the losing die with one dot (AV.)(CDIAL 2933)]. Scratch: le_khana act of scratching (Pali); lehni_, nehni_ scraper used by tin-man (Bi.)(CDIAL 11103). le_kha_ scratch, line (Pali); le_ha_ line (Pkt.); leya line, row (Si.)(CDIAL 11107). li_kka_ track, line (Skt.); li_ka line, streak (S.); li_k line, crack in soil (L.); lik line, track, rut (B.)(CDIAL 11070). li_ha_ line (Pkt.); li_ha (S.); li_ line, rut (P.); line (G.)(CDIAL 11107). Accounts; writing: le_khya to be written (Skt.); writing (MBh.); document (Ya_j.); lekha document (NiDoc.); writings (OMarw.); lekkha, likkha accounts (Pkt.); lyukhu, likha id. (K.); lekho account (S.Ku.N.); lekha_ id. (L.A.Bi.H.); letter, drawing (B.); written (Or.); nekha_ written (Or.); lekh document, opinion, destiny (Ku.); account (A.M.); lekhaum calculation (OG.); lekhu~ account (G.); lekhiba_, nekhiba_ to write (Or.); leku_sa to count (Tor.); lekhu_m I count, I divide (Phal.)(CDIAL 11108).

496.Image: hooked pole; weaver's staff; weaver's stay to adjust a warp: alakku a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves (Tj.)(Ta.); alaku weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp (Ta.); lath, splint, palm or bamboo leaf, weaver's staff (Ma.)(DEDR 237). alaku also connotes: 1. blade of a weapon [alakku-p-po_r stack of weapons (Ta.lex.)]; 2. standard of measurement (DEDR 237-238). There are three semantic categories [weapon or tool; weavers' equipment and products; mensuration.] Image: splinter; tablet: laha_ slip of wood used as ticket in distributing food (Si.); laha invitation tablet, label (Si.); xala_ pin (of bamboo or wood or iron)(A.); sala_ thin stick or bamboo, pin, spit (B.)(CDIAL 12349). s'alya arrow, javelin (RV.)(CDIAL 12352). Strip of bamboo: s'ala_ka_ any small stake or stick (S'Br.); sala_ka_ twig, peg, thin bar, blade of grass, arrow (Pali); sala_ya_, sila_ga_ twig, splinter (Pkt.); sula wood (Kal.); salay spike (K.); sara_i_ thin stick (S.); sala_i_ pin (in spinning yarn)(L.); short stick, coarse needle (Bi.); needle, probe, bodkin (H.); sal.a_i_ need in shuttle, spindle (P.)(CDIAL 12349). Image: strips of bamboo: vle_ka a thin strip of bamboo (Kui); le_kin strips of bamboo (Pe.)(DEDR 5557).

497.Plough: ala plough (Pkt.MBh.); hal, xal (with preventive hardening of the threatened h-)(Dm.); hal ploughshare (Pas.); ha_la, al, a_l (with rising tone) plough (Pas.); a_l (Shum.); ha_l plough (Phal.Gaw.Kal.); hal plough (Sh.Tor.); ploughshare (Sv.); har plough (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); haru plough (S.); hari_ drill plough (S.); hal. plough (L.G.M.); oxen and plough (P.); hal plough (L.P.WPah.Ku.B.H.); a pair of bullocks (N.); hal.a plough (Or.); haw plough (WPah.Ku.); hal-a plough (Si.)(CDIAL 14000). halasi_ra plough (BHSkt.); hali_ra_ plough (P.); haler the day on which neighbours join to plough one man's land (P.)(CDIAL 14010).[For -si_ra in the compound: cf. ce_r plough and team of bullocks (Kol.); se_ru yoke of oxen (Kond.a); e_r plough (Ta.)(DEDR 2815).] ala plough (K.); halya_ collection of ploughs (Pa_n..gan.a); hala front pole of plough (S.); hal beam of plough (L.); plough (WPah.); hall beam of plough (L.P.); ha_l the plough and its furniture, a couple of animals (whence haliya_ in couples (A.); plough (whence ha_liya_ plough ox)(B.); halya_, hela_ male buffalo (M.)(CDIAL 14016). a_la plough (K.); ha_ pair of bullocks (WPah.); ha_la_ plough, tax on plough (H.)(CDIAL 14066). halwal ploughshare (Pas.)(CDIAL 14005). For -wal in the compound: cf. va_l. ploughshare (Ta.)(DEDR 5376). hale_s.a_ pole of a plough (Skt.); hale~_s' pole ofa plough (Sv.); hale_s' (Phal.); haleh (L.); harhya (S.); hals (P.); haris (Bi.N.H.); hari_s (Mth.); halas, hiras (H.); harsa_ (H.); hal.i_s (M.); hal.as (M.)(CDIAL 14014). halheit.l. whole apparatus of a plough (WPah.)(CDIAL 14011). hara_i custom by which tenant lends landlord his plough and bullocks for two days each year (Bi.)(CDIAL 14004). haler the day on which neighbours join to plough one man's land (P.) (CDIAL 14010). halavams'a pole of plough (Skt.); ala~_s plough beam (Pas.); hala~_s id. (Gaw.)(CDIAL 14008). hala~_z plough beam (Phal.Gw.); arala_nz id. (K.)(CDIAL 14007). halayu_na plough rope (Skt.); halon the leather strap tied to one yoke handle (Ku.); hau~_r.~ rope for fastening plough to yoke (Ku.)(CDIAL 14006). halasthin standing to the plough [For -sthin- cf. tris.t.hin-, parame_s.t.hin-.]; hara_thi_ plough bullock (Bi.)(CDIAL 14012). ha_liya_ plough ox (B.); ha_lya_, hela_ male buffalo (M.)(CDIAL 14016). Image: plough: araka a plough with bullocks, etc. (Ta.); are a plough (Malt.)(DEDR 198). a_r pair of oxen yoked to a plough (Ka.)(DEDR 2815). Blade: alaku blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow; weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp (Ta.); blade of sword, knife, or spear (Ma.); alagu, alugu blade of a knife, sword, etc. (Ka.); alu~gu tip of an arrow, sword (Te.)(DEDR 237). Plough: na~_gali, na~_gelu, na~_ge_lu plough (Te.); na.ngli (Kol.); na_ngar (Nk.); na~_gil (Pa.); na_ne_l (Go.); na_ngel (Pe.); na_ngeli (Kui); a_cil, na_cil plough (Ta.); nangelli ploughshare (Kuwi); ne.lg plough (Ko.); ne_gal id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2907). {Image: tail: [The suffix particle -gul/gel/gil etc. may relate to xola_ tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2135). The a_- initial morpheme may relate to a_lam earth, land (Ta.Ma.); ne_la id. (Te.); field (Kuwi.Kui.Pe.); na_l low fields, terraced fields (Kur.); na_la field under cultivation (Skt.)(DEDR 2913). nilam ground, earth, land (Ta.); nelm ground (Ko.); nela earth, soil, floor, ground (Tu.Ka.)(DEDR 3676)]}. Image: tail; ploughshare: le_ngula, le_ngut.t.a, la_ngu_la tail (SKt.); having a tail (MBh.)[Variety of forms attests non-Aryan origin.]; langula tail (Pali); lamgu_la (Pkt.); lagur tail, monkey (G.); laguriyu~ tail (G.); la~_gar., na_gr.i tail (M.); la_ngur.a, na_ngur.a tail (Or.); negur tail (A.); lengur. tail (B.); ne~gula_ the only boy amongst the girls fed on the 9th day of A's'vin in honour of Devi_.(Aw.)(CDIAL 11009).

498.Image: monkey: la_khu monkey, langur (N. < kapila brown)(CDIAL 11003). cf. ka_vi red ochre (Ta.)(DEDR 1490). cf. la~gur monkey, tail (G.)(CDIAL 11009).

499.Variety of cotton: alattam variety of cotton, cem-parutti (Ta.lex.); ya_vam lac; brazil cotton; ya_vakam brazil cotton < ya_va ; cem-pacu brazil cotton, gossypium barbadense acuminatum; cotton coloured with lac-dye (ko_kila-k-kan. cem-pacu : Cilap. 14,187, Urai); cem-pacu-k-kur..ampu paste prepared from red cotton, used to dye women's feet (Man.i. 6,110, Urai); cem-parutti (Ta.); kembatti (Ka.); cembarutti (Ma.) a kind of superior cotton used in making sacred thread (tilaka mulo_-t-tira cemparutti-p-pu_ : Cilap. 14,187, Urai); brazil cotton; a variety of cotton, gossypium arboreum (Ta.lex.) a_la silk-cotton tree (Tu.)(DEDR 495). cem-pat.atti woman of the fisherman caste; cem-pat.avan- fisherman(Ta.lex.) cem-pat.a_m red cloth (Ta.lex.)

501.Grains of paddy: alaku grains of paddy, ear of paddy or other grain (Ta.); algu rice obtained from paddy without boiling it (Kui); alkhr.a_ parched rice (cyu_r.a_ (H.) th paddy is first steeped in tepid water, then parched, finally unhusked by means of a wooden pedal and winnowed)(DEDR 255). Boiled rice: lay boiled rice (Pe.); lay id. (Mand..); lahi id. (Kuwi); la_h'i boiled mand.eya grain (Kuwi)(DEDR 5186). Parched grain: la_ja parched grain (VS.Pali); la_ya id., dried rice (Pkt.); la_wa_ fried unhusked rice (N.); burst parched rice or other grain (Bi.); parched grain (H.); la_i_ id. (H.); la_hi_ parched rice or wheat (M.); lada parched grain (Si.)(CDIAL 11011). Rice: s'a_li growing or unhusked rice (MBh.); grains of rice (R.); s'a_lika of rice (Skt.Pali); sa_li rice (Pali.Pkt.); sal, sali (Gypsy); salima (Ash.); seli_, salima_ (Wg.); sali (Kt.); growing rice (Dm.); sa_l (Pas'.); so_le (Wot..); sa_li_ (Kho.); se_l (Bshk.); sa_l (Tor.); shaeyl (Mai.); se_li_ (Phal.); sili_ rice (Pr.); sha_li_ (Bashg.); sa_ri_ unhusked rice (S.); saria~_ rice (L.); xa_li principal variety of transplanted rice (A.); sa_l, sa_il a kind of rice (B.); sa_l.i growing or unhusked rice (Or.); sa_ri (Bi.); sa_l (H.); sa_l. (G.M.); sa_l.iyu~ (G.); sa_l.i_ (M.); hal, al (Si.)(CDIAL 12415). Unparched, unhusked rice; mud, wet: a_rdra wet (RV.); adda wet, slippery (Pali); wet (Pkt.); atere wet (Tir.); oz mud (Tor.); az.u wet (Sh.); oduru (K.); a_d.roko moist (S.); a_d.a_ran.u to steep (grain, etc., in hot water)(S.); ada wet (Si.); alla moist, freshly gathered (Pali); wet (Pkt.); ya_lo fresh, uncooked (Gypsy); all, a_l wet (Bshk.); a_lo (S.); wet, fresh (Ku.); freshly pickled (N.); damp (OMarw.); alla_ unripe, half-parched, imperfectly healed (P.); a_la unboiled (of rice), fresh (not salted)(B.); a_la_ damp (H.); a_la_-li~lu~ half-wet and half-dry (G.); a_la_-pa_la~, a_le~-pa_le~ mere greens and roots (M.); aluwa_ rice that has not been parched before husking (N.)(CDIAL 1340).

502.Mushroom: al.a~be~, al.abhe~ mushroom, toadstool, agaricus campestris (M.); a_lam.ba a sort of mushroom growing in the Rains (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1365). a_mpi, ampi common mushroom (Ta.); al.a_mbu a variety of mushroom (Ma.); an.abe, an.ambe, al.ambe, a_l.ambe mushroom (Ka.); la_mbu, na_mbu mushroom, toadstool, fungus (Tu.); alambu, al.ambu mushroom (Tu.); armbi id. (Kor.)(DEDR 300).

503.Small: alpa small (AV.); alpakam a little (S'Br.); appa, appaka (Pali); apa (As'.); alpa (NiDoc.); appa, appaga (Pkt.); a_pu little, few (Sh.); opu mean, of low degree (K.); a_pa_ boy; a_pi girl (A.); ap small (Si.); apele_k little, few; apala, apali_ bad (Ash.); apiluk little, few (Wg.); apila few (Gaw.); apra_ short, short-nosed (M.); eipar.o stunded bullock (WPah.)(CDIAL 722). alpe_ccha having moderate wishes (Skt.); appiccha, appiccha_ contentment (Pali); apis contented; apisa contentment (Si.)(CDIAL 723). svalpaka very small (AV.); svalpa small (Mn.); svalpatgara insignifant (Skt.); sukalpa easy to correct (AV.); sopa_ easy of accomplishment, facile, easy (M.)(CDIAL 13446). sopa_ra_ easy to do (M.)(CDIAL 13447). ar-pam that which is trifling, insignificant (Pin..); ar-pa_yu short life (Civataru. Parama. 26); ar-pakkiyan- < alpa-ja person of little knowledge (Cu_ta. Ekki. Ut. Cu_ta. 3,8)(Ta.lex.) alkal deficiency (Nait.ata. An-n-attaikkan.. 66)(Ta.lex.)

504.Dewy season: ar-ciram < al 'night' + s'is'ira first half of the dewy season (Ain:kur-u. 464); ar-cirai id. (Kur-un. 277)(Ta.lex.) alkal night (Kalit. 90); day of 24 hours (Akana_. 25); al night (Pin..)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

505.To shrink; to be permanent: alku (alki-) to shrink, diminish, lessen (Ta.); to diminish in quantity gradually, curum.kutal (Ta.lex.); to stay, abide; to be permanent, nilaittu nir-r-al (Kural.. 333, Urai)(Ta.lex.); alkal deficiency, poverty (Ta.); ak-ku (ak-ki-) to be reduced, shrink, be dejected, become closed (as a flower); nalku_r (-v-, -nt-) to be poor, indigent, destitute; n. poverty (Ta.); akkud.isu to become small, wane (Ka.)(DEDR 252).

506.Kubera's residence: alake, alaka_, alaka_pura Kubera's residence (Ka.lex.) al.akai Kubera's city (Uttarara_. Varai. 1); al.akai-y-a_l.i Kube_ra, ruler of Alaka_ (Tiva_.); al.ake_can- Kube_ra, lord of Alaka_ (Ta_yu. Paripu_. 10); al.aka_puri city of Kube_ra (Pa_rata. Man.ima_n-. 15); al.aka_tipan- Kube_ra, the lord of Alaka_ (Uttarara_. Varaiyet.u. 26)(Ta.lex.) alku-tal to be permanent (Kur-al., 333, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Evening bazaar: alkunar inhabitants (alkunar po_kiya vu_ro_ ran-n-ar : Kalit. 23); allam.ka_t.i evening bazaar, opp. to na_l.am.ka_t.i; alku night; afternoon (alku nir..ar-po_ lakan-r-akan r-o_t.ume_ : Na_lat.i. 166)(Ta.lex.) allu darkness, night (Ma.)(DEDR 235). Image: light: a_lo_kam light (Cit. Marapu. Kan.. 10)(Ta.lex.) alku night (A_ca_rak. 30); afternoon (Na_lat.i. 166); allan:ka_t.i evening bazaar, opp. to na_l.an:ka_t.i (Maturaik. 544); al night (Ta.Ma.); evening (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

507.Market dues: al.l.u-k-ka_cu market dues collected from retail sellers; al.l.u handful of grain given on the threshing floor or in the bazaar, as perquisite = al.avuku_li or measurement fees (C.G.); al.l.a_ya-ma_n-iyam right to receive a handful of the grain sold, as perquisite (I.M.P.Sm. 91)(Ta.lex.)

508.Pearl oyster: alan:kan-a_ri pearl oyster (Ta.lex.) a_li oyster (Ma.); a_licippa cockle shell (Te.)(DEDR 385).

509.Image: stake in a mud-wall to support the coping: alla_ri stake in a mud wall to support the coping, cuvarin a_ral taku mul.ai (Ta.lex.) a_ral wall; coping of a wall (Ta.lex.) Image: roof laths: alakku roof laths (Periyapu. Il.aiya_n-. 19)(Ta.lex.) cf. aral wooden bolt of door attached to the frame (P.)(CDIAL 605)

510.Image: bowstring: alka bow-string (Pa.); alliya, alle bow-string (Te)(DEDR 259).

511.Hoop or net suspended from the shoulder: ar-uvai net or hoop suspended from the shoulder, to_l.ilit.um ur-i (cuvan-me_ lar-uvaiyum : Cilap. 10,98)(Ta.lex.)

512.Image: basin for water: a_la small stream or pond (Pkt.); a_lava_la basin for water round a tree (Skt.); a_la_ id. (H.); a_l.e~, al.e~, al.i_ id., any pool made to receive water (M.); a_l.iyo large cavity in a wall (G.)(CDIAL 1353). ad.i canal (Si.inscr.); ala, aliya stream, canal (Si.)(CDIAL 1102). a_l.va_ri paved passage on the inner side of the parapet walls of a tank (Pu_van.a. Ula_. 101); a_l.va_rinilam paved passage along the walls within a fortification (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) a_l.u, a_l.vari, a_l.uve_ri a wall or rampart of a fort surrounded by the ditch; a merlon of a fort; a_l.i a rampart (Ka.lex.) Image: fort: ar-uppu fort (Ta.); ar-ai place of encampment, camp (Ta.); ar-u to abide, dwell (Ta.): ar-upu to keep, preserve, secure (Te.)(DEDR 317). ar..uvam fortress (Ta.); ar..u, ar..uku high wall of irregular stones around an orchard, mud wall (Ma.)(DEDR 286). Cultivated field: a_lava_lam cultivated field; trench for water round the foot of a tree (Kait.ata. An-n-a. Tu_tu. 40); a_lam water (Te_va_. 71,7); a_l water (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,10,1, I_t.u.); flood (Ma_r-a. 262, Pak. 446)(Ta.lex.) al.aka, al.l.aka neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids (Ka.); anuka (Te.); aye, ar..e to slacken, to be watery, be diluted (Ka.lex.) anuku semiliquid, semifluid (Te. <*an.uku: *al.uku)(DEDR 298). cf. arn.ava sea, wave (RV.); an.n.ava sea, ocean (Pali); an.ava (Si.)(CDIAL 637). al.akam water (Ta.); al.akkar sea, ocean (Kantapu. A_r-r-u. 36)(Ta.lex.) Sea; mountains encircling the orb of the earth: a_r..i seashore; sea, as the deep; a_r..i-ma_l-varai range of mountains believed to be encircling the orb of the earth (Ta.lex.)

513.Image: mouth of a river: ohal. oozing, streamlet (M.); vo_hara water-channel (Pkt.); ohri_ small water-channel from well (L.)(CDIAL 750). oha_l., ol.i silt at the mouth of a river (G.)(CDIAL 756). Entrance to a harbour: al.uve mouth of a river, harbour (Tu.); a_n.a the entrance to a harbour (Tu.); alu_ba_galu the mouth of a river (Kor.); ar..i place where the lagoon joins the sea (Ta.); bar, rivermouth (Ma.); Sandbank at the mouth of a river: ar..i-va_y sandbank at the mouth of a river or harbour; ar..ivi inlet to a backwater, mouth of a river; ar..ivu mouth of a river (Ta.); ar..ave mouth of a river in which the tide ebbs and flows, bar (Ka.)(DEDR 278). Seaport; river's mouth: aruvi river's mouth (Ta.); aruve id., seaport (Tu.)(DEDR 225). To spring out: aruvu to spring out and gently flow down (ta.); aruvuka id. (Ma.); arbi a torrent that has ceased from flowing or is checked in its course (Ka.); water collected in an elevated place (Tu.); arbili water particles drifting in when it rains (Kor.)(DEDR 226). uchar waterfall (Kal.); o_cha_r trickling (WPah.); wocha_l waterfall (Gaw.)(CDIAL 735). uchar pouring out (Kt.Darci); avaks.a_rayati causes to flow down upon (As'vGr..)(CDIAL 736).

514.Salt-maker: al.avan a member of the caste of salt manufacturers (Ma.)(DEDR 299). lo_n.aka_ra salt-maker (Pali)(CDIAL 10978). al.am maritime tract, saltpan, saline soil (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 299). Maritime tract: al.am maritme tract (W.); salt-pan (Ta.Te.Ma.); al.atti woman of the maritime tract (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

515.Image: circle, wheel: a_r..i circle, ring, wheel, discus weapon (Ta.); roundness (as of disk, ring, etc.)(Ma.); roundness, a circle, a discus (Ka.); a_n.i roundness (Ka.); spherical, round, globular (applied to pearls)(Te.); a_re potter's wheel(Go.)(DEDR 398). Image: valaya bracelet (MBh.); circle (Skt.)(CDIAL 11407).

516.Image: line: alam.g long building (barracks, table etc.)(M.); alam.g, a_lam.g line, trench, town-wall (H.Bi.); alang (Pers.)(Bloch, p. 297). al.ige, a_l.ige, a_vali, a_val.ike a row, a range, a line; a series, dynasty; a heap, a multitude, sto_ma; cf. di_pa_val.ike row of lamps; a_li a line, a row, a range, sa_l, sa_lu (Ka.lex.) al.aven. variety of am.po_taran:kam [< ambhas (Skt.); Tol. Po. 463] consisting of lines of four feet each (Ka_rikai. Cey. 10, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: row, line: a_li row (of plants), bed (for plants)(Ku.)(CDIAL 1102). a_val.i row, range, series; continuous line, lineage, dynasty; a_vali id. (Kamparan. 76) (Ta.lex.) a_vali line, row (Skt.); a_vali_ row, line (Skt.); row, range (Pali.Pkt.); a_valia_ (Pkt.); a_ola_ eaves of a house, penthouse (A.); o_li_ line (Pkt.); o_l hereditary custom (L.); ol.i slope of a roof (Or.); ori_ eaves (Bi.); ol.i row, line (G.); ol. line, row (M.)(CDIAL 1423). ol.a_ line of procedure; ol., ol.i_ streamlet, gutter (M.)(CDIAL 1423). cf. kan.a_l.i, kana_li stream of grain or water running out (M.)(CDIAL 2664). cf. pa_li row, line (Skt.); edge, border (B.); lower end of a thatched roof (N.); line, row, series (P.); pa_l.i line, row, text (Pali)(CDIAL 8041). or.a draw line, furrow (S.); o_r., pl. o_r.a_ furrow (L.); or. (P.); or.iba_ to plough a field once (Or.); or.e ca_sa one ploughing (Or.)(CDIAL 2545). cf. di_pa_vali row of lamps, festival on the new moon of A_s'vina (BhP.); di_va_li_ (Pkt.); diva_l.i_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 6358).

517.A lease: al.ave a lease or agreement given to the ryot in writing (Ka.lex.)

518.Measure of land: a_li old measure of land (Ku.)(CDIAL 1102). cf. ha_la plough (Skt.); a_la plough (K.); ha_ level plain along a river (WPah.); ukkhar.-ha_l small pieces of land not touched by plough (Bi.); ha_r cultivated land round a village (H.)(CDIAL 14066). [cf. dvihalya, trihalya ?areas cultivated by 2 or 3 ploughs (Pa_n..)(bhiks.u hala, gra_ma hala, bho_ga hala, br.had hala, bhu_ hala, halava_ha variant terms for measuring land: M.I.A.I., pp. 45-46). od.i border; division, plot, or range of ricefields (Tu.); ot.i side, piece of ground, division or range of ricefields (Ma.)(DEDR 948).

519.Tract of land; boundary: a_d.i ridge (Skt.); a_l.i, a_li dam (Pali); a_r.a_ sandhilll, highlying land (L.); a_r.i_ id. (P.); embankment (H.); boundary of a field (Bi.Mth.); a_l tract of land (Ku.); a_li row (of plants), bed (for plants)(Ku.); ridge in a field (N.); embankment across a rice-field (A.); dividing ridge in a field (B.); ail dividing ridge in a field (B.); a_r.i ridge in a field (Or.); a_r, a_ri boundary of a field (Bi.Mth.); a_li_ embankment (H.)(CDIAL 1102). Image: range of fields: a_r., a_r.i boundary between fields (Mth.)(CDIAL 189). val.u~ plot of land (G.); val.e~ ring; val.ai_ enclosed space (for keeping chaff, cattle, etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 11407).

520.Image: sharpness, pointedness; shoemaker's awl: a_ri_ awl (H.); cobbler's awl (M.); arai_ goad (H.); ari_ cobber's awl (M.); a_ra_ shoemaker's awl (RV.H.); awl (Pali.Pkt.B.); arcu_c needle (Ash.); oru shoemaker's awl (K.); a_ra (S.Or.); a_r (L.Mth.); awl, point of a goad (P.); awl, goad (H.); awl (Bi.); pointed iron spike (G.M.); a_ro awl (N.); a_l sharp point, spur (A.); a_ri awl (Or.); a_r, arai_, arua_, araua_ spike at the end of a driving stick (Bi.); arua_ cobbler's awl (Mth.)(CDIAL 1313). a_ran.a elephant goad (Or.)(CDIAL 1005). a_r chip, splinter (as of bamboo)(Ma.); a_r sharpness, pointedness (Ta.); a_rci goad, pointed end of goad, point of lance or stick (Kur.)a_ru splinter, needle-like splinter in the stem of coconut tree and other palm trees (Ma.); a_rmai keenness, sharpness (Ta.)(DEDR 371). al., al.am sharpness, keenness of edge (Ta.); al. sharpness (Ma.); al.l.ay-a_yi-po_ka to become very thin and sharp (Ma.)(DEDR 293). al. strength, firmness (Ta.); al.a, al.avi, al.avu, alavu power, strength, force, ability (Ka.); la_v strength (Pa.)(DEDR 291. a_ra_ (Pali)[a_ra_ (Skt.); *e_l pointed, as in a_la (Old High German) = ahle (German); a_e_l (Anglo-Saxon) = awl (English); alr (Icelandic)] an awl; ?Deriv.> a_l.aka_ a liquid measure of capacity (Pali). a_ra_ + agga = a_ragga [a_ra_gra of a_ra_ an awl (Skt.), a prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (Pali.lex.) cf. awl small tool for piercing holes, alr Old Norse (of uncertain origin) (ODEE). a_gua_l.i sharp end of an axe (Or.)(CDIAL 75). suta_ri bodkin, awl (N.); suta_ri_ bodkin (Bi.H.); suta_li_ large needle, bodkin (H.)(CDIAL 13565). ka_n.d.a_ra_ bamboo-goad (Skt.); kana_r bamboo--goad for young elephants < kar.a~r (Mth.)(CDIAL 3025). cf. Shred of a palm leaf taken off lengthwise: a_rkkai shred of a palmleaf taken off lengthwise (Ta.lex.)

521.Image: banyan; pipal; leaf: a_l, a_lam, a_la-maram banyan, ficus bengalensis (Ta.); a_l ficus indica (Ma.); e.lamara banyan (Ir.); a.l id. (Ko.); a_l, a_la, a_le banyan, ficus indica (Ka.); a.li banyan (Kod..); e_l meri pipal tree (Pa.); a_l id. (Ga.); a_li_, a_l(i) id. (Go.); bare_li_, bereli_, bireli_, bereli_, berel banyan (Go.); a_li mra_nu pipal tree (Kond.a); a_l ga_c id. (Pe.)[cf. peru great (Ta.); ber- big (Ga.)(DEDR 4411)](DEDR 382). cf. ilai leaf (Ta.); ele, ela id. (Ka.); ele id. (Tu.)(DEDR 497). cf. vohr., bohr., var., bar. banyan (P.); vat.a the banyan ficus indica (MBh.); bar. (H.Bhoj.Mth.); var. (G.); bar.u (S.)(CDIAL 1121). For meri in Pa. cf.: me_d.i glomerous fig tree, ficus racemosa; opposite-leaved fig tree; ficus oppositifolia (Ka.); ficus glomerata (Te.); me_r.i id. (Kol.)[ficus glomerata = ficus racemosa.](DEDR 5090).

522.Flax, linseed: a_r..i, a_l.i linseed plant, linum usitatissimum; ya_l.ivirai, a_l.ivitai, a_l.ivirai, alici-virai linseed, flaxseed (Pata_rtta. 780)(Ta.lex.) alis' flax, linseed (K.); atasi_ flax (Sus'r.Pali.); atasa bush (RV.); alasi_, ayasi_ (Pkt.); alas, a_las (N.); arsi_ (Aw.); alsi_ (H.S.P.); ilsi_ (S.); al.s'i_ (G.M.); a_l.s'i_ (M.); al.s'iyu~, an.as'iyu~ linseed oil (G.); tisi linseed (N.B.A.Or.); ti_si_ (H.Bi.Bhoj.P.); tisi_ (M.)(CDIAL 198). agase common flax, linum usitatissimum Lin. (Ka.); agase-na_ru id. (Tu.); agise, agisiya, avise, avisiya id. (Te.)(DEDR 3).

523.A pulse: a_lisam.daga, a_lisam.daya a kind of corn (Pkt.); al.asuda a creeper bearing a kind of bean (M.); alas'an.t.a dolichos catjang; alasa_ndram a kind of pulse (Ma.); alasandi, alasande, halasandi, halasande a generally cultivated pulse, vigna catjang = dolichos catjang (Ka.); alasandige a kind of pulse, d. biflorus (Ka.); alasan.d.e, lattane, lattan.d.e a kind of pulse, dolichos catjang; alatan.d.e = alasan.d.e (Tu.); alacandalu, alasandelu, alasandiyalu a kind of pulse, d. sinensis (Te.)(DEDR 242). cf. a_lo a portion of unripe corn reaped and eaten before the whole is ripe (Bi.H.); a_lava stubble (Com.TS.)(CDIAL 1369). arwan the first cuttings of corn presented to the household gods (H.)(CDIAL 1370). alabu, alubu name applied to different species of alysicarpus and other leguminous plants; alubu weeds (Ka.); alamu id. (Te.); allam id. (Go.)(DEDR 244). 

524.Image: wreath, waving ear of corn: alan:kal wreath, waving ear of corn; to move, dangle (Ta.); ale wave, billow (Ka.); alaka lock of hair, curl (Skt.); curl, roll, bundle (Pali)(CDIAL 694)(DEDR 240).

525.Movement: halcali movement (S.); halcal (Ku.); halla-calla, halcal (N.)(CDIAL 14017). hallai moves (Pkt.); halan.u to move, shake (S.); halab to put in motion (Mth.); ha_lna_ to move (H.)(CDIAL 14018). alla_t.u, allalla_d.u, allala_d.u to move, shake (Te.)(DEDR 240). a_t.u to move (Ta.); a_t.t.u to move (Ta.); a_t.t.ai turn in a game (Ta.); a.r.- to move (Ko.); a_d.u, a_t.u to be in motion, move about (Ka.); a_t.a, a_t.u motion (Ka.); a_d.u to move, work (Te.)(DEDR 347). To move, shake: hal, hall move, shake (Skt.); alun to shake (K.); hal.an. to move, shake (L.); halahalia shaken (Pkt.); halakna_ to move (H.)(CDIAL 14003).[< Drav. ale, alaku to shake (Ka.)] halla movement (skt.); halla_ tumult, noise (Or.H.)(CDIAL 14017). ha_lta_ shakes, rocks (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 14018). alaku, alagu, aluku, alugu, alungu, al.aku, al.uku, al.ku to move about, shake, be shaky, tremble (Ka.); ale to move about, move to and fro, shake, dangle (Ka.); alaguni to shake (Tu.); la_nga to be fickle, changeable, be changed from good to bad (Kui)[the la_ng- initial in la_ngu_la plough (Skt.) is concordant]; alan:ku to move, shake, be in motion (Ta.); alukka, alannuka to shake (Ma.); alg to shake (Ko.)(DEDR 240).

526.To stir; to move to and fro: a_lo_d.ayati stirs up (Sus'r.); a_lulita agitated (Skt.); a_lo_lita shaken (Skt.); a_lul.ati moves here and there (Pali); a_lul.e_ti sets in motion (Pali); a_lur.an.u to ebb (of the tide)(S.); a_lali_ma unrest, confusion (Si.); a_lo_l.e_ti stirs up, agitates (Pali); a_lo_d.e_i stirs up, churns; pp. a_lo_d.ia, a_lo_lia (Pkt.); a_ror.an.u to plough a rice-field after flooding (S.); a_lor.iba_ to stir (Or.); aro_rab to stir grain in the winnowing basket (Aw.); a_lor.na_ to churn (H.); a_lod.n.e~, a_lod.hn.e~ to stir (M.)(CDIAL 1390). cf. a_t.u to move, shake; a_t.al shaking, moving (Ta.); a_d.u, a_t.u to be in motion, move about (Ka.); a_r. to play (Nk.)(DEDR 347). alla_t.utal to wander from place to place; to suffer (Ta.); alla_d.u id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.); cf. allal affliction, distress (Ta.Ma.); alla id. (Ka.); allari id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) a_lo_la trembling, rocking (Skt.); a_lo_l.a confusion, uproar (Pali); alo_l song, singing (Wg.); alol affection (esp. of a child)(L.); alol caper (H.)(CDIAL 1402). a_hallai shakes, moves (Pkt.); a_le moving (Wg.); ahalan.u to lean against (S.); ahalna_ to shake, move (H.)(CDIAL 1542). hallai moves (Pkt.); alun to shake (K.); halan.u to move, shake (S.); halln.a_ (P.); hallhn.u_ to move; ha_ln.u (WPah.); hallinu to shake (N.); haliba_ to move, shake (Or.); halab to put in motion, strike (Mth.); ha_lna_ to move, shake (H.); ha_lvu~ (G.); ha_ln.e~ (M.); ha_lta_ shakes, rocks (Konkan.i); halahala_t. shaking (P.); halhaliba_ to shake (Or.); halhala_na_ to shudder (H.); halha_ln.e~ to tremble, flutter (M.); caus.: halla_viya (Pkt.); hala_in.u to shake (S.); hala_un.a_ (P.); hala_iba_ (Or.); hala_na_ (H.); hala_eb to impel, drive away, forsake (Mth.); hala_vvu~ to shake (G.); halla_unu (N.); ha_lavin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 14018). cf. ta_la_t.t.u lulling a child to sleep with songs (Periyapu. Tirujn~a_. 44); lullaby (Ta.lex.) halahala_ exclamation of applause (MBh.); halo, hala~_ attack (S.); halla_ (L.M.); tumult, noise (P.Ku.N.B.Or.H.); halphal shaking, undulation (A.); hallapphala confusion (Pkt.); halbal, halbhal (H.G.); halcali movement (S.); halcal (Ku.); halla-calla, halcal (N.); halla-khalla confusion (N.)(CDIAL 14017). alan:ko_lam disorder, slovenliness (Ta.); confusion, slovenliness (Ma.); allakallo_la, allo_lakallo_la great agitation (as of water), confusion (of the mind), tumult, disorder, disturbance (Ka.); allambra agitation, alarm (Tu.); allakallo_lamu confusion, disorder, turmoil, hubbub (Te.); kallola wave (Skt.)(DEDR 241).

527.Commotion: allo_la-kallo_lam great noise (Ta.lex.) {Echo word} val.aval.a (-pp-, -tt-) to be talkative, wordy, babble; val.aval.appu talkativeness, wordiness, vain talk, babbling; va_l.a_, va_l.a_n:ku, va_l.a_tu silently, quietly; va_l.a_mai silence, quietness (Ta.); val.aval.a_ the sound of babbling (Ma.); bal.ak boasting (Tu.); val.a_val.i noise, fuss, hubbub; val.a_val.ika~_d.u a noisy or fussy man, babbler (Tu.); var.k- to say, speak; wanka_na_, vank- to speak, talk (Go.)(DEDR 5310). [cf. kalakala to reiterate in sound, rustle; kallu to cause to sound, as a drum (Ta.); ka_lovi sound (Kuwi)(DEDR 1302).] ullo_la large wave (Skt.); commotion, wave (Pkt.); uproar (Pkt.); ulela wave, whirling in water, festival (Si.)(CDIAL 2381). hala_hala uproar (Pali); halahala, halahalaa (Pkt.); hal.ha_l. restlessness (M.); halma_l confusion (N.); hal.mal. agitated (G.); halakka profusely (N.)(CDIAL 14001). alun to shake (K.); hal.an. to move, shake; halun. to move (L.); haliba to lean to one side (A.); halahalia shaken (Pkt.); halakn.o to move, stir, tremble (Ku.); halakna_ to move (H.); hal.akvu~ to hang, dangle (G.)(CDIAL 14003). cf. hala plough (MBh.)(CDIAL 14000). kalavaram confusion of mind, perturbation; kalavari to be confused, perturbed (Ta.); kal.akal.a, kal.aval.ike agitation of the mind, distress, confusion; kal.aval.isu to be agitated, grieve, be perplexed (Ka.); kal.aval.a confusion (Kod..); anxiety, alarm, sorrow (Tu.); kalavaramu confusion, state of being puzzled or perplexed, anxiety; kalavara-pat.u/po_vu to be confused; kal.aval.amu confusion, perplexity, anxiety; kal.aval.incu to be perplexed, anxious (Te.)(DEDR 1306). khalati shakes (Nir.); khallate_ (Sus'r.); khalan stirring (with a ladle, etc. in cooking)(K.)[cf. kalan:ku to be stirred up (Ta.)(DEDR 1303)]; kholuwu stirring up clear water so as to make it muddy (K.); khalabhaliya shaken (Pkt.); khalhbala_un.a_ to have pain and rumbling in the bowels (P.); khalbal disturbance (Ku.); khalbala_unu to shake (N.); khalbal disturbance (N.B.H.); khalbala_na_ to be agitated, boil (H.); khal.bal.vu~ to be disturbed; khal.bal. noise (G.); khal.bal.n.e~ to agitate, rinse (M.)(CDIAL 3837). Babble: lallara stammering; lalalla (Skt.); lalla making an inarticulate noise (Pkt.); lal a Portuguese; lala_ dumb (Gypsy); lalawun to talk foolishly, babble (K.); lalor, lalero, lullero dumb (Gypsy); larlari gabbling (S.)(CDIAL 10972). lallakka frightening; challenge (Pkt.); lalka_r challenge, defiance (P.N.H.G.); lalka_ri_ (M.)(CDIAL 10973). Gambol: kallo_la wave (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); gambol (Skt.); kalol, kilol romp, friskiness (P.); kalol, kilol (H.); kaloli_, kaluli_, kuloli_, kululi_ frisking of children, sexual excitement of stallions or mares (M.)(CDIAL 2955). To stir: kalan:ku to be stirred up, agitated, ruffled (as water), be confused, abashed; kalakku to confuse, nonplus; kalakkam, kalakku being agitated (as surface of water), discomposure, distress, perplexity; kalan:kal turbidity, muddiness, muddy water, perturbation; kala_vu to be perturbed, confused, be displeased, angry; kala_y to get angry, quarrel; kala_pam disturbance, uproar, raid; kala_m war, battle, rivalry, rage; kali perturbation, discomposure, uneasiness, war, dissension, strife; kalur.. to become turbid (as water), be disturbed in mind, weep; weeping, muddiness; kalur..cci, kalur..vu sorrow, weeping; kalur..i disturbed water, puddle, flood, tears, confusion; kalir.. to weep, be trouble in mind; muddy water (Ta.); kalan.n.uka to be mixed, agitated, turbid (as water), embarrassed; kalan.n.al turbidity; kalakkuka to mix, confound; kalakkam turbidness, confusion,quarrel; kalampuka to get confused, quarrel, anoint the body with perfumes; kalampal, kalampu uproar, quarrel (Ma.); kalg- to be mixed, confused in relationship; kalk- to mix; kalk muddy (of water); gal gu.r.- (gu.c-) (storm) is violent and unceasing (Ko.); kalx to be stirred up (water so that it becomes muddy)(To.); kalk- to stir up (water so that it becomes muddy)(To.); kas-k muddy (of water)(To.); kalaku, kalan:ku to agitate, shake, perturb, make turbid; turbidness, contamination, defilement; kaluhe turbidness, impurity (Ka.); kalang to be stirred up; kalak to stir up, churn; kalak stirring up (Kod..); kalan:ku, kal.an:ku turbidness, muddiness; kalan:kuni, kal.an:kuni to be turbid; kal.an:ka_vuni to render turbid; kalambuni to quarrel, fight; galjuni to confuse, disturb (Tu.); kala~u to be in agitation, confusion, or trouble, be turbed (as any liquid); kala~cu to stir, agitate, disturb, trouble, make turbid; kala~ka, kala~kuva confusion, trouble, turbidness; kala~ta agitation, disturbance, dissension, quarrel, strife, turbidness; kalagun.d.u confusion, disorder, tumult, commotion (Te.); kallih to shake (bottle, etc.)(Go.); glahpa (glaht-) to mix by stirring, stir, confuse, perplex, confound, cause to be confused; act of stirring, confusion (Kui); xalaxna_ to disturb, make muddy (as water); xalxna_ to be wet and muddy (Kur.); qalge to disturb (as water); qalgro disturbed or muddy; galye to disturb, stir (as water); galgro muddy, disturbed (Malt.); kalus.a turbid (of water or mind)(Skt.)(DEDR 1303). kalaha quarrel, fight (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); id. (N.OMarw.Si.); karahi~ quarrelling (S.); kalla_ noise, uproar (L.); kalah (A.B.Mth.H.); kalau (A.); kal.aha (Or.); kal.o (G.); kal.ho (M.); kala_ (Si.); kele war, fighting (Kt.); ke_le (Pr.); kolakol uproar (K.)[reduplication]; karha_la_ quarrelsome (P.)(CDIAL 2922).

528.Fear; bellowing: al.ukku to be perturbed, frightened (Ta.); al.ukkuka to start, shrink, cramp of limbs; al.ukkam awe, fear; al.arkka to lament, cry; al.arca bellowing; al.appu shriek (Ma.); al.ar-, al.aku, al.iku, al.uku, al.ku, al.kar- to fear (Ka.); al.ar-isu, al.akisu, al.ikisu to frighten; al.ar-, al.aku, al.ku, al.arpu fear, anguish; al.asu sound in coitu (Ka.); alkuni, al.kuni to be afraid, start, shudder; alku timidity; timid, frightened (Tu.); aluku to be afraid; n. fear, dread; al.uku = aluku n.; al.ukari coward (Te.)(DEDR 306). a_riyakku_ttu dancing with poles on ropes, acrobatic feats of an aboriginal people called A_riyar (Ta.lex.)

529.Sound: a_lapati speaks (MBh.Pali); a_lavai (Pkt.); al- to say (Gauro); a_lavai talks, sings (OG.); lavum address, invitation (Si.)(CDIAL 1358). lavira talkative (Pkt.); al.vitru~ talkative, tiresome, mischievous (G.)(CDIAL 1359). a_lapvu~ to sing, talk (G.); ala_p humming a tune (G.); lapyati speaks (Skt.)(CDIAL 1361). a_la_pa speech (AV.); alla_pa-salla_pa conversation (Pali); a_la_va (Pkt.); alav word; lav (Gypsy); alo_, ala_ pl. saying (D..); ala_ speech (Wg.); a_lav clear loud call (K.); a_la_u talk (S.); ala_ speech, cry; a_la_ call (L.); ala_vr.a~_ pl. tender talk, tale-bearing; ala_vr.u~ adj. (G.); allaviya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1373). a_la_pana conversation (R.); a_la_van.i_ a partic. musical instrument (Pkt.); a_l.van., al.van. conciliating, soothing (M.)(CDIAL 1374). ala_van. to speak, utter (L.); ala_n.o to cry, bleat (Ku.); a_l.avin.e~, al.avin.e~ to coax, conciliate, implore, sing with tremulous modulation, warble (of birds)(M.)(CDIAL 1376). a_la_pya to be spoken (Skt.); alap word, speech, address (Si.)(CDIAL 1378). al.a (-pp-, -nt-) to mingle; talk together, hold converse, gossip; al.appu chatter; al.app-al.a to chatter; al.av-al.a_vu to hold intimate intercourse, live socially, converse freely; al.a_vu to converse (Ta.); lap- to join two pieces together (Kond.a)(DEDR 296). a_lu (a_li-) to sound, make noise, cry aloud, rejoice, dance; a_lai sound, cry, screech of the peafowl; a_li (-pp-, -tt-) to make a noise, roar; a_lippu great noise, uproar (Ta.); a_likka general shout, as in war or feast; a_la_ttuka to bawl, halloo; a_lippu great noise; a_luka to dance (Ma.); a_l (a_ld-) to cry aloud; a_luha crying aloud (Ka.); ha_li noise; ha_li a_- to make noise (Kuwi); a_lita = s'abdita (Skt.)(DEDR 386). a_lay(i)su to listen, attend to, mind; a_lisu id., be heard, make oneself to be heard, cry aloud (Ka.); a_laisuni to listen to, hear attentively (Tu.); a_lakincu, a_lincu to hear, listen or attend to, give ear to (Te.)(DEDR 383). Chatter; childish: alar.u ignorant; stripling (S.); allhar. childish; allar. inexperienced (P.); boyish, ignorant (H.); alar., allar.h id. (H.); allare childish (N.); alher. ignorant, careless (G.); allad., alad., alhad. raw, inexperienced (M.); alar.-balar. childish talk (H.)(CDIAL 724). alappan- a chatterer (Ta.); alappu to chatter, prattle, talk nonsense; alampu to sound, tinkle; alampal a loud noise; alavalai babbler; alavalaimai babbling; alavai woman that chatters ceaselessly; alar idle talk, gossip; alar-u (alar-i-) to roar, bellow, bleat, weep aloud, sorrow; alar-al loud cry, great sound; alar-r-u (alar-r-i-) to talk unceasingly and irregularly (Ta.); alappan chatterer, prattler; alappu chattering, confused noise; alavan loquacious babbler; alar-uka to roar, bellow, cry (as elephant, tiger, woman in labour); alarcca roaring, etc.; al.avan boaster, exaggerator (Ma.); la_.ru to shout, roar, (woman) gossips (Ir.); alar-u to cry aloud (Ka.); alikid.i noise, sound, disturbance; alabalamu outcry, noise, uproar (Te.)(DEDR 245). cf. a_ta_l.i noise, bustle, uproar (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 357). atal.i noise, tumult (Ta.Ma.); atala, attala tumult (Ka.); atalakutalamu disorderly confusion, disturbance; adavadalu confusion (Te.)(DEDR 135).

530.Image: male lion: a_l.ari male lion; Vis.n.u in his incarnation of man-lion, naracin:kamu_rtti (Tirukko_. 225, Urai.); a_l. man (Kur-al., 1030); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); man of capacity, capable man, manly person (Tirika. 7); warrior (Pu. Ve. 2,7); foot soldier (Pu.Ve. 7,13); husband (Va_kkun.. 3); devotee (Tiruva_ca. 38,2); a_l.(l.u)-tal to rule, reign over, govern (Tiv. Periyati. 6,2,5); id. (Ma.); e_lu (Te.); a_l.(l.u)-tal to receive or accept as a protege (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,4,3); to control, manage as a household; to cherish, maintain (Kur-al., 1017)(Ta.lex.) cf. ul.ai mane, hair of head (Ta.); ul.a mane of horse or lion, man's hair (Ma.)(DEDR 701). Mane: ul.aimayir mane (I_t.u, 1,9,2)(Ta.lex.)

531.Poll tax: a_l.vari poll tax (Ta.inscr.)(Ta.lex.)

532.Eyelashes; thick: al.a_ra adj. (?same as ul.a_ra) used with ref. to the eyelashes and usually explained by visa_la, i.e. extended, wide and also by bahala, thick. Kern translates by 'bent, crooked, arched' (Pali.lex.) ul.val.aivu inward curvature, concavity; ut.kavivu (Ta.lex.)

533.Image: pupil of the eye: a_li the pupil of the eye, kan.n.a_li; the eye itself; a_li an inflammation of the eye (Ka.lex.)

534.Bottle-gourd: ala_bu, ala_bu_ bottle-gourd (Sus'r.); vessel made of it (AV.); its fruit (MBh.); a_la_bu (Skt.); la_bu_ gourd (Skt.); la_buki a kind of lute; la_pu a partic. instrument (MaitrS.); lamba_ a bitter gourd (Sus'r.); ala_bu long gourd (Pali); ala_pu gourd (Pali); ala_vu, ala_u gourd; ala_vu_, ala_u_ the vine (Pkt.); alau gourd (Wg.); alo_u (Kt.); ala_u long gourd without a neck (A.); la_bu, la_buka gourd; la_pu gourd; a kind of cucumber (Pali); la_vu_, la_u_ gourd (Pkt.); la_u (A.); la_u, na_u (B.Or.); laua_ (Bi.); lauka_ bottle-gourd, lagenaria vulgaris; nauka_, nauki_ (P.); lauko pumpkin (Ku.); lauki_ (Bhoj.H.); lauka_ bottle-gourd (Bi.Mth.H.); labba, labu gourd (Si.); aluk, al.uk pumpkin (Kho.); a_lu, e_lu~ gourd (WPah.)(CDIAL 711).

535.Cress: Lepidum sativum (Ancient Egyptian smt; Coptic kaptamon, writpad znti; seeds wrgein; Modern Egyptian Arabic res'a_d or hurf) "Cress is a tall herb with white flowers and a pod 5 cm. long. It grows wild... used as a stimulant and diuretic, and in poultices... to cure catarrh... Cress seeds were found in the tomb of Kha... Copts use cress for headache, together with frankincense... runny eyes were treated with a mixture of blood and cress." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.115). Lepidium sativum: chandrashura (SKt.); halim (B.H.P.); asalia (M.); adiyalu (Te.); aliverai (Ta.); plant: asthma, cough with expectoration, and bleeding piles; root: secondary syphilis and tenesmus; seeds: galactagogue, used to cause abortion, applied to pains or hurts as a poultice; leaves: stimulant, diuretic, used in scorbutic diseases; cultivated throughout India (GIMP, pp.152-153).

536.Light weight: hal.u_ halka_ adj. light (M.); hal.u hal.ve (G.); halu_ lightly (H.); halkum. (G.); halko (S.); halka_ light (B.P.H.); halua (Pkt.); laghu (Skt.)(Bloch, p.414).

537.Image: pot: a_like the vessel by means of which another vessel is filled; a_lu a small water jar; a_luka a small jar; cf. kanaka_luke gold jar; a_laya a receptacle; al.ige, al.age a capacious earthen vessel to hold water or grain (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) alaku-ku_t.ai basket made of twigs closely twisted together, used for drawing water (Ta.lex.)

538.Ebony: a_luka a kind of ebony (Ka.lex.)

539.Image: joined: allu to join, to connect, to knit nets, etc., to plait, to braid, to wattle together (Ka.); arlu, allu, al.l.u (Te.); allu (Ta.); ala, alla_ to mix (Tu.); al to be fit or proper (Ka.); a_li_na melted, fused; a_lin:ga clasping, joining closely, embracing (Ka.lex.) al.a_van- mixture (I_t.u, 9,1,9); al.a_vutal to mingle; to stir (Kur-al., 64); al.avu-tal to blend, mingle (Tol. Po. 55, Urai.); to mix (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

540.Crocodile: a_lasya a crocodile (Ka.lex.)

541.Homage: a_laysu, o_laysu to pay homage (Ka.lex.)

542.Image: long road: al.akkar long road (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

543.Girl: alake a girl from eight to ten years of age (Ka.lex.)

544.Image: curled hair: alaka, alake, al.aka curled hair, a lock (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) al.akam woman's hair (Pin..); curl; al.akapa_ram mass of a woman's hair (Tiruppu. 17); al.aka-panti orderly arrangement of a woman's hair (Iraku. Tikku. 12);al.akatti woman having locks of hair (Tiruppu. 403); al.l.u-kon.t.ai coil of woman's hair tied up in a special way (W.)(Ta.lex.)

545.Image: dog: alaka, alarka a mad dog (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

546.Consonant: aliyer..uttu the letter k- as being regarded neither a vowel nor a consonant (Ven.pa_p. Mutan-mo. 6, Urai.); consonants (Ta.); cf. ali hermaphrodite, being which is neither man nor woman wholly (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,5,10); alikkai dance with hand gestures by which the feelings of a hermaphrodite are expressed (Cilap. 3,18, Urai.); a_li huge hollow figure, like a man or woman, worn usually by dancers leading a procession in connection with temple festivals (Tinn.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) hal a consonant; the small oblique stroke at the root of a consonant, denoting that it has not the inherent a, or that it is but a half-letter; halanta ending in a consonant; halsandhi the junction of consonants (in grammar)(Ka.lex.) al consonant (Tirunu_r-. 21); hal (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

547.Image: murder: alai injury, oppression (Tol. Po. 258); murder (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

548.Image: separately: alakalaka_ adv. separately (I_t.u, 3,6,5); alag (U.); alakku separateness; alakkalakka_y separately, into pieces (Ta.lex.)

549.Image: felly of wheel: alaku-k-kat.t.ai felly of a wheel (Ta.lex.)

550.Image: ear of grain: alaku ear of paddy or other grain (Kur-al., 1034)(Ta.lex.)

551.Image: head of arrow: alaku blade of a weapon or instrument, head of an arrow (W.); pointedness (Tacaiva_. 234, Urai.); alaku-nir-uttu-tal ceremony preliminary to festival performed in honour of Draupati, in which a sword is planted point downwards near a vessel filled with water and placed before the idol, the sword standing firm being considered auspicious for the festifval (W.)(Ta.lex.)

552.Image: cock: al.aku hen of fowl, owl or peacock (Tol. Po. 610, 611); cock (Tiruvil.ai. Aruccan-ai. 34)(Ta.lex.)

553.Image: man: a_l. man (nalla_ l.ila_ta kut.i : Kur-al., 1030)(Ta.); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); man's height as a standard measure; eluva man-friend, always in the voc. (Tol. Po. 220, Urai.); eluval id. (Pa_rata. Patin-a_r-a_m. 28)(Ta.lex.)

554.Gardener: cf. a_ra_mika gardener (Skt.)(CDIAL 1318). aralvad.iga, alarvad.ga (metath.) a man who (grows), deals in or sells flowers; aralva_su, alarva_su a bed of flowers (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Beauty: alampu = lampu beauty; ornament, pleasure; magnificence (Ka.); alari (Ta.); aluvu beauty (Te.); alan:karan.a preparation; decorating, adorning; an ornament (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Shine, glitter; blossom; magnificence; to fit, suit well: alartti process of blooming; alar full-blown flower (Ta.lex.) alari sun; streaks or lines in the white of the eye; water tank; flower; bee; beauty (Ta.lex.) alari beauty (Ta.); alampu, lampu beauty, ornament, pleasure, magnificence (Ta.); alara_ru to shine, glitter; suit well, be proper, fit; rejoice, be pleased; alarincu to please, gratify (Te.)(DEDR 248). alar (-v-, -nt-) to blossom, open up, spread (as rays of the sun, water), increase in size,manifest itself; n. full-blown flower; alartti process of blooming; alarttu (alartti-) to cause to blossom; alari flower (Ta.); alar a blossom, opening flower; alari a flower; alaruka to open (as flowers), be hot and dry; alarcca heat, lust (Ma.); alar, aral, aral., arlu to spread, become distended, open, blossom; alar, aral, aral., alal a flower; alarike blossoming; alarisu, alarcu to cause to spread, blossom etc.; aral-un.i, alar-un.i the large black humble bee, bombinatrix glabra (Ka.); alaru to open as a flower, expand, shine, glitter, rejoice; n. a flower, blossom, splendour, joy; splendid; alarcu to blossom (Te.); aral. a flower (M.); arala id. (OM.)(DEDR 247). cf. ar..aku beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 274). ese to shine, be brilliant, be beautiful, appear; esaka shine, splendour, beauty, appearance, state of being, fate, delight (Ka.); esakamu joy, delight, splendour; esan:gu, esa~gu to arise, appear, exist, happen, shine; esala_ru to shine, polish (Te.)(DEDR 778).

555.Lotus: a_la, a_bal, a_val the red water-lily, cen:galave, cennaydil (Ka.); a_la an open flower (Ta.); alli a water-lily, nymphaea alba (Ta.Te.Tu.); a_mbal id. (Ta.); a water-lily (Tu.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) hallaka a red water-lily, nymphaea rubra (Ka.lex.) a_valkol.a a pond that contains red water-lilies (Ka.lex.) alli water-lily, nymphaea lotus, a_mbal (Mu_. A.); alli (Te.Ma.); white water-lily (Pin..); lotus (alli ma_tar pulka : Tiv. Periyati. 1,7,9)(Ta.); alli-k-ke_n.i Triplicane, a place in Madras (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 35); ke_n.i small tank (Tol. Col. 400); id. (Ka.Ma.); kan.i ditch, trench (Tu.); alli-t-ta_marai red water-lily (Ta.); alar-makal. Laks.mi_ seated on a lotus (Tiv. Periyati. 1,2,5); alliya_n- Brahma_ the lotus-born (Te_va_. 392,9)(Ta.lex.) Synonym: pun.d.ari_ka a lotus-flower, especially a white lotus (Ka.Skt.); one of the trees of svarga, kalpakuja, kalpavr.ks.a (Ka.lex.) kalha_ra a red water-lily, sugandhika, can:gan.igil; kahla_ra the white water-lily (Ka.lex.) cf. a_l.am < na_la flower-stalk (Ja_n-ava_. Ur-pa. 30)(Ta.lex.)

556.Ceylon leadwort: vya_la-nakha a kind of herb (Skt.lex.) vya_la the Celon leadwort, citramu_la (Ka.lex.) vya_la_yuda, vya_d.a_yudha a sort of perfume (Ka.Skt.lex.) vya_lagandhi the ichneumon plant, ?na_n:gulika (Ka.lex.)

557.Sal tree: ya_lam < sa_la sal, a_cca_ (Ta.lex.)

558.Sugar-cane press: a_lai sugar-cane press, sugar-cane (Ta.); a_la sugar-mill (Ma.); a_le a sugar-cane press or mill (Ka.); a press, mill (Tu.)(DEDR 387). kulhu an oil-press (Santali.lex.)

559.Yellow orpiment: a_r..a ?a flower; a_la yellow arsenic, orpiment, arada_l.a; a_r..a_r..iga a garland, a festoon (Ka.lex.) arida_l.a, aradal.a, aridal.a (Tadbhava of harita_la) yellow orpiment, or sulphuret of arsenic, arsenicum flavum, anguli, kaco_ra (Ka.lex.) alam yellow orpiment or sulphuret of arsenic (Ta.); alam id. (Ma.); ala id. (Ka.)(T.E.D.) alar turmeric (Ta.lex.)

560.Image: lizard: al.iga, kambal.iyal.iga a kind of lizard or chameleon (Ka.lex.)

561.Image: a plant: alligator's nose, polyygonum barbatum: ni_r-alari alligator's nose, polygonum barbatum; a_r-r-alari common tamarisk, a plant with tubular stipules, polyygonum glabrum; marking-nut tree (Ta.lex.) saur.i ar.ak polygonum glabrum (Santali.lex.)

562.That: av/avai that man, that woman, those persons/that person (hon.) that thing, those things (Ta.)(DEDR 1). vah. enclitic 2 pl. pronoun.; vo_, ve_ (Pali) ve dat. (As'.); wi_, iwi_ (Wg.Ash.); bi (Dm.); wi_ (Shum.); bisa, pisa (Kho.); sav of you (Wkh.)(CDIAL 11183). yus.mad nom. yu_yam, acc. yus.man, gen. yus.ma_kam pron. 2 pl., adj. yus.maka (RV.); jumha (Pkt.); yam (Ash.); tumhe_ (Pali)(CDIAL 10511). avn, avl., avr, ad that man, that woman, those persons, that thing/those things (Ko.); ava/a_ta that man; avu those things (Ka.); va~_d.u (obl. va_ni-) that man (Te.); avi those things (Te.); avnd, avr that man, those men (Nk.); av those women or things (Ga.); va_nr-u (obl. vani-) that man (Kond.a); avan/aven/havan that man (Pe.); a_s, a_r/abr.ar that man, those persons (Kur.); aanju that man (Kui); ah, ar that man, those persons (Malt.)(DEDR 1). ha_ adj. he, him (M.); aha asau (OM.); cf. ahe here (ahiya_m. here G.); ehu (Pkt.); es.a (Skt.)]; hu_ (S.); wuh (H.); ov (Romany)(Bloch, p.414). cf. avan- he (Ta.lex.) so (m. sg. of ta) pron. he; so sayam eva, so attana_va himself (Pali.lex.)

563.Pressed: aval. pressed, contracted (M.); aval.n.em. to row, to contract (M.); aval.um. contrary, obstinate, reversed (G.); avalo perverse, difficult, unfavourable (S.)(Bloch, p. 298). cf. aval pressed rice (Ta.lex.) ar., aur.i straw from which grain has been threshed by beating it (Santali.lex.)

564.Wild paddy: aivan-am mountain paddy, wild rice, oryza mutica (Pur-ana_. 159,17)(Ta.lex.) aivanam wild paddy, oryza mutica (Ma.)(DEDR 922).

565.Jungle cork tree: avali jungle-cork tree; cowhage (Ta.); aval jungle cork tree (Ma.)(DEDR 266).

566.Potter's kiln: a_va_pa potter's kiln (Pali); a_va_va (Pkt.); a_va_ handful of rice-plants for transplanting, brinjals or chillies regularly set out in a new bed (M.)[cf. a_vijhn.e~, a_vijn.e~, a_va~jn.e~ to transplant rice (M.); a_vijjhati sets in order (Pali)(CDIAL 1436)]; a_va_pa scattering (MBh.); setting out jars (Skt.)(CDIAL 1428). aiva potter's kiln (Santali.lex.) a_o, a_vya_ kiln-clay or a_vea_ci ma_ti (Kon.lex.)

567.Baking oven: a_pa_ka baking oven, potter's kiln (Skt.); a_pa_ke_stha standing in an oven (AV.); a_va_va, a_va_ya potter's kiln (Pkt.); a_va_ brick kiln (L.P.); a_vi_ potter's kiln (L.P.); uha_ potter's kiln (Or.); a_wa_, a~_wa~_ (Bi.); ava~_ (OAw.); a_wa_, a_wa~_, amba~_ (H.); a_va_, ava_ (M.); awa_l small brick kiln (N.)(CDIAL 1202). a_vi, a_vige, a_vuge, a_ma potter's kiln (Ka.); a_ve id., oven (Tu.); a_vamu potter's kiln (Te.)(DEDR App.12).

568.As many: ya_vat as long as, until (RV.); ya_va, ya_vam., ya_vad e_va as far as, up to (Pali);ja_va, ja_vam., a_va (Pkt.); yava, ya_va, ava, a_va_, ava_, avam. (As'.); yava, ava (NiDoc.); za (Kal.); ja~_ (S.); ja_m. (OG.); jau~ (M.); yav until, as long as (Si.)(CDIAL 10474). ya_vajji_vam adv. as long as life (S'Br.); ya_vajji_vam. id. (Pali); ja_vajji_vam., ja_jji_vam. (Pkt.); yavdiv lifelong (Si.); ya_vant as much, as many (RV.); ya_vant, ya_vataka id. (Pali); yavatake, ya_vatako (As'.); ja_vam.ta, ja_vaia (Pkt.); yaut so many (Ash.); ja_m.vata as much as (OH.)(CDIAL 10475). ya_, ya_vai what or which things; ya_vum, ya_vaiyum all, whole; ya_vatu, ya_tu what; how; ya_vatum even a little (Ta.); eytr whence; eyk whither (Ko.); ya_, ya_va, a_, a_va, da_va, e_, e- what, which (Ka.); ant what; at.o_mat. how long (Br.)(DEDR 5151).

569.Market: phal-a_pan.a fruit shop (Pali.lex.) ra_van.iyo a village servant subordinate to the headman [ra_jan + a_pan.ika relating to a market; trader (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); a_pan.a market, shop (MBh.Pali); avana market? (NiDoc. ?< a_vahana village (OPersian); a_van.a market, shop (Pkt.); avan.a, avun.a market (Si.); wa_n shop (K.Sh.); won~u shop-keeper (K.); avana drinking party or place (Si.); a_pa_na act of drinking, drinking party (MBh.); a_pa_nas'a_la_ tavern (R.)(CDIAL 1191-2; 1204; 1206). ka_van. [ka_ + a_pan.a] a hut made of leafy branches (M.)(CDIAL 3036).] The radical -pan. in these etyma in the sense of 'shop' may be linked to: pan. service, work, business (Ta.Ma.); work (Te.Kond.a); pan.inar servants (Ta.); pon.y work (To.); pani work, labour, workmanship (Te.)(DEDR 3884). Sale deed: a_van.am a document; generally, a sale-deed; Synonym: villai-y-a_van.am (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.); a_van.a-k-kal.ari place where documents like the sale-deeds, etc., are registered; a registration office. mutta_van.am a tax prob. on the sale of pearls (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) a_vat.i depot (Ta.lex.); a_van.akkalam registration office (S.I.I. iii,108); a_van.akkal.ari id. (Co_r..ava. 68); a_van.am market, bazaar; right to property, ownership; slavery, bondage, service (Te_va_. 869,8); bond, deed (Te_va_. 977,5); a_van.a-ma_kkal. those who administer the oath (Akana_. 77); a_van.a-vi_ti bazaar (Tiruvicai. Karu. 7,1); a_van.a-v-o_lai title-deed (Kantapu. Var..inat.ai. 12); a_van.i-y-avit.t.am an ancient festival in Madura which has now ceased to be observed (Ta.lex.) cf. a_vapati deposits as a pledge (Pali)(CDIAL 1410).

570.Image: an armlet with an amulet: bawat.t.a_ an armlet with an amulet (P.lex.)

571.A title: ba_wa_ a title given to male descendants of the first three gurus of the Sikhs; a term of respect equivalent to Sir (P.lex.) a_ poi call, summon; a_ poun a_d. call, calling, bring, fetch; a_ poun.em. invitation (Kon.lex.) a_va_hana (Skt.lex.)

572.Share of produce: bhauli_, bha_uli_ paying a share of the produce as revenue or rent, the cutting and gathering being done under the inspection of a servant of the government or landlord as the case may be; superintendence of the cutting of crops that have been raised by partners (appraisement of standing crops is termed kann (P.lex.)

573.Image: tank: ba_uli_ ba_ur.i_, ba_uli_ a walled spring; a well in which there are steps leading down to the water. In some ba_ulis there are covered chambers where people rest and take refreshments during the heat of the day (P.lex.) ba_vi (Tadbhava of va_pi) a well (Ka.Te.); va_vi (Ta.); ba_vido_d.u to dig a well (Ka.); va_pi, ba_m.vi, ba_mi, ba_vi, va_yi an oblong reservoir of water, a pool or lake; a well (Ka.); bece (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) va_vi tank, reservoir of water (Pin.. Tiv. Periyati. 2,3,10); well with a flight of steps down to the water; stream of wate running in a river (Ci_vaka. 337)(Ta.lex.) pa_vat.ige a step, a stair (Ka.); pa_yat.a_, pa_vaka_, pa_m.vad.a_ (M.); pa_vance, pa_vat.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.) a_val, a_bal, a_bal-gol.a a pond that contains red water-lilies (Ka.lex.)

574.Image: strainer: pavano a sieve, strainer (Tu.lex.)  

575.Cloak: pa_va_ra a cloak, mantle (Pali.lex.) pa_vad.e a cloth spread on the floor for the bride and the bridegroom to tread upon at a wedding; girl's garment; cloth pu ton the back of a buffalo (Tu.lex.)

576.Image: sowing machine: va_pi a sowing machine (Ka.lex.)

577.Image: gimlet: a_vidha an awl; drill; a_viddha pierced, bored, rent, splintered, broken down; a_vyadh to hit, pierce; a_vya_dhin giving pain, wounding, attacking; cf. ve_dhanika_ gimlet (Skt.lex.) a_vidha a drill, a kind of gimlet worked by a string (Ka.lex.)

578.A tribe: a_wan, awa_n a Muhammadan sect, a Jat tribe (P.lex.)

579.A tree: ikan.ai a kind of tree (Ta.); ikan.a(m) a kind of tree (Ma.)(DEDR 412).

580.Clearing-nut tree: in:guda the medicinal tree terminalia catappa; its nut (MBh.); in:gudi_ the tree (MBh.Sus'r.); in:gula (Skt.); im.gudi_, im.gui_, am.gua the tree; im.gua the fruit (Pkt.); in:guya_ an oil-bearing plant (B.); in:gul.a terminalia catappa (Or.); i~guwa_, hi~got. the tree and its nut (H.); in:gori_ the tree; in:goru~ the nut (G.); hi~gan. the thorny tree balanites aegyptiaca (M.); in:gini, hin:gini the clearing-nut tree strychnos potatorum (Si.)(CDIAL 1554). in:gudi, in:guda terminalia catappa (Ka.Skt.); in:gal.a a small tiny tree, balanites rtoxburghii, ga_regid.a, ta_pasataru (Ka.lex.) andugu clearing nut plant, strychnos potatorum (Ka.); andugu, indugu id. (Te.); andg sa_l tree; a.nduk (pl. a.ndugul) id. (Kol.)(DEDR 151).

581.Asafoetida: hin:gu the plant ferula asafoetida (BhP.)(CDIAL 14079). cf. hin:gula vermilion (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 14080). cf. hi_nga saffron (Kuwi)(DEDR 2608). in:ku asafoetida (Ja_n-a_. 41,14); in:kura_mam id. (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) hin:gu, in:gu a tall perennial plant, growing in Persia, and yielding the drug asafoetida, ferula asafoetida; the drug prepared from the plant, ba_hlika, ra_mat.ha (Ka.lex.) Asafoetida is an oleo-gum-resin obtained by incision from the living rhizome and root of ferula foetida = ferula rubricaulis, and other species of ferula (Fam. umbelliferae), plants about 3m. in height. The drug is collected in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. History: It appears doubtful whether the substance known to the ancients as laser was the asafoetida of modern commerce. Asafoetida seems to have been introduced from the East by the Arabian physicians. It was used in Europe during the Middle Ages but to a much less extent than galbanu, sagepenum and opopanax. Allied drugs: Galbanum and ammoniacum are oleo-gum-resins obtained, respectively from ferula galbaniflua and dorema ammoniacum. Uses: Asafoetida is now little used in human medicine, although still employed in veterinary work, and is an ingredient of certain sauces. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, pp. 469-470). Ferula asafoetida: hin:gu (Skt.); hing (B.H.); Sanskrit writers describe asafoetida as an exudation from the root of the asafoetida plant which is indigenous to Persia, Khorasan and Multan (?). Assafoetida is regarded as a stimulant and carminative and is much used in dyspepsia, flatulence, colic and diseases of the nervous system. It is fried before being used internally. Raw or unfried asafoetida is said to cause vomiting. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.176). 

582.Sugar-cane: iks.u saccharum officinarum (Car. Su. 4.9,20,40). iks.u sugar-cane; iks.u-gandha saccharum spontaneum; iks.u-rasa, iks.u-va_lika_, iks.u-ba_lika_ a kind of ka_s'a grass (Skt.lex.) cf. ceruku sugarcane (Ka.)(DEDR 2795). kobu, us, usa_ sugarcane; sa_kar, sa_kri sugar (Kon.lex.)

583.Thunderbolt: ikul., ikul.i thunderbolt (Iraku. A_r-r-up. 4)(Ta.lex.); ikukka, ikaykkuka to conquer (Ma.)(DEDR 415). Rainy season: e_xa_-gali_ rainy season (Kur.); qe rainy season (Malt.)(DEDR 876).

584.Image: to strike, hit, throw: ji_a_na_ to strike, hit, throw; to beat, kill; ji_- to strike, beat; hi_- to strike, shoot with bow; caus. jih-; i_- to strike, beat (Go.); ji_ali to shoot an arrow; ji_- to shoot with bow; ji_- to shoot (Kuwi)(CDIAL 2602). cf. i_t.t.i lance, spear, pike (Paripa_. 5,66)(Ta.lex.) Spear: is.t.i impulse (RV.); i_t.hi_, i_t.i_ lance, spear (H.)(CDIAL 1602). i_t.t.i lance, spear, pike (Paripa_. 5,66); id. (Ma.); i_t.e (Te.); i_t.i (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ikuttal to pout to rout, as an army (Ta.lex.) ikukka, ikaykkuka to conquer (Ma.)(DEDR 415). is- (-t-) to strike (Kond.a); ih- (ist-) id., beat (drum)(Pe.); ih- (-t-) to beat (Mand..); ihpa (iht-) to thrust into or through, spear, spit, impale (Kui); ih- (ist-) in: dar.ata si_le ihimu_ bolt the door!; 3 pl. masc. i_steri (Kuwi)(DEDR 425). Image: to pound: i_k- to pound (Kol.); to pound grain (Nk.); to pound, to husk (rice)(Nk.); i_xna_ to rough-husk, half-husk; i_xrna_ to be half-husked; grind, powder (Kur.); gre to grind very fine (Malt.)(DEDR 535). Image: to beat a drum: ikuttal to beat, as a drum (Pur-ana_. 158,1); to play, as an instrument (Malaipat.u. 391); to call, invite; to produce sound, as a drum (Malaipat.u. 532)(Ta.lex.) Image: to fell a tree: ikuttal to kill, destroy; to throw down; to fell, as a tree; ikutal to break, erode (Kur-un. 264)(Ta.lex.) Image: resistance, fight, compete: ikal fight; is'al resistance; ikaluka to hate, reject, vie, compete (Ma.); ikalan- warrior; ikaliya_r enemies (Te_va_. 75,1); ikalo_n- enemy; ical (icali-) to be in disagreement with one another, wrangle (I_t.u. 4,10,6)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); iyal (iyalv-, iyan-r--; iyali-) to compete, wager; n. rivalry, competition (Ta.)(DEDR 413). ikar..unar, ikan-r-avar enemies (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 113)(Ta.lex.) ikala_t.t.am controversy, disputation, altercation; competition, rivalry (W.); ikal amatorial strifes between husband and wife (Paripa_. 9,36); ikal (ikalv-, ikan-r--; ikali-) to disagree, hate, be inimical (Ce_tupu. Ce_tuvanta. 12); to vie, compete (Ci_vaka. 904); n. enmity, hatred (Tirumuru. 132); battle, war (Paripa_. 6,28) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) icali a quarrelsome woman (Tiruppu. 243); icali-p-pur..ukkutal to get entangled in a quarrel; to make a quarrel (Ta.lex.) zagd.a fight; zagd.e fighting (Kon.lex.) kala_t.t.a_ < gala_t.a_ (U.) riot, commotion, tumult, insurrection, strife (Ta.lex.) cf. kalaha quarrel (Skt.lex.) kalakam strife, quarrel, wrangle (Ce_tupu. Ce_tuma_. 24); uproar, tumult (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

585.Image: an arrow: icikappat.ai < is.i_ka_ a kind of arrow (Kampara_. Nikum. 130)(Ta.lex.) sr.ka arrow, spear (RV.); sr.ga id. (Skt.); sr.gavant, sr.ga_vant having arrows (Skt.); hiya, hi, iya, i_ya arrow (Si.); si_k reed, spit (Mth.)(CDIAL 13575). cf. cilukku barb (Ta.); ciluku, sela arrow (Te.)(DEDR 2568).

586.Image: hair to hang down loose: ikuttal to hang down loosely, as hair; to lower (Malaipat.u. 44); to spread out; to dishevel, as hair (Cilap. 26,210)(Ta.lex.)

587.Image: quail: i_kai quail (i_kai-p-po_r: Kalit. 95,12)(Ta.lex.)

588.Image: mountain: ikuppam boulder-like formation of a mountain side (Malaipat.u. 367)(Ta.lex.) icumpu precipice (Tirukko_. 149); rugged and broken pathway that is full of ascents and descents (Tirukko_. 149, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

589.Image: to close by a sluice: ikuttuvittal to close, as by a sluice (S.I.I. iii,9)(Ta.lex.)

590.Image: sandal-wood tree: i_kam, i_n:kam sandal-wood tree (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) hima sandal tree; camphor; hima_ the fragrant drug and perfume called ren.uka_ (Skt.lex.)

591.Image: betel: ikan-i betel (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)

592.Image: honey in the hive: ikku honey in the hive (Ma_r-an-. 111, Uta_. 212)(Ta.lex.) cf. semant. iks.u sugar-cane (sweetness)(Skt.)

593.Image: to jump or leap over: ikattal to leap over, jump over (Ta.lex.) cf. niva (-pp-, -nt-) to rise, be elevated, grow, spread, overflow; ika (-pp-, -nt-) to leap over, cross over, transgress (Ta.); nege, nese to go upward, jump; negasu to cause to jump or jump over (Ka.); negayu, egayu, egavu flying, flight; eguru, evuru to fly, jump up (Te.); egur- to jump (Nk.)(DEDR 3730).

594.Image: to be similar: ikal to be similar (kulikamo t.ikaliya van:kai: Nan-. 268, Mayilai); icaittal to resemble (Pa_rata. Ira_ca. 52)(Ta.lex.)

595.Sell: ik sell; ikap, ikpa_ sale (Kon.lex.)

596.Image: to grin: icittal to laugh (Ta.); icippu laughter (Ta.); cf. il.i (Ta.lex.) igul(u)cu, igilincu, ivul(u)cu to grin, show the teeth; iccu to grin (Te.); ikp- (ikt-) id. (Pa.); ijga'a_na_, ijigna_ to show the teeth; ijgo_ characterised by protruding teeth (Kur.); igje to grin, reproach; igjro wry-mouthed (Malt.); nijikatruni, nijika_vuni to show the teeth, as dogs, monkeys; ni_kuni to appear, as the projecting teeth (Tu.)(DEDR 418). cf. ikar.. (-v-, -nt-) to slight, despise (Kur-al., 698); be careless, negligent; forget; n. contempt, reproach (Ka_cippu. Kacci. 21)(Ta.); ikar..cci disparagement, negligence; dislike; ikar..vu contempt, scorn (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,4,1)(Ta.); ikar..uka to despite, blame, condemn (Ma.)(DEDR 414). ikar..ar-pa_t.u dishonour, disgrace, contemptibility, scorn (Kur-al., 192, Urai.); ikar..va_r scorners, slanderes, vilifiers (Kur-al., 151); ikar..nturai expression of contempt, slander (Kur-al., 182, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) To laugh: il.i to become low-spirited because of being ridiculed by others; to laugh, scorn, ridicule, disgrace, grin, show the teeth; n. laughter, derisive laughter, disgrace, contempt, scorn, defect; il.ivu ridicule, disgrace, disgust; ici to laugh; laughter; icippu laughter (Ta.); il.i contemptuous grin; il.ika to fret, as children; il.ikka to grin (as dogs, monkeys), show the teeth; il.iccal grinning, bashfulness; il.ippu grinning, neighing, nonsensical talk (Ma.)(DEDR 511).

597.Fragrant: is.t.agandha fragrant (Ka.); any fragrant substance (Skt.Ka.lex.) 

598.Azima tetracantha: ican:ku, can:ka-cet.i, uvar-ccan:kam, mut.-can:ku mistletoe berry thorn, azima tetracantha (Ta.); iyan:ku, is'an:ku id. (Ma.); egaci, uppegaci, uppagaci, uppacci monetia barlerioides; isagele mistletoe berry thorn (Ka.)[azima tetracantha = monetia barlerioides](DEDR 421). cf. kundali azima tetracantha (Skt.)

599.Ginger: ici ginger (Ta.Ma.); inj (Ko.); iji (Kod..)(DEDR 429). s'r.n:gave_ra dried or fresh ginger (Sus'r.)[< SE Asia]; sin:give_ra, sin:gi_ ginger (Pali); s'im.gavera, s'ighavera (NiDoc.); sim.gave_ra (Pkt.); singuru, hinguru, inguru (Si.)(CDIAL 12588). s'r.n:gave_rapura name of a town on the Ganges (MBh.); sim.garara a place name (OAw.)(CDIAL 12589). cf. ve_r root (Ta.)(DEDR 5535). ellam ginger (Malai.); allamu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) aindra wild ginger (Skt.)(CDIAL 2535). "... with us it is called gengibre; the word is gimzibil among Arabs, Persians, and Turks. When it is green the Guzaratis, Deccanis, and Bengalis call it adrac, and when dry socte. In Malabar it is known as imgi, and the Malays call it alia. (Ginger is the rhizome, or underground stem, of zingiber officinale; the word 'zingiber' being derived, through the Greek siggiberis and Sanskrit shringabera -- meaning 'horned root'-- from the Arabic zanjabil... It is not a native of India: and its proper Sanskrit name is ardraka, meaning, literally, 'of the wet', i.e. the monsoon; 'green ginger' is in Hindustani denominated adrak and 'dry ginger' sont.) (G. De Orta, pp. 223-227). Zingiber officinale: ardraka (Skt.Ka.); adrak (H.P.); ada (B.); adu (M.); inji (Ta.); adrakamu (Te.); andrakam (Ma.); rhizome: used as a stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent; rhizome yields about 1-3% of a volatile oil containing camphene, phellandrene; gingerol and shogaol are the pungent constituents; widely cultivated in India (GIMP, p.261). Amomum zingiber, zingiber officinale, zingiber blancoi. ... is a native of tropical Asia... The rhizomes of ginger are used as a condiment, being one of the most popular flavoring agents known... used as stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive... as a carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.200). Zingiber officinale... known in commerce as Jamaica Ginger, African ginger and Cochin ginger... Habitat. South Asia. Naturalized in Jamaica, Africa, West Indies, Mexico and Florida. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 221-227). na_gara s'un.t.hi_, dry ginger (Car. Su. 4.11,12,29). s'un.t.hi_ zingiber officinale (Car. Su. 27.256, Ci. 5.74). a_rdraka fresh ginger (Sus'r.); a_rdra, a_rdrika_ (Skt.); a_rdra-s'a_ka fresh ginger (Skt.); adda-sin:give_ra (Pali); duru (K.); adda_ (P.); a_do ginger (Ku.); aduwa_ dried ginger (N.); a_da_ ginger (A.B.); ada_ (Or.); a_di_ (B.); a_d (Mth.); a_di_ (Aw.); a_da_ (H.); a_du~ (G.); allaka coriandrum sativum (Pali); allaya fresh ginger (Pkt.); a_le~, ale~ fresh ginger, ginger plant (M.); a_lle~ ginger (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 1341). adauri small lumps of pulse and condiments fried in ghee (N.); adaur.i_, adauri_ (H.)(CDIAL 1342).

600.Image: to play on a lute: icaittal to play, as on a lute (Tol. Col. 310, Urai.); icai-ka_rar singers (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,5,11)(Ta.lex.)

601.Profit: icai gain, profit (Civappira. Ven:kaiyula_. 328); gold (Ta.lex.) Agreement; to receive, accept: ijrna_ to receive, accept, get (Kur.); njre to receive, take into the hand (Malt.)(DEDR 431). icaital to acquire or get possession of (Tiruva_ca. 2,39); to be possible; to be within one's power (Na_lat.i.111); to consent, acquiesce, agree (Tirunu_r-. 83); icaittal to bring about (Vina_yakapu. 75,573); icai union, agreement, harmony; icaimai honour; esteem, the desire for which acts as a powerful incentive to abstention, at all costs, from blameworthy actions (Tol. Po. 257); icaivu agreement (Perun.. Makata. 15,9); consent, approval (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cura. 24)(Ta.lex.) To join: icaital to fit in, as one plank with another in joining; icaittal to bind, tie, fasten; icaippu joining so as to fit in; joint; icaivu fitting with one another (Perun.. Makata. 15,9)(Ta.lex.) Marriage written document: icai-kut.i-ma_n-am written document executed by the bridegroom's father and attested to by witnesses in marriages among Na_t.t.uko_t.t.ai chettiyars (C. and T., Vol. V, p.267); icai-y-o_lai deed of consent or acceptance (I.M.P.N.A. 727)(Ta.lex.)

602.Name: icumu < isum (U.) name (Ta.lex.)

603.Village officer: icumu-ta_r < isum-da_r (U.) hereditary holder of a village office; icumu-va_ri revenue account of the holdings and their assessments arranged under the names of several individuals (Ta.lex.)cf. icumu < isum (U.) name (Ta.lex.)

604.Image: fig: icci oval-leaved fig; jointed ovate-leaved fig, ficus tsiela; iccil (Maccapu. Attiri. 4); icci-y-a_l jointed ovate-leaved fig (Mu_. A.); kallicci, kallitti species of fig: (a) stone fig, ficus gibbosa parasitica; (b) jointed ovate-leaved fig, ficus tsiela; (3) ovate-leaved fig, ficus retusa; (d) tailed oval-leaved fig, ficus talboti (Ta.lex.)

605.Image: furrow: si_te, si_ta_ a furrow, the track or line of a ploughshare (Ka.Skt.); si_tya ploughed, tilled; a young plant as of rice (Ka.); si_ri having a plough: Balara_ma; si_ra a plough (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_su, i_cu (Tadbhava of i_s.e) the single, double, triple etc. pole or shaft of a cart or carriage; the pole or shaft of a plough; ne_gila i_su (Ka.); i_s'e, i_s.e the pole or shaft of a plough; the pole or shaft of a carriage (Skt.Ka.); i_cukey the perpendicular staff or handle in the staff of a plough on which the plougman presses (Ka.); i_ttu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ijgo straight from here, straight forward (Kur.); igjo true (Malt.)(DEDR 427).

606.Image: crack: isigka_ crack, slit, chink; isigna_ (isgya_) to open in long slits, chap, crack (Kur.); isge to be well parched (as grain), be cracked (as the skin)(Malt.)(DEDR 423).

607.Desire: e_t.an.a_ttirayam three kinds of attachment, one of 11 divisions of pur-a-nilai (Tiruva_la. Kat..); e_t.an.ai ardent desire (Civataru. Civaja_n-ayo_. 112); e_t.t.ai intense desire; e_t.ai ardent desire, eager longing (Cu_t.a_.) (Ta.lex.) i_t.t.al amassing wealth, a desirable quality of character in merchants (Pin..); i_t.t.u-tal to acquire, earn, obtain (Kur-al., 1009); i_n.t.u-tal to gather, come together (Tiruva_ca. 2,144); to be close togerher; to get to a compact mass, as the atoms of earth (Pur-ana_. 19)(Ta.lex.) hur.so, hica, rin ron. desire; hur.so, haya to desire (Santali.lex.) urba_, urbe longing; urbest id. (Kon.lex.) e_s.an.a seeking; wish, desire; i_s.an.a looking; seeking; desire, wish (Ka.Te.) (Ka.lex.) e_s.a seeking (Skt.)(CDIAL 2531). gave_s.ayati seeks (MBh.); gave_s.ate_ (SaddhP.); gave_s.a seeking for (Skt.); gave_s.an.a desiring eagerly (RV.); gave_sati searches for (Pali); games.ati (NiDoc.); games.ina (Dhp.); gave_sai, game_sai (Pkt.); gavasn.e~ (M.); gavas search (M.); gaver. clue (L.); gaver.an. to search for stolen property (L.)(CDIAL 4105). gavya consisting of or coming from cattle; a herd of cows (RV.); ga_ba cattle, cow (Or.)(CDIAL 4106). i_s.an.a-traya the three dominant desires, viz. the desire after riches, after a wife, and after a son (Ka.lex.)

608.Image: arrow: e_s.an.a an iron arrow (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) e_cu-tal to hurl, dart (Te_va_. 380,6); e_vu arrow (Kantapu. Ka_mataka. 66)(Ta.lex.) Image: spear: i_t.i, it.t.i spear, lance (Ka.Ta.Te.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) it.t.i (Tadbhava of yas.t.ti) a lance, spear, javelin (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_li a sort of weapon; a single-edged sword, used by Turus.kas; kad.iva kattige; i_li a cudgel; a short sword; a stick shaped like a sword (Ka.lex.) Sword; spear, lance: r.s.t.i spear, lance (RV.); it.t.hi spear (Pali); rit.t.hi sword (Pkt.)(sanskritized as: ris.t.i-, ris.t.a- sword)(Skt.); hes.t. yoke-pole (Kho.); ri_t.h sword (H.); i_t.hi_ spear, spear-shaft (H.); vi_t., it.a_, vit.a_ a spear carried before a ra_ja_ in procession (M.); it.i_ the bit of stick struck in the game of trapstick (S.); i_t.hi_, i_t.i_ (H.); it.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 2461). i_t.t.i lance, spear, pike (Paripa_. 5,65)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); i_t.e id. (Te.); i_t.i id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

609.Image: balance: e_s.an.ike a goldsmith's balance (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_s.a_ pole of carriage or plough (RV.); i_sa_, i_saka_ (Pali); i_sa_ pole of plough (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1620). i_t.a_-tan.t.am < i_s.a_ + till or shaft of a vehicle (Maccapu. Cu_riyarata. 21) (Ta.lex.)

610.Image: speed: i_n.t.u-tal to speed, haste (Cilap. 13,10); haste, speed, despatch (Tiva_.); i_n.t.en-a expeditiously, promptly, speedily (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,9,2, A_r-a_.)(Ta.lex.)

611.Image: male of animals: e_t.t.ai male of animals (Tiva_.); e_r-r-ai male of any animal remarkable for physical strength (Tol. Po. 604); e_r-r-aippan-ai male palmyra (Na_lat.i, 96)(Ta.lex.)

612.Image: rib of a leaf: e_t.akan.i < e_t.u + akan.i rib of a palm leaf (Tailava. Pa_yi. 20); e_t.u petal (Ta.); e_d.u (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) e_t.u-ko_l.a_l.an- accountant (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,153)(Ta.lex.)

613.To fix; put: hita placed (RV.)(CDIAL 14091). cf. puro_hita family priest (RV.Pali); puro_hia (Pkt.); peraviya_, pereviya_ royal councillor (Si.)(CDIAL 8293). cf. sahita accompanying (Ka_tyS'r.; Pa_n.. va_rtt. : sa- + hita); accompanied by (Skt.Pali); sahitam together with (MBh.); sahia accompanied by (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13310). it.u to place, deposit, put in, keep (Ta.); id.u id. (Te.Ka.Ma.); it.u a pledge, security, mortgage (Ta.); it.uka to place, put, plant; i_t.u placing, stability (Ma.); id.- (it.-) to fix, put (Ko.); to put, place (To.); id.u (it.t.-) to put, place; i_d.u an equivalent, a pledge (Ka.); a pledge, pawn (Tu.); di_pini to place, keep, put, reserve (Tu.); id.u to put, lay, offer; i_d.u equality, pledge (Te.); i.d.- to put (Kol.); ir.- to put (Nk.); id.- to put, keep, allow (Pa.); ir- to put, fill (Ga.); id.- to put (Kond.a); it.- to put (Pe.); to put, put down (Mand..); it.a to place, put down, fix (Kui); ittali to keep; ittinai to place, put, keep (Kuwi)(Ta.lex.) id., id.a_ mortgage (Kon.lex.) id.epod., id.epod.i a native custom of exchanging betel-nuts at marriage; id.o, id.ea_ offering, present, chiefly at the time of marriage (Kon.lex.) i_t.t.u-p-pattiram deed of hypothecation (Ta.lex.) i_t.u-kot.u to give an equivalent, bestow a reward; to be equal; to compete; to bear the brunt (Ta.lex.) i_t.e_r-r-am (Ta.Ma.) deliverance, emancipation, liberation, redemption (Ta.lex.) To serve food: ittna_ in: xat.t.na_ ittna_ to portion out, distribute; ittna_ to dole out (Kur.); ite to divide (as a share)(Malt.)(DEDR 461). ir.(iRt) to serve (food), put, pour in or out (Kond.a); it.ki to wear a beauty mark, to put on (ornament), insert (flowers behind ear)(Kond.a); it.u to place, deposit, handing over (Ta.); i_t.u a pledge, security, mortgage (Ta.); id. to put, fix (Ko.); to put (Kol.); i.r. shot, equality (Ko.); to put, allow (Nk.); id.u to put down, plant, lay by, produce, perform, effect, make (Ka.); to place, put, lay, give, offer (Te.); i_d.u proportion, equality, that is equal or matches, an equivalent, a pledge (Ka.); a pledge, pawn, an equivalent (Tu.); equality, a match, an equal, equivalent, pledge (Te.); di_pini to place, keep, put, reserve, lay by (Tu.); i_d.u, di_d.u to place (Tu.); irra_na_ to keep, place, preserve (Go.); irr to put, to hide (Go.); ar, er to put away, hide (Go.); id. to put (Kond.a)(DEDR 442). To establish: idna_ to put in the ground and cover (as seed for growth), plant, transplant, introduce and establish (as a new religion); idrna_ refl.-pass. (Kur.); ide to plant, erect, built (Malt.)(DEDR 462). Standing; settled: adhis.t.hita standing, settled (MBh.); adhit.t.hita standing on, regulated (Pali); ahit.t.hiya settled (Pkt.); it.u- in cmpds. 'fixed'(Si.)(CDIAL 265). Resolve: hit.h firmness of mind, pertinacity, courage, hope (P.); hat.h pertinacity (H.)(CDIAL 264). adhit.t.ha_ti, adhit.t.hahati stands on, arranges, determines, concentrates on (Pali); ahit.t.he_i goes up, controls (Pkt.); it.anava_ to make up one's mind (Si.)(CDIAL 261). adhis.t.ha_na place, position (RV.); government (R.); adhit.t.ha_na standpoint, resolve (Pali); ahit.t.ha_n.a place, control (Pkt.); ayit.an, it.ana resolve (Si.)(CDIAL 262).

614.Image: to meet face to face: etir-ttal to meet face to face (Tirukko_. 396); edirintsu (Te.); edirisu (Ka.); etir (Ma.); eduruntu (Tu.); etir hostile (Kalit. 96); eduru (Te.Tu.); edir (Ka.); etir (Ma.); rival (Tacaiva_. 14); similitude, comparison (Te_va_. 613,4); redupl. etir-kutir obverse (Paripa_. 8,21)(Ta.lex.)

615.Waist: it.ai middle in space or time, interval, gap, unfilled space, waist; it.uppu waist, side, loins, hips (Ta.); it.a, et.a interval, place, between, interval of time, middle, waist; it.uppu the hip (Ma.); er. place or time between, interval (esp. of time)(Ko.); ir. kwa.y bamboo vessel into which butter and butter-milk are poured from vessels of the inner section of the ti. dairy, and from which they are poured into vessels of the outer section (to keep the ritual purity of objects in the inner section free from any outside contamination; lit. intermediate kwa.y vessel (To.)[kwa.y bamboo pot used at ti.dairy (To.); ko_y vessel for taking out toddy (Ta.); xo_ cooking-pot (Br.)(DEDR 2225)]; ed.a, ed.e place or time between, interval, distance, middle, waist, inferiority; ed.ati middle aged woman (Ka.); id. interval, space between, interval of time; id.etara middling, inferior; ed.avat.t.u, ed.evat.t.u middling, indifferent; dekka_ru the space between the legs (Tu.); ed.a space, interval, distance, difference; ed.amu intervening space, distance (Te.)(DEDR 448). u_t.u the middle, that which comes between, waist; u_t.u_t.e_ here and there; u_t.-a_t.u to go among, move about, frequent (Ta.); u_t.u inside, place between, through; u_t.e~_ adv. inside, through; u_t.-a_t.uka to pass through (as wind, water)(Ma.); u.r. central parting of hair (Ko.)(DEDR 737).u_t.u, u_t.ai woof, thread woven across the warp (Ta.); u_t.a woof, cross thread (Ma.)(DEDR 738). id.etara adj. middling, of average quality (Tu.lex.) id.em chin, exit (Kon.lex.)

616.Exchange of gifts: id.epod. a native custom of exchanging betel-nuts at marriage; id.o, id.ya_ offering, present, chiefly at the time of marriage (Kon.lex.) i_d.u appropriateness in respect of age and physical development as between a would-be bridegroom and the bride (Ta.lex.) i_d. a proper dose of a stimulant such as tobacco (Tu.lex.) i_d.u way, means (Tirukko_. 111); delivering, handing over (Tiruva_lava_. 28,36); i_t.t.am store, treasure, abundance (Ci.Ci. 2,41); acquiring, earning (Kur-al., 1003)(Ta.lex.)

617.Gift: it.ukai gift; it.utal to give, grant, bestow, as alms (Nalva. 2); it.u-tan:kam refined gold, gold of the best quality; gold-leaf; it.u to place, deposit, put in, keep (Tiruva_ca. 33,8)(Ta.lex.)

618.Image: space: it.ai gap, unfilled space (Tol. Po. 76); it.aivel.i gap, intervening space; hole, as in a wall; cleft (Ta.lex.) id.e, ed.e place, room (Ka.Ma.Tu.); it.ai (Ta.); id.upu a breach, a crack, a hole; id.i to be powdered or ground (Ka.); it.uku, it.aku narrowness (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_n.t.u here, in this place; in this world; in this way (Ta.lex.) cf. semant. 'middle': antar inside (RV.)(CDIAL 356). antara interior, near (RV.); antara_ in the middle (Skt.)(CDIAL 357). antara_ in the middle (RV.); antarantara_ at intervals (Pali)(CDIAL 362). it.alam width, extent (Ta.)(DEDR 434). it.am place, room, spot, opportunity (Ta.); it.an- wide space (Ta.); it.ai place, space (Ta.); it.aviya wide, extensive, spacious (Ta.); it.a, et.a, it.am, et.am, e_t.am place, spot, house, time (Ma.); er.m place (Ko.); ir.n. place (To.); id.e, ed.e, ed.a place, spot, ground (Ka.); ed.e the company or proximity of a person (Kod..); id.e place, room, space, abode (Tu.); dekki place, room (Tu.); ed.a place, spot (Te.); ed.amu place, space, room, opportunity, time, occasion (Te.)(DEDR 434). Place: it.ai place, space (Pur-ana_. 5,1)(Ta.lex.) Plain; desert: et.a_r plain, open field (Ta.); ed.a_ri, ed.a_ru a desert, wilderness (Te.)(DEDR 781).

619.Image: food presented: id.e an oblation to a deity or to man; food (Ka.); the goddess Id.a_, the wife of Budha (Ka.); ed.e (Tadbhava of id.e) an offering; food; meal; ed.e-ikku to present food to a deity or to man; ed.eka_su a ka_su presented with food to a deity (Ka.lex.)

620.Image: earthen lamp: it.icil the hollow portion of a lamp, which is the receptacle for the oil (Te_va_. 503,2)(Ta.); it.iil small earthen lamp (Ma.)(DEDR 441).

621.Image: fish-spawn, cluster, garland: in.ar fish-spawn (Ma.); to be dense (Ta.); a cluster of flowers, full-blown flower, pollen, bunch of fruit (Ta.)(DEDR 456). in.t.a a kind of garland (Ma.); in.t.ai circlet of flowers, variety of garland (Ta.); in.d.e wreath, garland (Ka.); garland (Te.)(DEDR 458).

622.Roof; slope: ir-ai, ir-appu inside of a sloping roof, eaves of a house (Pur-ana_.129); ir-ava_ram eaves of a house (Ta.); ir-a, ir-aka_li, ir-ayar-r-am eaves of a house; ir-ampu eaves, brow of a hill, edge; ir-ava_ram veranda (Ma.); er-akil, er-ake a roof, thatch (Ka.); raki eaves (Kod..); er-a, in: talliyer-a the uppermost well-tube which forms a parapet round a well (Te.); r-e_kam roof (Kond.a); je_gom id. (Pe.); re_pa the lower slopes of a hill (Kui)(DEDR 528).

623.Left: it.ai, it.am left side; it.an- one on the left side; it.attai, it.avan- left ox in the yoke (Ta.); it.am, et.am left side (Ma.); er. id. (Ko.); r. left (To.); ed.a left, left side; ed.acu state of being left-handed (Ka.); d.ate left (Kod..); ed.a, yad.a id.; ed.an:ku on the left side; yad.ambu left side; damma, datta left (Tu.); ed.ama left, left-hand, the left-hand side; d.a_, da_ left (Te.); edamakei left (Kol.); d.a_kiyan ki_ left hand (Nk.)(DEDR 449). davva left (Pkt.); d.au_ fool (P.); d.abri left side or hand (Or.); d.a_va left hand (Pkt.); d.a_o left (S.); d.a_var.u left-handed (S.); d.a_vra_ left-handed, crooked-horned (M.); da_vre~ crooked horn (M.); d.a_bar.u lefthanded (S.); da_ba left (OG.); d.a_bu~, d.a_bhu~ (G.); d.ibba_ left hand; d.ibariya_ lefthanded (H.); d.ebro obstinate; d.ebre left (N.); d.ebra_ lefthanded (B.); d.ebara_ id. (Or.); d.ebiri pertaining to the left (Or.); d.eb bullock with one erect and one hanging horn (Bi.Mth.); d.hebro lefthanded (Ku.); d.a_wa_ (H.); d.a_va_ (M.); dewra_ left (H.); debro obstinate (N.); debre left (N.); debra_ (H.)(CDIAL 5539). d.a_va (Nk.); d.ebri (Pa.Ga.); d.ema, demar, d.a_va_ (Go.); deba, debe, debo (Kui); tebri, te_bri, t.ebri (Kuwi)(DEDR 449). it.an:kai left hand (Tiruvil.ai. Ya_n-ai. 30); left-hand clan, one of the two clans into which some Dravidian castes in Co_r..a_ country had separated themselves by about the 11th century A.D., such as the artisans against the agricultural--the feud arising chiefly from each claiming certain honours, such as riding a horse on marriage occasions, etc. (Ta.lex.)

624.Image: dot: it.a_ku brand, spot, dot (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

625.Cinnamon: intu < indu camphor cinnamon, karppu_ramaram (Mu_. A.); moon (Tiruva_ca. 13,4)(Ta.lex.)

626.River indus: indu < hindu (U.) < sindhu (Skt.)the river Indus; intuppu rock salt or sodium chloride used in medicine, so called because it was brought from Sindh (Pata_rtta. 1096) (Ta.lex.)

627.Equally big: i_tuka_ (poet.); itka_ adj. equally numerous, equally big (M.); et.lo (G.); etiro (S.); itna_ (H.P.); yu_tu (K.); eta (B.); ete (Or.); etakin (Si.); keti (Romany); kitka_ (H.); ittia, ettia (Pkt.); iyat (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 302). intavaru such people; intut.u, initu, initut.u, is.t.u this much (Ka.lex.) ittan-ai so much (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,3,8); a few (Tirunu_r-. 85); ittun.ai thus much (Kantapu. Cu_ran-amai. 98)(Ta.lex.)

628.Image: joining; collection: i_n.t.u (i_n.t.i-) to gather, come together, be close together, get to be a compact mass, abound; i_n.t.u-ni_r sea; i_t.t.u (i_t.t.i-) to collect, hoard, accumulate, acquire; n. a flock, swarm; i_t.t.am throng, group, abundance, acquiring, earning; i_t.t.al amassing wealth (Ta.); i_t.t.am collection; i_t.t.uka to heap up, increase; i_t.uka to join, increase; i_n.t.a a swarm (Ma.); i_d.u joining, uniting, increase, plenty, strength, wealth; i_d.uka_r-a, i_d.uga_r-a a powerful man; in.d.e heap, mass (Ka.)(DEDR 538).

629.Image: to be joined: id.i to be joined; the whole; n. state of being close,joined, or together (Ka.); the whole (Kod..); entire, whole (Tu.); id.uvu heap, mass (Ka.)(DEDR 440). Image: to join: id.i to be joined or united, to be close; to be mixed together (Ka.); ir..ai to copulate; icai, iyai, iyal to become united (Ta.); id.i, it.t.u the state of being close, joined, collected or together (Ka.); the whole (Ka.Tu.); a collection, a more or less firm mass, as the dried mucus of the nose, the sticky contents of a vessel, the cement to mend earthen waterpots etc.; Treasure: id.igan.t.u a treasure, se_vadhi (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) yaddhn.a_ to copulate (P.); yadho, jadho copulated (S.); yaddha_ (L.)(CDIAL 10416). cf. id.i the whole (Kod..)(DEDR 440). i_t.t.am store, treasure; concourse, throng, congregation, group, assembly (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) i_t.t.al amassing wealth, a desirable quality of character in merchants (Ta.lex.) it.t.al.a, it.t.an.a a crowd, a throng; it.t.an.isu to be close, thronged, crowded, to throng (Ka.lex.) Touch: it.t.a_na_, it.- to touch (Go.); d.u_- (-t-) id. (Pe.); d.i_ga (d.i_gi-) to touch, feel; n. a touch (Kui); di_gali to feel, touch; di_ginai, di_nai, d.i_g- (-it-) to touch (Kuwi)(DEDR 453). Loose confectionary: it.i flour, esp. of rice or millet; light meal with flour as its chief ingredient; it.iyal a loose confectionary made of flour; it.iya_ppam steamed rice-cake (Ta.); it.iyappam, it.iyun.n.i a kind of cake (Ma.); id.i, id.ikud.aka, id.ikud.umu different sorts of cakes (Te.)(DEDR 439). it.t.ali a kind of cake prepared by steaming semi-solid dough made of rice mixed with black gram (Ta.); it.t.ali, id.d.ali a kind of cake (Ma.); id.d.ali, id.d.alige, id.d.al.ige a kind of sour pudding made of rice flour, black gram, cummin seed, ginger, salt, pepper, etc., and boiled in steam (Ka.); id.d.ena a sort of cake (Te.); in.d.ari_, in.d.ali_ a kind of cake (Skt.)(DEDR 455).

630.Crocodile: it.an:kar crocodile (Kur-icip. 257)(Ta.lex.)

631.Chisel: it.an:kam < t.an:ka chisel, stone cutter's chisel (Tan.ikaippu. Akat. 69)(Ta.lex.) t.an:g projecting spike which acts as a bolt at one corner of a door (K.); t.a_~k iron pin, rivet (H.)(CDIAL 5428). t.a_n:gi stone chisel (A.); t.a_n:g, t.a_n:gi spade, axe (B.); battle-axe (Or.); t.a_~ga_ adze (Bi.); t.a_n.i_ axe (Bhoj.); t.a_~gi_ hatchet (H.); t.an:ka spade, hoe, chisel (R.); t.an:ga sword, spade (Skt.); stone mason's chisel (Pali); t.am.ka stone-chisel, sword (Pkt.); t.ho~ axe (Wot..); t.hon. battle-axe (Bshk.); t.hen. small axe (Bshk.); t.ho_n:gi axe (Phal.); tunger axe (Tor.); t.on:guru a kind of hoe (K.); t.a_~gi adze (N.); t.a_~ki_ chisel (H.); t.a_~k pen nib (G.M.); t.a_~ki_ chisel (M.)(CDIAL 5427). cf. t.an:kati ties (Dha_tup.); t.a_~ko to stitch, join (G.); t.a_~cn.i_ pin, small pin (M.)(CDIAL 5432). t.an:kita-maca a stone (i.e. chiselled) platform (Pali); t.a_~kvu~ to chisel (G.); t.a_~kn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 5433). t.an:kas'a_la_, t.an:kakas'a_la_ mint (Skt.); t.aksa_l, t.aksa_r (N.); t.a_ksaLl, t.a_~ksa_l (B.); t.eksa_l (B.); t.aksa_r (Bhoj.); t.aksa_l, t.aksa_r (H.); t.a~ksa_l. (G.); t.a_~ksa_l, t.a_ksa_l, t.a~ksa_l, t.aksa_l (M.); t.aksa_l.i_ mind-master (G.); t.a_ksa_l.ya_ (M.)(CDIAL 5434). t.a_n.o rod, fishing rod (N.); t.a_n.i measurin rod (N.); t.a_k iron pit, rivet (H.); t.a_~ki thin iron bar (Ku.)(CDIAL 5428). cf. dagger a dagger (English).

632a. Image: leg: t.am.ka, t.am.ka_ leg (Pkt.); t.an:ga (S.); t.an:g (L.P.); t.a_~g (Ku.M.); t.a_n. (N.); t.a_n:ka leg, thigh (Or.); t.a_n:ku thigh, buttock (Or.); t.a_n., t.en.ri leg, thigh (B.); t.a_~g, t.a~gri leg, foot (Mth.); t.a_n., t.an.ari leg (Bhoj.); t.a_~g (Aw.H.); leg from hip to foot (G.); t.a_~go leg from hip to foot (G.)(CDIAL 5428). ut.t.an:gi_ high up the leg, drawn up (of trousers), shrunk, shrivelled, badly made (H.)(CDIAL 1684). ut.akna_ to jump, skip (H.); ut.t.i_kita jumping (Skt.)(CDIAL 1683). ut.a_~ko rough estimate of weight, guess (G.); ut.a_~kvu~ to weigh (G.)(CDIAL 1682). d.ag step, stride (N.H.); pace (M.); d.aga step (Omarw.); d.ag, d.aglu~ step (G.); d.agn.e~ to step over (M.); d.agara footstep, road (Or.); d.i~gh foot, step (P.); d.eg, d.ek pace (N.); d.eg footstep (Mth.); d.ig, d.eg pace (H.)(CDIAL 5523).

632b. Image: hill: ut.a~gal. Mound (M.)(CDIAL 1691). Ut.a~gar full of mounds; small round hillock, stone placed under a mass which is to be rolled along (M.); uttun:ga high (MBh.)(CDIAL 1690). t.an:ka peak, crag (MBh.); tun:ga lofty, mountain (MBh.); t.akuru mountain (S.); t.akiri_ hillock (S.); t.a_kara low hill (S.); t.a_kiru_ mountaineer (S.); t.a_kuro, t.a_kuri hill top (N.); [cf. t.ha_kur eminent person (H.)]; t.a_n:gi_ hill, stony country (Or.); t.a_n:gara rocky hilly land (Or.); t.ikara high land, sandbank (Or.); t.ikara_, t.i_kira_ anthill (Or.); t.in. mountain peak (A.); t.in.na_ elevated piece of land (A.); t.in.a_li very high (A.); [cf. tin.n.ai elevated platform in the frontal of a house (Ta.)]; t.ek, t.eka_d., t.ekd.i_, t.e~kd.i_ hillock (M.); t.ekra_, t.ekri_ rock, hill (P.); t.ekar, t.ekra_ heap, hillock (H.); t.ekro, t.ekri_ mountain, hillock (G.); t.e_~g hillock, mound (K.); t.u~k peak (G.); t.u~g mound, lump (M.); t.un:guri hillock (Or.); t.u~gar bump, mound (M.); t.u~gal., t.u~gu_l. bump, mound (M.); d.aki hill, rising ground (K.); d.akuru hill on a road (K.); d.aggara upper terrace of a house (Pkt.); d.agar little hill, slope (M.); d.a_~g, d.a_~k stony land (Ku.); d.a_n. heap (B.); d.a_n:ga_ hill, dry upland (B.); d.a_~g mountain-ridge (H.); d.a_~g, d.a_~gan., d.a_~ga_n. hill-tract (M.); d.an:gur heap (N.); d.u~g hill, pile (M.); d.u~ga_ eminence (M.); d.u~gi heap (M.); d.um.gara mountain (Pkt.); d.u~gar, d.u~gri_ mountain (Ku.); d.un:gar heap (N.); d.un:guri hillock (Or.); d.u_~gar hillock (H.); d.u~gar, d.u~gri_ hillock (Or.); d.u_~garu hill (S.); d.o~gar hill (H.M.); tun:ga high (Pali); tum.ga high (Pkt.); tum.gi_ya mountain (Pkt.); tong, tongu peak (K.); tun:g peak (P.); importance (A.); tungu lofty, mountain (Si.); thongu peak (K.); da_~g hill, precipice (H.); da_~gi_ belonging to hill country (H.)(CDIAL 5423).

632c. Image: road: d.agara footstep, road (Or.); d.agar road (Mth.H.G.); d.agra_ road (H.); dagg road (L.); daggar. ra_h wide road (L.); dagar. road (P.); dagr.a_ road (H.)(CDIAL 5523).

632.Borax: it.an:kan.am borax (Nan-. 273, Mayilai.)(Ta.lex.)

633.Image: drum: it.aikkaruvi an ancient musical instrument of percussion; a kind of drum producing a characteristic sound dist. fr. that of the mattal.am or ut.ukkai (Cilap. 3,27, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) it.akkai < d.hakka_ large double drum; it.akkai small drum beaten by the left hand (Cilap. 3,27, Urai.); it.an:ka_ram left-hand side of a double drum, the end of which is glued to produce the required tone (W.)(Ta.lex.)

634.Instrument to sling stones: it.an:kan.ippo_r-i chain instrument mounted on the ramparts of a fort for slinging stones against the enemy advancing to attack the fortification (Cilap. 15,210, Urai.); it.an:kan.i id.; chain (Ta.lex.)

635.Image: cooking vessel: it.ai-k-kalam earthen vessel for cooking (Par..a. 24); it.un:kalam vessel, receptacle (Ta.); it.akkar, it.an:kar water pot; large bucket; it.an:kar..i wooden vessel for keeping salt or other things; measure of capacity = 8 ollocks or one pat.i (T.A.S. i,293); it.an.n.ar..i (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

636.Measure of length: it.ai a measure of length, breadth, thickness (Ta.); weight (Orutur-aik. 185)(Ta.lex.) 

637.Dagger: ir..ikai dagger (Ci_vaka. 558)(Ta.lex.) asiputti_ dagger (Pali.lex.) is.u arrow (RV.BHSkt.); isu (Pali); is.uka (AV.); hiya, hi-, iya, i-ya arrow (Si.)(CDIAL 1596).

638.Strychnine tree: it.t.i, it.t.an:gi strychnine tree (Ka.); et.t.i strychnine tree (Ma.); et.t.i, at.t.i strychnine tree, strychnos nux-vomica (Ta.)(DEDR 782). mus.t.i the vomit nut, strychnos nux vomica (Ka.); musi~d.i, mus.t.i id. (Te.); mu_t.i id. (Pa.)(DEDR 4905).

639.Image: circlet of flowers: in.t.ai circlet of flowers, variety of garland (Ta.); in.t.a a kind of garland (Ma.); in.d.e wreath, garland (Ka.); in.d.e garland (Te.)(DEDR 458).

640.Image: fig: itti white fig, ficus infectoria; stone fig, ficus gibbosa parasitica; tailed oval-leaved fig, ficus talboti; icci oval-leaved fig; jointed ovate-leaved fig, ficus tsiela; icciya_l, iccil jointed ovate-leaveed fig; iratti jointed ovate-leaved fig; subserrate rhomboid-leaved fg, ficus gibbosa tuberculata; iratakam jointed ovate-leaved fig; ir-ali white fig; ir-r-i tailed oval-leaved fig (Ta.); itti, ittiy-a_l waved leaved fig-tree, ficus venosa; a parasitical plant, loranthus coriaceus (Ma.); itti ficus (?gibbosa) (Kod..)(DEDR 460).

641.Image: roar: it.i (-pp-, -tt-) to sound loud, roar, thunder, throb, beat, ache (as the head); n. thunder, roar, great noise, ache, throbbing pain; it.ippu thunder, noise (Ta.); it.i thunderbolt (Ma.); ir.y- (ir.c-) to thunder; ir.y thunder (To.); ir.y- (ir.c-) (heart) beats fast, thunder (Ko.); id.r- to thunder (Go.)(DEDR 438).

642.Derision; anger: it.akkar indecent words, terms denoting things or actions too obscene to be uttered in good society; it.akkan- rude, saucy, disrespectful person; it.akku vulgar language, captious speech, rudeness, incivility, obstinacy as of a balky horse; it.an:kar debauchees, libertines, licentious men (Ta.); er.k rude, overbearing conduct (Ko.); ed.an:ku pa_tera an offensive word (Tu.); er.ex sour and acid, cross, acrimonious, nasty (Kur.)(DEDR 433). hi_d.ati angers; jihi_l.a hi_l.ita (RV.); ahid.at (Skt.); hi_d.ita (AV.); he_d.ate_ scorns (Dha_tup.); he_l.ate_ is angry (Naigh.); ahe_l.ant not angry (RV.); he_litavya to be treated lightly (MBh.); ahe_d.ama_na not negligent (R.); hi_l.e_ti scorns; hi_l.ana (Pali); hi_lai, hi_lan.a (Pkt.); her.n.o to despise, disregard (Ku.); hela_ to slight, neglect (B.); hel.n.e~ to scorn (M.); hed.un to ridicule, blame (K.); hi_d. anger (Skt.); ed.d.isu, e_d.isu to abuse, mock etc. (Ka.)(CDIAL 14123). he_d.a anger (AV.); he_l.a anger (RV.); he_la_ contempt, facility (Skt.); contempt, little effort (Pkt.); hel.a_ easily (M.); helai ease, facility (N.)(CDIAL 14158). apahe_la disrespect (Skt.); avahe_la, avahe_la_ (Skt.); avahe_ri_ disrespect (Pkt.); avahe_laa disrespectful (Pkt.); aver disrespect (H.); avher, avhern.e~ to treat slightingly, to be slighted (M.)(CDIAL 475). cf. er.c- to think and say ill of one, shame, laugh to shame (Ko.); ed.d.isu, e_d.isu to abuse, rail, mock (Ka.)(DEDR 791). cf. ke_ru to deride, ridicule; ke_rad.amu ridicule, derision; kre_d.incu to slight; kre_n.incu to jeer, ridicule (Te.); ki_ri_ derision (Go.); gre_spa (gre_st-) to mock, mimic, ridicule, deride; n. mockery, derision, ridicule (Kui); grespali to imitate; greh- (grest-) to mock (Kuwi)(DEDR 2010). cf. ke_li < ke_li_ fun, jest, joke, pleasantry; ridicule, derision, mockery;buffoonery, mimicry (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

643.Plague: i_ti plague, distress, a calamity of the season. The i_tis are usually said to be six: excessive rain, drought, locusts, rats, parrots and foreign invasion; an infectious disease; travelling (in a foreign country), sojourning; an affray (Skt.lex.) i_ti disaster which may befall the land, scourge in six forms (Kur-al, 732, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vrs.t.i rain (AV.RV.); vut.t.hi rain (Pali)(CDIAL 12088). cf. ver-itu emptiness, uselessness, futility (Ta.); vat.t.i empty (Nk.)(DEDR 5513). cf. vet.t.i, vet.t.ai uselessness (Ta.)(DEDR 5477). For semant. 'affray' cf.: it.t.i_t.u dispute (I_t.u. 8,2,6); it.u to discharge as arrows (Tiruppu. 418)(Ta.lex.)

644.Image: birth: i_n- (i_n-p-, i_n-r--) to bear, bring forth, yean, produce, yield, bring into being; i_r-r-am giving birth, bringing forth; i_r-r-u bringing forth (applied to animals), young one brought forth; i_ (-v-, -nt-) to create, bring into existence, bring forth (Ta.); i_nuka to shoot into ears; to bear, bring forth, yean; i_luka to shoot into ears; i_r-r-am the womb of animals; i_r-r-u bringing forth, the infant, young of animals (Ma.); i.n (i.nd--) (animal) bears young; i.t- may (woman or buffalo) which having borne once or twice is barren (may) thereafter (Ko.); i.n (i.d--) to bear (calf); i.t-- (i.t-y-) (goddess) brings forth child, (god) makes to bear (calf); i.t- o.y- to be about to calve; i.t- e.p ir buffalo within a month of calving; i.t- slime passed up by dysentery or by buffalo during calving (Ko.); i_n (i_d-) to bring forth young, yean, cub; i_duvike bringing forth; i_ (i_d-), i_yu to bring forth; i_yisu, i_su to cause to bring forth, help in bringing forth (Ka.); i_nu to yean, bring forth, bear, calve, foal, produce; i_nika calving, bearing; i~_ta yeaning, bringing forth young (Te.); i_n- (grain) produces head (vercil i_nomov)(Pa.); i_nd- (-it-) (animals) to bring forth young (Kond.a); hi_ning to lamb, kid, foal, calf, etc. (Br.)(DEDR 555).

645.Class: in-am class, group, kind, species, race, tribe, herd, associates (Ta.); inam class of animals, swarm (Ma.)(DEDR 531). jinis species (Santali.lex.) tin-icu, tin-ucu < jinis (U.) kind, sort, grade (Tailava. Taila. 22)(Ta.lex.)

646.Masonry well: ina_r well, cistern (N.); i~da_ra_ (B.); inda~_ra well, small tank, hole (Or.); ina_r, ina_ra_, i~da_ra_, i~dra_ large masonry well (Bi.); ina_r (Mth.); inda_ra_, anda_ra_, ina_ra_ (H.)(CDIAL 1580). cf. kin.ar-u well (Ta.lex.)

647.Now; today: in-i now, immediately; in-n-e_ now, here (Ta.); ina.k by now; inde.l this last night, yesterday night (Ko.); ine, inne, i_ga, i_gad.u at this time, now; inu, innu the current time (Ka.); icogu lately, recently; itte now; ittene just now, immediately (Tu.); intat.a at or by this time (Te.); ind.i now (Kol.Nk.); indi id. (Nk.); ind.i now (Ga.); inga, inga_, ingana now (Go.); injek, ijek, inje now (Go.); idra_ just now (Go.); indke, indeke, idek, indike now; inde_ke_ just now; ipke_te_ now; isa_ri_ now; i_sa_r.i_ just now; iske_ at this time in the past (Go.); in-r-u, in-r-aikku, ir-r-ai today (Ta.); innu today (Ma.); ind-y (Ko.); ind-o.r. from today (Ko.); inded., iner., ned.i_ (Kol.); d- today (To.); indu (Ka.); indi (Kod..); ini, inne (Tu.); indar., inen (Nk.); ine(n) (Pa.Ga.); inna_ (Kur.); ine (Malt.); aino_, anno_ (Br.); isnom so far, up till now (Go.)(DEDR 410). adhuna_, ida_ni adv. now; atha conj. now; imasmin ka_le now-a-days; ida_n'eva just now; etarahi adv. now (Pali.lex.) yanu~_u today (Ash.); nu_, anu_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 1180). nu_nam now (RV.); nu_nam., nu_na dubitative or asseverative particle (Pali); n.u_n.am., n.u_n.a (Pkt.); nutri_ day before yesterday (Kt.); nutrim (Wg.); nu~_ today (Wg.Gmb.); nu_ (Pas'.); nun (Shum.); nu_n (Gaw.); hanun (Kho.); nu_ now (Ash.); ncyu_t. three days ago (Ash.); nucetum (Wg.); nucorom (Gaw.); napo_cer.e~ four days ago (Ash.)(CDIAL 7576). nu_ram now (OPers.); nu_rem (Av.); nur (Oss.); nu_ri now (Gaw.); n.avaram., n.avari, n.avaria immediately after, at once (Pkt.); n now (RV.)(CDIAL 7578). cf. ne_r-r-u yesterday (Kulo_t. Ko_. 298)(Ta.lex.)

648.Cucumber: ibbud.lu-bal.l.i the melon plant, cucumis melo (Ka.); ibbud.lu a kind of cucumber (Tu.)(DEDR 464). Cucumis melo var. momordica: phuti (B.); phut (H.); ervaru (Skt.); seeds: used as a cooling medicine (GIMP, p.83). sphut.i_ melon (Skt.); spho_t.ini_ cucumber (Skt.); phut. melon (N.); phut.i (Or.); phu_t. melon, cucumber run to seed, cucumis momordica (H.); phu_t. melon (G.M.)(CDIAL 13844).

649.Image: hump on bull: imil hump on bull (Ta.); imi hump (Ma.)(DEDR 465).

650.Faith: i_ma_n < iman (Arab.) faith, belief (Ta.lex.) iman faithful, trustworthy, conscientious, scrupulous; imangeae he is faithful (Santali.lex.)

651.Funeral: i_m place for cremation of the dead, burial ground (Tol. Er..ut. 328); i_makkat.an- funeral rites (Tiruvil.ai. Par..iya. 30); i_matta_r..i burial urn for the dead in ancient times (Pur-ana_. 256); i_ma-viti funeral rites (Pa_rata. Campava. 105); i_ma-van-am burning-ground (Te_va_. 84,7)(Ta.lex.) i_mam burning ground (Ci_vaka. 210); funeral pyre (Pur-ana_. 23); id. (Tinn.); funeral (Ta.); i_mam cemetery, funeral pyre, funeral rites (Ma.)(DEDR 540). jan. baha bones from a funeral; a piece or pieces of bone of a cremated person rescued from the ashes of the funeral pyre; the piece or pieces of bone thus rescued are consigned with much ceremony to the Damuda river (Santali.lex.)

652.Home: imbu a halting or resting place, home, place, space, room (Ka.); place, room, space, refuge, opportunity; broad, wide (Tu.); imba width, breadth (Ka.); immu a place, home, room, space; convenience, convenient, suitable (Te.)(DEDR 467). cf. inumikkili very much, very great (Te.); iru great, spacious, vast (Ta.)(DEDR 481). vimmu (vimmi-) to swell, become enlarged, extend, expand, increase, be full, open as a flower; n. weight, burden; vimmal being puffed up or swollen, elation of spirits (Ta.); bin. stoutness, bigness, heaviness; bin.ite ponderousness, strength, force; bin.n.itu, bin.mitu that which is stout, big, or heavy; bin.pu largeness, stoutness, heaviness, hugeness, gravity, dignity; bin.mida a stout, heavy, venerable man; bimmage, bimmane firmly, tightly, loudly, powerfullly; bimmanisi a pregnant woman; bimmu largeness, greatness, pride (Ka.); bimmag, bimman tightly, firmly (Tu.)(DEDR 5397).

653.Grain: immi grain of red little-millet, atom, smallest fraction (1 / 1,075,200); fraction (1 / 494,802 or 1 / 2,150,400); immin.i a little, very little quantity (Ma.)(DEDR 468).

654.Image: two; pair: irumai twofold state; iru (before consonant), i_r (before vowel) adj. two (Ta.Ma.); ir pa.n.y two pa.ny measures (Ko.); i.r ak two acok measures (To.); adj. ir, ir, ik, ic two (Ka.); i.r a.n.d.i two years (Kod..); iru,ir adj. two, double, both (Tu.); iruvadi, (coll.) iruvai twenty (Te.); ira two women (Nk.); irul two men (Ga.); adj. ir, irot. twice (Pa.); irvur, irur., iver, ivur two (masc.)(Go.); ri two (Pe.Mand..); ri_ two (Kui.Kuwi); adj. ira_ two (Br.); irar two (masc.); ir (fem. neut.) (Nahali)(DEDR 474). iru, ir two (Ka.Ta.Te.); iruva_ra, irava_ra two shares: both the land-lord's and cultivator's share of the produce (Ka.lex.) irvur., irur., iver, ivur two (Go.); ri_ two (Kuwi); ri (Pe.Kui); ira_ (Br.); irar two (Nahali); i_r (before vowel) two (Ta.); iru in cmpds. (Te.)(DEDR 474). cf. iran.t.u two (Ta.)(DEDR 474). irat.t.i to double; double quantity (Kampara_. Cu_rppa. 133)(Ta.Ma.); ret.t.i id. (Te.); ret.t.icu to double (Te.); irat.t.al doubling; irat.t.ippu double quantity (Ta.); ret.t.impu id. (Te.); irat.t.u-tal to double as a consonant in sandhi or combination of words (Nan-. 183); irat.t.u doubleness (Tol. Col. 48); irat.t.ai-k-kil.avi double imitative word, as cur-ucur-uppu (Tol. Col. 48); irat.t.ai-p-pat.ai double; even number; irat.t.aiyar twins (Pa_rataven..); iran.t.a_ku-tal to be split up, divided; to fall into two pieces; iran.t.u two; a few (Ci_vaka. 270); the letter 'u' (Tiruva_ca. 5,49); iran.ai couple, pair (Nar-. 123)(Ta.lex.) ira_ adj. two (Br.); iru (before consonant), i_r (before vowel) adj. two (Ta.); iru-ka_l, iru-k-ka_l twice (Ta.lex.); irat.t.ai pair, twins, married couple; two things naturally conjoined as a double fruit; even numbers (Ta.lex.); irat.t.a double, even (Ma.); e.d. (obl. e.d.n.-/e.n.-; e.l.- when preceded by plural personal or reflexive pronoun) two (To.); ernd.i two things (Nk.); ind.i two things (Ga.)[cf. in.d.va n. du. two coverings made of muja grass to protect the hands from the fire (S'Br.)(CDIAL 1559)]; id.d.ig two (neut.)(Ga.); dan.d.i two things (Kod..); rad.d.u two things (Tu.); ren.d.u two things (Te.); indin two things; iddar two men (Kol.); eyd- two; er. calg two calg measures (Ko.); erd.u, erad.u two (Ka.); eyd.i two (Kor.); irat. two (entities)(Br.); ir, irot. twice (Pa.); ird.u two things (Pa.); ir adj. (Ga.); e~_r., e_n.d. two things (Kur.); ri_ adj. preceding n. two (Kui. Kuwi); ri_aru two men (Kui); ri_nd.e, ri_nd.i two men or two things (adj. following n.)(Kui); ri_he twice (Kui); riko on two sides (Kui); ri two (adj.)(Kui); ri'er, ri'ari two men (Kui); ri ko_r.i forty (Kui); ri two (Pe.Mand..Kuwi.Kond.a); rind.an two (Pe.); iwr two persons (Malt.); -is two (things)(Malt.); -isti two by two (things) (Malt.)(DEDR 474). a_r-iru twelve; iruma_ the fraction 1/10; iruma_-v-arai the fraction 1/8 (arai-k-ka_l) being a sum of 1/10 iruma_ and 1/40 araima_ (Ta.lex.) in.a pair, couple (Ma.); in.ai to join; union, pair, couple (Ta.); en.e double (Kod..Ka.); ine, in.e a couple, pair (Tu.); ena equal (Te.)(DEDR 457). d.u~_, d.u~ two (L.); du~_ (S.); do_ (L.S.); dva two; dvau (duvau), dva_ (duva_), dve_ (duve_) (RV.); dve_, duve_ (Pali); duvi, duve, dvo, dve (As'.); due, duvi, dui, du, dvi (NiDoc.); do_, duve_ (Pkt.); di, don.n.i (Ap.); dui (D..); du_, do._ (Ash.Pas'.); du (Kt.); dui, do, lui, di_i, di_ (Gypsy); du_ (WPah.Wg.Bshk.); id. (Tor.Kand.Mai.); id. (Phal.Tir.); id.(Dm.); id. (Nin..Shum.); id. (Wot..Gaw.Kal.); lu_ (Pr.); do_ (Phal.); ju (Kho.); du (Sh.); du_h (Sh.); zah (dat. don), di_h, zhe, du_i two (K.); do (P.H.OSi.Marw.); dono~ both (H.); do_ two (P.); du_i_ (WPah.); dui (P.Ku.N.A.B.Or.Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); di (Or.); beni (Or.); dwi_ (Ku.); don (M.); do_ni (Konkan.i); de (OSi.Md.); deka (Si.)(CDIAL 6648). dvam.dva pair (TS.); dam.da pair, quarrel (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6649). dvaya double (RV.); pair (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 6650). dutiya second (Pali.As'.); duia, duijja (Pkt.); du_i other (Wot..Phal.); du_ja (L.); du_jja_ (P.); du_ja_ second (P.A.H.OAw.); du_a_ (P.); du_a~_ (WPah.); dui, dua_, duja_ second (Or.); dujai secondly (Mth.); duju~ other, different (G.); duja_ second (M.)(CDIAL 6402). cf. jaoa twins; honkin jaoa id. (Mu.); yam (H.Sadani); dwi two (Skt.); jur.i second of a pair (Mu.); jor.i_ a pair (H.)(Mu.lex.) Twice-reaped land: door.a twice-ploughed (Or.)(CDIAL 6464). dula_o land on which two crops are grown in one year, second of two crops in one year (Sh.); dula_o ba_n second sowing (Sh.)(CDIAL 6454). du_a_ the figure 2 (P.H.); du_o (S.); the two (in cards, dice, etc.)(G.); duwo two (in counting in a game)(N.); dua_ a throw of two (in dice), the two (in card)(Or.); du_va_ a throw of two (OAw.); duva_ the two in cards, dice, etc. (M.)(CDIAL 6455). Meeting of two paths: dua_t.a_ meeting of two paths (WPah.)(CDIAL 6458). dviti_ya second (RV.); dviti (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 6680). ir, iri affix for the formation of the second person plural; ira, iru two; id, ik two; idduge two duges, in playig; iddese both directions; duge (Tadbhava of dvika) a pair; ik, ic, it, in, ip, ib, im, ira, iru, ir, i_r, vira two; ikkat.t.u to rules or ways; two parties; ir a strait, a dilemma (Ka.Ta.Te.); ikkat.t.u mukkat.t.u two or three, i.e. many obstacles or difficulties; ikkad.i, irkad.i two cuts or parts; asunder, in two; icca_ri two ways; ij two; ijjate not pairs: unlikeness in external form; ittat.a two or both banks or sides; ibbage two divisions or parts; the state of being split, separated; ibbaru two persons; immey, irmey two bodies; two sides; imme, irme twice; ir affix for the formation of the plural (Ka.lex.)

655.Image: particle: ir-e_ part. a particle frequently used in Vais.n.ava religious writings and occurring mostly at the end of sentences to indicate that the subject mentioned is either (1) common knowledge, or (2) one which must be known by all, or (3) one that is emphatically so (I_t.u, 2,1,1)(Ta.lex.) ire speech (Ka.lex.) er-e_ part. id. (Akana_. 41, Urai)(Ta.lex.) ittille written information, especially as furnished to government (Ka.); italla_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

656.Honorific affix: ira, ira_ an honorific augment e.g., de_viyarira!, munigal.ira! de_viyarira_! va_hakarira_! (Ka.lex.)

657.Image: chief, master: er-e the state of being master or husband; a master (Ka.); er-eya a master, a king; a husband; ir-aivan- (Ta.); ir-a_ (M.); er-epat.t.u a royal fillet or tiara: eminent, chief; ile_s'a a king (Ka.lex.) iri, ari, i a honorific affix, generally used in southern Maharashtra and occasionally in Mysore; that is added to the end of any final word which is employed in addressing a superior or a dear person, e.g. banniri, be_d.iri, e_niri, haudiri, illiri, sa_kiri, indiri, na_l.iri, sala_miri, barutte_niri, ho_gutte_niri (Ka.lex.) ir-aima kingly superiority, eminence, celebrity (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 46); government, dominion (Tiruvil.ai. An:ka. 27); ir-aiyavan- chief; god. a leader among the gods (Kur-al., Pari. Uraippa_.); ir-aiya_n- S'iva (Tiv. Periyati. 5,1,8); ir-aiyo_n- god (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,2); S'iva (Ta.); ir-aivan- god, the all-abiding (Cilap. 10,184, Urai.); chief, master, superior (Cilap. 22,144); supreme god (Pa_rata. Ira_cacu_. 146); Vis.n.u (Kur-al., 610, Urai.); S'iva (Paripa_. 11,78, Urai.); Brahma_ (Pin..); king (Kur-al., 733); husband, lord, in relation to a wife (Tiv. Periyati. 2,3,5); elder, venerable person (Tiva_.); preceptor (Tiva_.); ir-ai-makan- king (Cu_l.a_. Nakara. 31)(Ta.); Gan.e_s'a, son of ir-ai, i.e. S'iva (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) ir-ai anyone who is great (as one's father or guru or any renowned and illustrious person)(Tol. Po. 256; Tiva_.); master, chief, elder brother; husband (Tiv. Periyati. 2,3,5); king, sovereign, monarch (Kur-al., 547); supreme god (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,6); height, head, eminence, greatness; ir-aimai kingly superiority, celebrity, government, divinity; ir-aiyavan- chief, god; ir-aiya_n- S'iva; ir-aivan- god, chief, master, husband, venerable person; ir-aivi mistress, queen, Pa_rvati (Ta.); ir-a_n, ra_n sire, used in addressing princes (Ma.); er-e state of being a master or husband; a master; er-eya master, king, husband; er-ati a mistress (Ka.); er-a lord (Nellore inscr. 17-18 cent.); r-e~_d.u king, lord, master, husband (Te.)(DEDR 527). cf. ir-uma_ to be elated, feel exulted; be self-conceited; ir-uma_ppu elation, conceit, arrogance (Ta.); ir-uma_nnu indifferently, arrogantly (Ma.)(DEDR 526). ir-ai-kir..avan- ruler endowed with all kingly qualities (Patir-r-up. 54,17); ir-ai-ku_t.utal to rule over, exercise authority (Poruna. 79)(Ta.lex.) iru great, spacious, vast (Kur-al., 999)(Ta.lex.) er-ur.. strength, might (Tol. Col. 388,Urai); pillar, post; er-ur..-vali great strength; mighty hero (Ci_vaka. 1723)(Ta.lex.) Image: man; hero: ire man; male (of goats, bulls, boys) (Shum.); vira hero (Ap.); wer-jemi man (Kt.)(CDIAL 11840). cf. Lat. vir: virile pertaining to or characteristic of man; virilis L. = wer OE, OHG, OS; vyras Lith. vi_ra man, hero, son (RV.); hero (Pkt.Pali); bi_ra male (Dm.); bira_e male (Kal.); bhi_ro_ male (Phal.); wi_r man (Pas'.); bi_ru male (of animals)(Sh.); vi_r brave man (K.); hero (G.M.); vi_ru hero, demon (S.); bira_ evil spirit which enjoys women (A.); vi_r hero (P.); bi_r hero (P.WPah.Ku.Mth.); warrior (H.); viru hero (Si.)(CDIAL 12056). vi_ri heroic woman; Ka_l.i; Durga_ (Te_va_. 597,6); a village goddess (Ta.lex.) vi_ram heroism, bravery (Ci_vaka. 2302); vi_ra-mur..avu war drum, of four kinds: muracu, nica_l.am, tut.umai, timilai (Cilap. 3,27, Urai. pak. 106); vi_ran- hero, warrior; Arhat (Ci_vaka. 409)(Ta.lex.) Image: strong man: vir-alo_n- robust, strong man; warrior, hero (Pu. Ve. 9,47); vir-al victory: vir-ali_n-um ve_n.t.a_mai yen-n-u cerukku (Kural., 180); vi_ran.an- brave hero (Te_va_. 579,9)(Ta.); vi_ran.ukkan- a caste; man of the caste (Nan-. 275, Mayilai); vi_ran.ukkicci fem. a woman of the caste (Nan-. 276, Mayilai); vi_rataran- great hero or warrior (kavan- net.umpari vi_rataran- ka_viri na_t.ut.aiya_n- : Kalin.. 515); vi_ra-ti_ran- a hero in Skanda's army, one of nava-vi_rar (Kantapu. Tun.aivar. 33); vi_ratai heroism (Kampara_.ka_rka_.69); vi_ra-p-pe_r title conferred upon a person in recognition of his heroism (Ta.lex.) vi_rya manliness, virility (RV.); semen (MBh.); bi_j semen (Mth.); vi_ria strength, bravery (Pkt.); viriya effort (Pali); viri_ strength (M.); vera (Si.); vi_riya semen (RV.)(CDIAL 12061). vi_raja_ta consisting of male offspring (RV.); werwo_ya_ boy (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12058). vi_ram heroism, bravery (Ci_vaka. 2302); strength, might; excellence (Ta.lex.) Kinsman: virakan- kinsman (Par..amo. 123); expert (Te_va_. 132,11); skilful, clever person (i_t.u, 1,5,10); viraku means, expedient, contrivance (Ta.); veravu (Te.); beragu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) veravari clever or skilful person; veravi~_d.i one who has no cleverness or skill (Te.); viravu cleverness, tact, knowledge; virakul.i adv. in order (Ta.)(DEDR 5406). vi_r brother (L.G.); vi_ra_, bi_r brother (address by sister)(P.); bi_ra_ brother, kinsman (OAw.); bi_ro brother (OMarw.); vi_ro brother (address by sister)(G.); heriu husband (Gaw.)(CDIAL 12056). Warrior; title; pedigree; genealogy: birida man of distinction, etc. (Ka.); birdu, birdolige badge of honour, show, display, prestige (Tu.); birudamu, birudu a strong, powerful, or capable person; title or mark of honour or distinction, badge, motto, vow, resolution (Te.); virutan an accomplished warrior (Ma.); virutu valour, blazon, family device (Ma.); title, banner, trophy, badge of victory, pedigree, geneaology (Ta.); biridu, biruda, birudu panegyric, praise, an honorary distinctinctive mark, badge of honour, distinction, developed power, valour (Ka.); biruda-, viruda- laudatory poem or panegyric (Skt.)(DEDR 5414). voradi shining (Si.); vira_jita brilliant (Pali.MBh.); vira_ia (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11855). vira_t.a name of the king of a partic. district (MBh.); name of a northwestern or midland district (VarBr.S.); vira_d.a name of a country (Pkt.); bira_r. the modern Berar (H.); varha_d. (M.)(CDIAL 11856). vi_raja_ta consisting of male offspring (RV.); werwo_ya_ boy (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12058). wermala husband, man (Pas'.); vi_ramalla nom. prop. (Skt.)(CDIAL 12059). vi_rakkot.i banner of victory (Pu.Ve. 9,39, Urai); vi_rakkur..al a piece of armour for the forearm; vi_rakkal memorial stone; vi_raca_can-am land and other property assigned to warriors (I.M.P.Cg. 682); vi_racu_ran- valiant hero; vi_ran.an- brave hero (Te_va_. 579,9); vi_rataran- great hero or warrior (Kalin.. 515); vi_rati_ran- valiant hero; a hero in Skanda's arm7 (Kantapu. Tun.aivar. 33)(Ta.lex.) Sign of heroism: vi_rakkar..al string of little bells worn on the leg, as a sign of heroism (Ka.); vi_ragan.t.e id. (Ka.); vi_rakkan.t.ai id.; vi_raven.t.aiyam id.; sword of the God at Tiruva_ru_r (Tan-ippa_. i,280,25)(Ta.lex.); vi_racu_t.ikai an ornament for the forehead, worn by warriors (Kampara_. Pacace_n-a_. 18); vi_rappat.t.ayam, vi_rapat.t.ikai frontlet of gold worn on the forehead of a warrior, as a sign of victory (Kampara_. Karan-va. 159); vi_rapat.t.am id. (Kampara_. Kat.ima. 54); vi_rappo_r fight or combat in strict conformity with the code of honour (Ta.lex.) Ancestry; good, benefit: vir..umam excellence, greatness, sublimity, eminence, magnificence, superiority; good state (Tol. Col. 353); vir..uppam id. (Kur-al.. 131); good, benefit; family, ancestry; vir..upparaiyan- (I.M.P.Tj. 89; Ko_yilo_. 44), vir..uppa_ta-ra_yan-(I.M.P.Sm.47), vir..uppa_tira_can- (I.M.P.Tj. 1092) a title of a class of vassals of the Tamil kings; a class of people whose duty is to read the accounts of a temple in the presence of the deity (Tiruva_lava_. Arum.); vir..upe_raraiyar a title of a class of Tamil chieftains (I.M.P.S.A. 974); vir..uma_ttal to attain eminence or glory (Nar-.320); vir..umiya pre-eminent, excellent (Tirumuru. 294); vir..umiyatupayattal inculcating noble teaching (Nan-. 13); vir..umiyar, vir..umiyo_r excellent persons (Na_lat.i, 300)(Ta.lex.) Descent; noble family: vir..uttin.ai noble family (ve_r-r-umai yilla_ vir..uttin.aip pir-antu: Pur-ana_. 27)(Ta.lex.) cf. tin.ai tribe, caste, race, family (Kur-un. 224)(Ta.lex.) cf. ur..a place, esp. about a king (Ma.); ur..i place, site, side (Ta.); circumstances (Ma.); ur..ai place (Ta.)(DEDR 684). Trumpet: vi_rakkompu martial trumpet (Pu.Ve. 2,3, Urai); vi_racin-n-am a kind of bugle forming part of the paraphernalia of a hero (Ku_l.appa. 48)(Ta.lex.)

658.Image: seat: ir-ai seat (Kampara_. Ayo_t. Mantira. 12); abiding, halting, tarrying (Man.i. 4,69)(Ta.lex.) ir-isu to cause to stay, to put, to employ; ir-u to stay; to hesitate; iravu being, staying, resting; support; irisu to cause to be or to stay; to place, to put, to deposit; iru, ir to be (Ka.lex.) cf. ir-u to tarry (Ta.)(DEDR 523). er- (e-, a-; edd-) to become happen, (story) is finished (Kol.); er- to become (Nk.); er-/en- (ed-/edd-) to be (Nk.); er- (e-) to become, happen, be (Pa.); er- (ed-, en-) to be, become, happen, be born; e_r- (edd-, enn-) to become (Ga.); ar-e_- emphatic present; stem of anning to be (Br.)(DEDR 823). Image: to sit proudly: vi_r-u- (vi_r-i-) to be distinguished, be eminent; distinctive excellence, splendour, greatness, merit, arrogance; vi_r-a_ppu arrogance; vi_r-r--iru to sit in state or majestically; sit with unique distinction, sit proudly; vir-ai to assume airs; vir-aippu assuming airs (Ta.); vi_r-u stiffness, grandeur, dignity, valour, power; vi_r-uka to be grand, be puffed up (Ma.); ber-e to behave proudly or arrogantly, be haughty, conceited (Ka.); bi_runi to brag, boast, parade (Tu.); bu_t.uni to boast, brag (Tu.); vir-uga_-bad.u to be proud or haughty (Te.); vir-r-avi~_gu id., swell, be puffed up (Te.); vi_rra_na_ to grow, increase (Go.); berrna_ to overflow, as leaven when fermenting (Kur.)(DEDR 5462).

659.Eleusine coracana: eri eleusine coracana (Kod..); ira_ki (Ta.); ra_gi, r-a_yi (Ma.); ra.yi (Ir.); erxy (To.); ra_gi (Ka.Tu.Te.); ra_ga_, ra_gi_ id. (Skt.)(DEDR 812). kuler gruel, pej; kuleri porridge made of d.era (eleusine coracana)(Kond.a); kuler gruel, pej (Pe.)(DEDR 1809). cf. kueri millet (Kui)(DEDR 2163). Food, spirits: ire ardent spirits; water; food (Ka.Skt.lex.) Food; prey: irai food of birds, beasts, and other animals, prey; erav prey (Ta.); ira food of birds, snakes, infants (Ma.); er food brought by birds to young, prey of a wild animal (Ko.); ere food for animals, as for snakes, birds, etc. (Ka.); era food (Te.); iragh bread, food (Br.)(DEDR 490). Bread: he_'ra, he_ra bread, cake (Kuwi); sa_ri, sa_r.i, sa_r.i_, sa_ri_ bread (Go.); a_ri bread (Go.); ha_ri (Go.); bread, cake (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 2465). Great millet: ir-un:ku great millet sorghum vulgare, co_l.am; black co_l.am (Ta.lex.); ir-at.i Italian millet setaria italica (Malaipat.u. 169)(Ta.); black Italian millet panicum indicum, karuntin-ai (Ta.); ir-un.n.u a kind of maize (Ma.)(DEDR 525). ir-ukutal to be rich, luxuriant, as growing corn or as fruitful trees (Malaipat.u. 132)(Ta.lex.) ir-an:kal variety of coarse paddy sown in July, and harvested after six months (Ta.lex.) cf. priyan:gu = sa_ma_ a medicinal plant; priyan:gu means a medicinal plant and the millet panicum italicum (Pali)(CDIAL 12666). irba setaria italica, an annual cultivated food grain; irba mand.i setaria italica grains, husked and so cooked that they remain whole (Mu.lex.) Red millet: e_n-al red millet; black millet; millet field; ear of corn (Ta.lex.) A grain: cf. ke_r..-varaku ragi, a millet (Ta.lex.) cf. arici rice (Ta.); vari (Te.); ari (Tu.); oruza (Gk.); arici any husked grain; arici-p-pul species of millet (Ta.lex.) cf. vari_ the grain coix barbata (M.)(CDIAL 11328). ke_r.. bright colour (Pur-ana_.27); ke_r..tta abundant; bright-hued; ke_r..al wild rice (Ta.lex.) ira_ci-k-kan.akku a special method of calculating the share of profits or losses of each individual in a joint partnership account; ira_ci-kat.t.u to measure up to the estimate, as a probable forecast of the harvest; ira_ci-y-at.i first grain beaten out on the threshing floor; iraca-kanta_yam tribute, tax; fertility of the soil, soil productivity (Ta.lex.) cf. a seed of similar size and appearance: ra_jika_ mustard, sinapis racemosa (Sus'r.); measure of weight = 1 mustard d (Pali); ra_ia_ mustard (Pkt.); ra_i_ seasoning with mustard, any seasoning (S.); mustard (P.Ku.B.Or.Mth.H.G.M.); la_i (Ku.A.); ra_yo (N.); la_hi_ (Bi.); ra_i (Bi.); ra_ya_ a variety with large seeds (H.)(CDIAL 10688). rewe to eat grain (Kt.)(CDIAL 10645). cf. lan:ka_ a kind of grain (Skt.); la~_k the grain lithyrus sativus (H.)(CDIAL 10898). To select, choose: e_r- to glean, gather, pick off, select, choose (Ka.); e_r-u to pick up, select, cull, glean, gather; e_r-incu to cause to be gleaned; e_rcu to choose, select, pick out; e_rparincu, e_rpar-acu to select, choode; e_rpu selection (Te.)(DEDR 914).

660.Seed: virai seed, as of plants (Varata. Pa_kavata. Na_cin:ka. 105); vira id. (Ma.); viraittal to sow; to spread abroad, disseminate; virai-tel.i to sow seeds for raising seedlings; vitai seed (Maturaik. 11,Urai); vida id. (Ma.); bede (Ka.Tu.); veda (Te.); vitaittal to sow seed; vitaippu sowing (Ta.lex.) vri_hi rice (AV.); raho_, raho_ husked rice (Par.); vi_hi rice (Pali.Pkt.); wric, ri_c barley (Kt.); wuzi_ (Pr.); bri~_u rice; bi~_u, bri_m, biu~_, bri_u~ (Sh.); viya growing rice (Si.)(CDIAL 12233). Image: seed: virai to sow, spread abroad, disseminate; n. testicle; viraippu sowing (Ta.); vira seed of herbs (Ma.)(DEDR 5418). Seed; rice: maha_vri_hi large rice (TS.); ma_vi_ a large kind of rice, oryza sativa (Si.)(CDIAL 9960). bi_ja seed, semen (RV.Pali); bi_jaka (Sus'r.); offspring (Pali); biji, bhija, bhis'a seed (NiDoc.); bi_a (Pkt.); bi_ seed, grain (Ash.Wg.Kt.); grain (Dm.Kal.); seed (L.P.WPah. G.M. Konkan.i); seed, semen (Kho.); grain (Bshk.); bi seed (Sh.); bi_h (Sh.); bi~_ seed (L.P.M.); cutting of plant (P.); bi~yo, biyo~ seed (Ku.); biyu~ grain of rice remaining unhusked (N.); biya~_ seeds of fruits other than corn (N.); bia_ seed (B.); bi_ya_ seed (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.H.); biya_ (Aw.H.); bi_yu~ seed (G.)(CDIAL 9250). biya_l seed-time, grain given by farmers to village artisans at seed-time (L.)(CDIAL 9251). bi_han.u seed (S.); b(i)ya_n.e~ seed for sowing (M.)(CDIAL 9252). bian rice sown and not transplanted (Kho.); bina_ pl. seed-corn, young plants sown in a bed for transplantation (Ku.); biha_na seed-corn (Or.); bi_han seed (Bi.); bihna_i_ (Mth.); behan seed-corn (H.); nursery for rice-plants (H. = bi_han)(CDIAL 9254). bihnaur seed-bed (H.)(CDIAL 9255). bi_ar., bia_r seed-bed (H.); bia_r. seed-bed, esp. for rice (N.)(CDIAL 9256). bia_i_ sowing (L.); bi_java_pa sowing seed (Skt.)(CDIAL 9257). biya_ru~ a collection of various seeds (G.); byolu seed (K.); biya_s, bi_a_s land cultivated to be sown in the following year (H.)(CDIAL 9260). va_va sowing field (Pkt.); va_pa seed (MBh.); va_vi_r sprouted rice for sowing (M.)(CDIAL 11519). ba_wag, ba_ug seed-time (H.); act of sowing (Bi.)(CDIAL 11528). bi_jya produced from seed (Pa_n..gan.a.); biz seed (Tor.); ghan.-bijo having many seeds (S.); bi_j seed (L.); bi_ja_ sugarcane cutting to be used as seed (L.); bi_j seed (WPah.Ku.); pl. grains (Ku.)(CDIAL 9261). bejo first sowing of rice for future transplanting, crop so sown (S.); beji_ kept for seed (S.); be_ja_, baiju_ seed (WPah.)(CDIAL 9309). ve_v collection of seed grain (K.); bua_ puddling in of rice plants, state of rice plants between 2 and 10 inches high (Or.)(CDIAL 11281). buvva boiled rice (in children's language)(Ka.); food, rice (Te.)(DEDR 4311). Bundle of straw containing seed-grains of paddy: virai-k-ko_t.t.ai extent of land computed by one ko_t.t.ai of seed required to be sown in it = 1.62 acres (C.G.); bundle of straw containing seed-grains of paddy (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 30, Vya_.);[cf. ko_t.t.ai measure of capacity = 21 marakka_l (G.Tn.D. I, 238)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)] vitai-k-ko_t.t.ai superficial measure = 1.62 acres, as requiring one ko_t.t.ai of seeds (M.M. 968); seed-grain of paddy bundled in straw; vitai-k-kat.t.u to store seed-grain by bundling it up in straw; vitaittuppa_r.. total failure of crop due either to the seeds not sprouting properly or the seedlings not maturing on account of scanty supply of water (S.I.I. vii, 279); vitai-nel seed-grain of paddy; vitai-p-pa_t.u quantity of seed required to sow a plot of land (M.M.); standard area for sowing a specified quantity of seed, as kalam, etc.; virai-y-at.i id.; a measure of land = 1/8 acre (Rd.); vitai-p-pun-am plot of land newly cultivated; itai-p-pun-am plot of ground newly cultivated for dry crops such as millet, dist. fr. mutaippun-am; itai a field for dry cultivation (Ka_cippu. Curakari_cap.11); plough (Ta.lex.)

661.Image: eyelid: irappai, rappai, reppai eyelid (Ta.); r-eppe, r-appe id. (Ka.); reppe id., hair of eyelashes (Kod..); rampe eyelid (Tu.); r-ema eye-lash (Kond.a); r-epa eyelid (Kond.a); reppe eyelid, eyelash (Tu.); r-eppa, reppa eyelid (Te.); kand.-repa id. (Kol.); kand. reppa eyebrow (Go.)(DEDR 5169). pamha, pakhuma eyelash (Pali.lex.)

662.Image: fish: e_ral mussel or other bivalve, snail; eruntu bivalve shellfish (as mussels, oysters); erunti a kind of small shell (Ta.); e_ral shell fish, snail; eruntu, erintu shellfish in rivers (Ma.)(DEDR 900). e_ri-va_l.ai a freshwater fish, wallago attu (Ta.); e_ri a kind of fish (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 902). Fish: vir..umi_n- Hilsa, ullam (Ta.lex.) Shrimp: ir-a_l shrimp, prawn, macroura; bluish seer-fish, cybium commersonii; bull; ir-a_ttalam place where prawns are offered for sale; ir-a_ttal a place where custom is paid for fish (Ta.lex.) ir-avu, ir-a_ prawn, shrimp; ir-al bivalve shellfish, mussel (Ta.); ir-a_vu prawn, shrimp (Ma.); et.t.i prawn (Tu.); reyya, royya prawn, shrimp (Te.); re_d.a shrimp (Pa.); reyya shrimp, prawn (Ga.); re_yi ki_ke id. (Go.); reyya id. (Go.); r-eyo id. (Kond.a); re_ya id (Kuwi)(DEDR 517). vira_l, vara_l murrel, a fish, greyish green, attaining 4 ft. in length, ophiocephalus marulius; black murrel, a fish, dark greyish or blackish, attaining 3 ft. in length, ophiocephalus striatus (Pur-ana_. 399); a fresh-water fish; vara_l-valai fishing net to catch vara_l (Ta.lex.)

663.Image: swan: varale, varat.e, va_rale a goose, a female swan (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

664.Image: stag: cf. iri (pl. irulu) stag (Te.inscr.); ir-r-i antelope (Te.); iralai stag; a kind of deer (Ta.); eral.e, erale antelope (Ka.); eral.e antelope, deer (Tu.)(DEDR 476). Image: deer: ran:ku a species of deer or antelope, the spotted axis; mare (Ka.); viruvaka, jalaran:ku a kind of gallinule (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Antelope: iralai stag; kind of deer (Ta.); eral .e, erale antelope, deer, incl., for example, the black and spotted antelope (Ka.); eral.e antelope, deer (Tu.); iri (pl. irulu) stag (Te.inscr.); ir-r-i antelope; le_t.i, le_d.i id. (Te.); ilaru the mouse deer (Malt.)(DEDR 476). bi_ra he-goat (Dm.); bi_ra he-goat (Kal.); bi_r (Bshk.); bhi_ro (Phal.)(CDIAL 12056). Image: male (of animals): bir male (of animals)(Tir.); viraga, viraya male (of camels, sheep, goats)(NiDoc.); bi_ro, bi_ru, bi_r male (of animals)(Sh.); vi_ra male of an animal (AV.)(CDIAL 12056).

665.To exude; to percolate: ir-u to strain, percolate (as a liquid); ir-r-u-ccot.t.u to exude and drop at intervals (Ta.); ir-uka to drip, drop (Ma.); ir-r-u a drop (Ma.); ir-r-uva to trickle (Ma.); ibbani fog, mist, dew (Ka.); ircilu fine drops of rain (Ka.); erap to strain off water from boiled rice (Nk.); ir to ooze (Go.)(DEDR 522).

666.Image: measure of the joint of the forefinger, about one inch: ir-ai measure of the first joint of the fore-finger being about 1 inch, viralir-ai-y-al.avu; very small particle, atom, minute quantity, short space of time (Kampara_. Cir-appu. 10); wrist, fore-arm; joints of the body (Tiv. Periyati. 5,10,4)(Ta.lex.) Image: finger joints; lines inside the finger joints: virala, viral.a having interstices, separated by intervals (of space or time); viralavastume_lana joining or collecting things that are separated from one another (Ka.lex.) virala wide apart (MBh.); sparse, thin, small (Pali.Pkt.); virl very fine split, small orifice (P.); viralau separate (OG.); biral loose (H.); birla_ scarce (H.); virlu~ rare (G.); vallu~ wide, extended, open (G.); viral., virul. wide apart (M.)(CDIAL 11847). ir-ai lines inside the finger joints, viralvarai (ir-aikkaran. civappeytit.a : Iraku. Na_t.t.up. 34); measure of the first joint of the fore-finger being about 1 inch, viral.ir-aiyal.avu; very small particle, atom, minute quantity, short space of time (Kampara_. Cir-appu. 10); wrist, fore-arm (Kalit. 7); arm (Ci_vaka. 656); joints of the body (Tiv. Periyati. 5,10,4); Twelve units: ir-aiya_l sum of money amounting to twelve annas (J.); ir-ai-y-en.n.utal to count by the joints or lines of the fingers (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. viral finger, toe, finger's breadth (Ta.); beral., beral tip of an elephant's trunk (Ka.); bera finger, toe (Kod..); verl finger, toe (Ko.); wiring, ware_nj finger, toe (Go.); vanju (pl. vwa_ska)[influenced by aintu five (Ta.)]; wansu (pl. waska), vanju (pl. vaska), ver.ma finger (Kuwi); vanju (pl. vaska) finger, toe, thumb (Kui)(DEDR 5409). Image: to break in pieces: ir-u (ir-uv-, ir-r--) to break, snap (as a stick), become severed (as a limb); (-pp-, -tt-) to break off (as a branch), snap asunder, smash, break in pieces (Ta.); ir-uka to break, snap (Ma.); iriyu to be broken, smashed (Te.) renga (rengi-) to be broken in pieces (bread, cakes); repka (< rek-p-; rekt-) to break into pieces (Kui); esna_ (essas) to break, divide by force (a stick, a tooth etc.), quell, crush; esrna_ to get broken; esrna_ murcurna_ to break short, snap, part asunder suddenly (Kur.)(DEDR 520). cf. irical break, crack (Ta.)(DEDR 479). Sparse: birlo rare, sparse (Ku.); biral thin, scarce, rare; lonely place (A.); birla_ scarce, few (H.); veral.a occasional, in small quantity, little (K.); virala thin, small, rare, sparse (Pali.Pkt.); virala thin, few (MBh.); virla_, birla_ fine, scarce, rare, wonderful (P.); virlu~ rare, scarce (G.); virl.a_ scarce, rare (M.)(CDIAL 11847).

667.Flesh: ir-acci flesh; ir-r-i meat (Ta.); ir-acci flesh, meat (Ma.); eraci id. (Kod..); er-aci (Te.); r-e- (-t-) to eat meat, relish (Kond.a); jey flesh (Pe.)(DEDR 529). cf. irai food of birds, beasts, and other inferior animals, prey; erav prey (Ta.); ira food of birds, snakes, infants (Ma.); er food brought by birds to young, prey of a wild animal (Ko.); ere food for animals, as for snakes, birds etc. (Ka.); era food (Ta.); iragh bread, food (Br.)(DEDR 490).

668.Images: beat, pierce; goring: ir-u goring, butting etc.; ir-ugol.i a goring, butting or tossing bull (Ka.); ir-eta, ir-ata, ir-ta piercing, stabbing; ir-etaka_r-a a man who beats, pierces or kills; ir-eke striking, piercing, goring (Ka.); ir-upu beating, piercing (Ka.); ir-a having pierced, butted (Ka.); tossing, butting; ir-akul.i a tossing or butting animal (Ka.); ir-aku, ir-an:ku goring, butting as an ox (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

669.Pitfall: ir-ucil, ir-ubu, ir-usal, ir-usul a pitfall to catch tigers, elephants etc. (Ka.lex.)

670.Image: ant: ir-eve, ir-ave, ir-upe, ir-umpu, ir-umpe, ir-uvu, ir-uve, ir-uhe, irvu, irve an ant (Ka.); ur..uva (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) er-umpu, er-umpi, ir-umpi, ur-avi ant (Ta.); er-umpu, ir-umpu, ur-umpu (Ma.); irb (Ko.); irb (To.); urupi (Kod..); erugu (Ka.)(DEDR 864). cf. urna_, urne very small ant (Kon.lex.)

671.Image: corner: ir-ai corner (Mullai. 87)(Ta.lex.)

672.Image: to entreat: ira (-pp-, -nt-) to beg alms, beseech, entreat; irappu begging; iraval begging, anything borrowed to be returned after use (except money); iravu beggary; iravalan-, iravo_n- beggar (Ta.); irakkuka to beg, ask alms; irappu begging; irappan beggar; iravu thing lent (Ma.); ere (erad-) to beg, ask, solicit; era, eravu, erapu, eraval that which is asked for, that which one desires to brrow, a thing borrowed for temporary use, state of borrowing from one another (Ka.); era- (erap-, erand-) to beg; erap beggar; erapaci a female beggar (Kod..); eravu act of lending or borrowing for temporary use; randuni to beseech, entreat; randelu begging, entreating (Tu.); eravu a loan, thing borrowed for temporary use (Te.); irgre to borrow, take a loan (Malt.)(DEDR 472).  

673.Dalbergia sissoo: iru-gun.d.i the tree called dalbergia sissoo (Ka.); irugud.u, iruvud.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. i_t.t.i blackwood, dalbergia latifolia (Ta.)(DEDR 483).

674.Mahua tree: cf. i_r.u_-mar.a_, ir.u_, iru (pl. iruhk), irup/ir.up bassia longifolia mahua (Go.)(DEDR 485).

675.Iron: irumpu iron, instrument, weapon (Ta.); irumpu, irimpu iron (Ma.); ib id. (Ko.); needle (To.); irimbi iron (Kod..); inumu id. (Te.); inum pl. inmul iron, sword (Kol.); rumba vad.i ironstone (Kui)(DEDR 486). me~r.h~t iron (Santali.lex.)

676.Ironwood: irul. ironwood of Ceylon (Perun.. Ucaik. 41,33); Burmah ironwood; iruve_l, irul.ve_l Burmah ironwood, xylia dolabriformis (M.M.); irul.-vi_t.u sissoo wood, nu_kkam (Ta.lex.) Xylia dolabriformis = xylia xylocarpa: jamba (M.); jambu (H.); kanakakuli (Skt.); jambe (Ka.); ettachennangi (Te.); irul (Ma.Ta.); decoction of the bark: used in worms, leprosy, vomiting, diarrhoea, gonorrhea, and ulcers; oil from the seeds: given in rheumatism, piles and leprosy; habitat: W. Peninsula and Burma (GIMP, p.259).

677.Tax: ir-ai duty, obligation (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,2,8); tax on land, duty, share of the produce accruing to the king as rent (Kur-al., 733); ir-a (Ma.); ir-ai-ka_val police cess, an ancient rate paid towards the cost of watch and ward in a village (I.M.P. Tp. 121-2); ir-aiyili land that is tax-free (Ci_vaka. 76, Urai.); ir-ayali (Ma.); ir-aiyir..ittuttal to exempt from payment of taxes (S.I.I. iii,4); ir-aiyir..iccutal id. (S.I.I. iii,6); ir-ai-vir..uttutal to exempt from payment of taxes (S.I.I. iii,80)(Ta.lex.) iri to give forth, to emit, to rain (Ka.lex.) ir-u (-pp-, -tt-) to pay (as a tax, a debt); ir-uppu payment of debt, tax; ir-a taxes, tribute, a certain fee for land-tenure; ir-ukkuka to pay as tax; ir-uppu paying a tax or repaying a debt (Ma.); re_n:g- (-it-) to pay off (Kuwi); erxna_ to be (so much) out of pocket, be fined, lose money; erxta'a_na_ to make one (so much) the poorer, fine, extort, make disgorge (Kur.); ergtre to force another to pay his debts (Malt.)(DEDR 521). viri-mut.t.u an ancient village cess (I.M.P.Tp. 234) (Ta.lex.) -ir-ai- : [a general term denoting revenue income and the taxes to be paid to government; land tax. (SII 13.SITI.IEG.)] iravu royal dues (Ta.)(EI 30.IEG.) ir-ai-dravyam, ir-ai-y-ili-mudal a lumpsum paid in lieu of land tax; amount payable in commutation of the taxes payable on landed property (Ta.Skt.). ir-ai-y-ili-k-ka_s'u amount paid for compounding taxes in order to make the land tax-free; also regarded as the amount payable to meet the shortage in the revenue occasioned by the grant of exemption from tax on certain lands (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ir-ai-ka_val amount of deposit which yielded interest per annum equal to the tax due on the land; sometimes regarded as a tax for police duties (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) alpamirai a minor tax payable on grains (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) at.i-y-ur-ai, ad.i-y-ir-ai, ad.i-y-ar-ai offerings made at the feet of a high personage (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) an-n-iya_ya-va_va-dan.d.a-ir-ai penal tax imposed on some unauthorised item of occupation or enjoyment (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) a_ti_rai prob. the expense for the a_rdra_ festival in the month of Ma_rgar..i (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) a_t.t.u-k-ki_r-ai, a_t.t.ir-ai tax on sheep; Synonym: a_t.t.u-vari (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) at.t.u-k-kir-ai tax on charities (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) id.ai-t-tur-ai, id.ator-ai a tax of uncertain import (Ta.) (SITI.IEG.) man-ai-y-ir-ai, man-ai-vari, man-ai-p-pan.am house-tax (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) man-ai-meyppa_n-kol.l.um-ir-ai tax for the supervisor of houses or the building supervisor; cf. meyppa_n- shepherd; grazier; a supervisor; prob. related to kan:ka_n.i (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) kan.n.a_-ir-ai profession tax payable by braziers (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ki_r..-ir-ai minor taxes, or tax fixed at a lower-rate (Ta.)(SITI.SII 12.IEG.); ki_r..-ir-ai-p-pa_t.t.am small cesses and taxes like mi_n-pa_t.t.am, etc. (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ma_t.t.u-k-kar-ai prob. a tax on cattle (cows and buffaloes)(Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) me_rai portion of the crop given at the threshing floor to certain village officers and servants as perquisite (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) par-ai-y-ir-ai a tax (payable in cash) probably for tomtoms. (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)

678.Image: to pour any liquid; to overflow: er-e to pour any liquids; to pour (Ka.); ir-u (Ta.Ma.); ir-ai (Ta.); er-e to cast, as metal; to overflow, to cover with water, to bathe; bar..ge ni_rer-e to pour water on a person's prosperity in order to quench or destroy it; er-e, ele pouring: fitness for being poured; er-eyisu to cause to pour (Ka.lex.) ir-ai-ttal to draw and pour out water, irrigate, bate out (Kur-al., 1161); to splash, spatter (Ta.); er-acu (Ka.); ir-a (Ma.); ir-ai-tal to scatter, disperse (Cu_ta. Civama_n-. 2,2); ir-aippu drawing out and pouring water (Ta.lex.) cf. ir-u to strain, percolate as a liquid (Ta.)(DEDR 522). Image: to percolate: ir-uttal to strain; to percolate, as a liquid (Ta.lex.)

679.Image: receptacle for drawing water: ir-aivai kind of basket; receptacle for drawing water for irrigation purposes, as a well basket (Tiruppu. 321); ir-ai-ku_t.ai water-basket made of palmyra leaves for baling out water for irrigation purposes (Tiva_.); ir-aippu-p-pat.t.arai land exclusively irrigated from wells (C.G.); ir-ai-maram three poles united at the top to support a basket in irrigation; well-sweep; long, boat-shaped wooden trough suspended for watering fields (J.)(Ta.lex.) ir-avul.ar hill tribes (Ta.); ir-avan, ir-ava_l.ar hill tribe of basket-makers (Ma.); er-ava a hill tribe in Coorg (Ka.)(DEDR 519).

680.Image: ladder: ir-aivai ladder (Iraku. Ya_ka. 104)(Ta.lex.)

681.Bark: ir-aici bark of a certain tree, used for clothing, maravuri (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

682.Fish: vi_ramakaram a fish-shaped emblem being part of the paraphernalia carried before deities or kings (Ta.lex.)

683.Detailed account: viracu, viracu-kan.akku detailed account; viracu to crowd together (Ta.); berasu id. (Ka.Tu.); viracu to join, unite (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 138); viravu to mix, mingle; to join, unite (Net.unal. 27); to be united, joined; to be mingled, mixed (Te_va_. 450,1); to cultivate friendship; to keep company (Te_va_. 469,5)(Ta.lex.)

684.Image: boar: bir wild boar (N.)(CDIAL 12056). mirho_, mirhu~, pl. mirhe~ boar (L.)(CDIAL 10272). miru~_ wild animal (S.)(CDIAL 10270). vara_ha wild boar (RV.); boar (Pali.Pkt.); bara_ boar (A.B.); sow, pig (A.); bara_ha (Or.); barha_ id. (Or.); bariha_, ba_ria_ (Or.); bara_h (H.); vara_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11325). vara_kam boar, swine (Tiruva_ca. 30,5); vara_kan- Vis.n.u, in his boar-incarnation; pagoda, a gold-coin = 3 1/2 rupees, as bearing the image of a boar; Arhat (Ta.lex.) mirukam pig, hog; animal in general (Ta.lex.)[The morpheme: bara_ sow, pig (A.) links with: pan-r-i hog, swine, pig (Ta.); van-r-i id. (Ta.); panni hog, pig (Ma.); panr-i pig (Kond.a); pandi id. (Ka.Te.); paji (Kui.Kuwi)(DEDR 4039).] ka_n.t.a_-mirukam (Ta.); ka_n.t.amr.gam (Ma.) rhinoceros, kal-ya_n-ai (Ta.lex.)

685.Image: kino tree (which yields a red dye): ka_n.t.a_-miruka-rattam Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium, ve_n:kai maram; dragon's blood tree, dracaena draco; dragon's blood cane, daemonorops draco; resin from these trees; ka_n.t.a_van-an- Indra, the lord of kha_n.d.ava a forest sacred to Indra and burnt by Arjuna as an offering to Agni (Ta.lex.)[cf. ben:ga, be_n.n.a red sandalwood, pterocarpus santalinus (Tu.); ve_n:kai East Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium (Ta.); ve~_gisa id. (Te.)(DEDR 5520). ve_n:kai tiger (Ta.)(DEDR 5521).] {The morpheme: mr.g- has been used to denote: elephant, boar, deer in the linguistic streams. The earliest attested use of mr.ga-hastin in RV. to denote an elephant and of mr.ga to denote a deer seem to indicate that the the morpheme became generalised to apply to a wild animal such as the boar. The evolution of phonetic transforms seems to suggest that there were indeed two ancient morphemes: *mok- short-tusk (blunt) of elephant and *mag-deer. The morpheme: ka_n.t.a- < khad.ga may be more specific and denote the (sword-like) boar's tusk.}

686.Image: leaf: ilai leaf, petal (Ta.); ila leaf (Ma.); ilakku, elakku a single leaflet of a palm (Ma.); el leaf (Ko.); es- id. (To.); ele, ela id. (Ka.); elakan.d.a id. (Kod..); ele, ire id. (Tu.); kor.k-ila new leaf (Go.)(DEDR 497). Pointed-leaf: reja, reji, rejiru, reje pointed-leaved ape-flower (Tu.); ilaci, irici id. (Ta.); erin.nn.i, erii, ilai, irai id., mimusops elengi (Ma.)(DEDR 496).

687.Pack-saddle: viri pannier, pack-saddle (Ta.); pack-saddle (Ma.); viry id. (Ko.)(DEDR 5412). viri-k-kat.t.u saddle; pannier for pack-oxen; pack-saddle; virippu spreading; anything spread, as cloth; opening, parting;[cf. virical split, crack, rent (Ta.); virivu id. (Ta.)]; viripam small piece of cloth; viriyal spread, expanse (Ta.lex.)

688.Land; earth: vira, vire, vira'a, vira earth, soil (Kui); vir'a, i'ira, i'r.a, i_'ira, wirha_, wirga_, wirka_ id.; i'ira id., gravel (Kuwi)(DEDR 5410). virai-ka_l land fit for sowing; cf. ka_l place, room (Perumpa_n.. 380)(Ta.lex.) vel-a sandbank, seashore (Si.); vel., el. seashore (M.); ve_la_ shore (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 12115). cf. vi_ri tide (S.); vi_l., i_l. ebb and flow of tide, time (M.)(CDIAL 12115). barehi_ land lying fallow for a whole year (P.)(CDIAL 11873). bir(h)a_unu to till barren ground (N.); biraut.o freshly tilled ground (N.); viruhai grows strongly (Pkt.); viru_hati sprouts (Pali); vir_hai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11870). cf. vri_sa to make an incision, furrow or mark, plough; n. writing (Kod.a); ra_s'i having marked boundaries (inscr. 1310 A.D.)(Te.); vara furrow, line (Ma.)(DEDR 5263).

689.Image: comb: iris a comb (Br.); irsa_na_, ir.s- to comb the hair (Go.); ircna_ to scratch and turn over (as fowls in the ground), poke, dig into, scratch into and spread out, turn about and spread (as embers for extinguishing them)(Kur.); irce to scratch the ground (as fowls do)(Malt.)(DEDR 493). Comb: i_r-vali long narrow wooden comb for clearing the hair of nits (Ta.lex.) For -vali cf. va_lai to comb (Kon.lex.) Image: a splinter: irical break, crack (Ta.); iriyuka to wrench off, twist off, pluck(as fruits, branches); iriccal plucking (Ma.); iri- (irit-) to tear; irk- (irikt-) to tear (Kol.); ir- to be torn (Nk.); irk- to tear (Nk.); i_ra a splinter (Kui); re to lop off, hew (Malt.)(DEDR 479). i_r minuteness; i_rmai subtlety, minuteness (Ta.); i_r slight (e.g. i_r en.d.a slight sunshine; i_r elu~gu low voice)(Te.)(DEDR 545). virical split, crack, rent (Ta.); viriccal split, gap (Ma.); bircu, biccu to be broken (Ka.); vij- (-it-) to break into small pieces (Kuwi)(DEDR 5411). Image: to dientangle the hair: vyu_rn.o_ti uncovers, spreads (RV.); vivr.n.o_ti combs (the hair)(HParis'.); vivarati uncovers, opens; vivaran.a (Pali); vivarai opens, spreads out, dresses (the hair)(Pkt.); vewarun to pull apart (with the fingers), tease out (cotton, tangled twigs, straw, etc.), scatter, sow broadcast, winnow (K.); byorna_ to dientangle (e.g. the hair)(H.) (CDIAL 11916). vle_nda, vle_nd.a to rise, expand, swell, distend; vle_pka (< vle_k-p-; vle_kt-) to cause to exapnd, stretch, widen out (Kond.a); velng to spread (Pa.); velkip to spread, expand (Pa.); vir.p to spread out (Go.)(DEDR 5432). viri to expand, spread out (Ta.); viriyal blossoming (Ta.); virikka to expand (Ma.); biri to expand, open, blossom (Ka.); vringa to be loosened (Kui); viriccal hatching (Ma.); ri_k to scatter, sow seeds (Go.); birasakali scattered, dispersed (Kuwi) (DEDR 5411). Image: to give liberally: vi.r to throw things (Ko.); pi.r-- to scatter (To.); bi_r-(u) to throw away, fling, spread; to throw as an arrow, stone, stick, etc.; give away according to one's inclination or at one's pleasure, give liberally or magnanimously (Ka.); bi_r-iga a scattered, disorderly mass (Ka.); bi_runi to scatter, disperse (Tu.)(DEDR 5463).

690.Image: viper: viri, viriyan- viper; virusu id. (Ta.); viriyan id. (Ma.)(DEDR 5413). vehal poisonous (K.); vihiru (S.)(CDIAL 11974). visahara snake (Pkt.); vis.adhara (Skt.); bisahar (H.); bisahri_, bisaihri_ (H.); vas'iyar (G.)(CDIAL 11971).

691.Image: a large double-drum: vi_ra_n.am a large, double drum (Tiruppu. 264) (Ta.Te.); vi_ra_n.ya id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.); vi_ra_n.atta_n- a division of Paraiyar who beat the drum (Ta.lex.) vi_ra_n.am a kind of tambourine (Ma.); vi_ran.a a double drum used at weddings, etc. (Ka.); vi_ra~_n.amu a double-drum (Te.)(DEDR 5456).

692.Image: to fry: ir.na_ to fry, roast, parch (as food grains), toast (as bread)(Kur.); er.ye to parch grain (Malt.)(DEDR 451).

693.Washerman: i_ran:kolli, i_ran:kol.l.i a washerman; tax payable by washermen (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)

694.Images: white fig; prawn; honeycomb: ir-ali white fig; ir-a_l shrimp, prawn, macroura; honeycomb (Nal.a. Kalini_n.. 14)(Ta.lex.)

695.An annular continent: ir-ali-t-ti_vu : iran.iyavarut.am < hiran.mayam one of nine divisions of the earth; cf. iran.iyam gold (Kantapu. Tiruvi. 92)(Ta.lex.) cf. hiran.yam gold; silver; any precious metal; hiran.ya-ba_huh. the river Son.a; hiran.ya-na_bhah. the mountain Mainka (Skt.lex.); cf. iran.iyam region: (cirun:ga mutar- cuve_ta mat.t.um ni_tiyiran.iyavarut.am: Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36), i.e. from S'r.nga to S've_ta; cf. s've_tam silver (Skt.) cuve_tam quicksilver (Tiruman. 2455); s've_tah . name of a range of mountains; hence, perh. the region in Kashmir where sindhu_r or mercuric compounds were available (Ta.lex.)

696.A division of the earth: iramiyavarut.am one of nine divisions of the earth; cf. raya stream, current (MBh.); ra sediment left by river after inundation (S.)(CDIAL 10638). Hence, may refer to the alluvial region inundated by the Indus; cf. iramiyam < ramya a division of the earth (cuve_tani_la net.un:kiriyi n-at.uva n.iramiyama_m : Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36), i.e., between S've_ta and blue mountain along the shore [for semant. netu- cf. net.un:kat.al the sea adjoining a shore] (Ta.lex.)

697.Great, eminent: iru great, spacious, vast; irumai greatness, largeness, hugeness, eminence (Ta.); inu, in: inumikkili very much, very great (for mikkili, cf. miku (Ta.)(DEDR 4838); inu-maddi terminalia tomentosa a large tree (Te.)(DEDR 481); marutu, marutam t. tomentosa (Ta.)(DEDR 4718).

698.Image: birth: irul. birth (Kur-al., 352)(Ta.lex.)

699.Images: to flee away; foe: iri (-v-, -nt-) to be destroyed, retreat, flee away; (-pp-, -tt-) to defeat, destroy, drive away; irian- foe; iriyal running, speeding (Ta.); irymury gey- (gec-) to kill in a battle (Ko.)(DEDR 478).

700.To rub: i_runi to rub off, be worn out (Tu.); i_rc to rub (Pa.)(DEDR 543).

701.To saw; to be drawn out: i_r to saw; uyiri_rum va_l.a_tu (Kural..334); to be drawn out; (i_rntu nilan to_yu mirumpit.it tat.akai : Cir-upa_n.. 19)(Ta.lex.) i_r (-pp-, -tt-) to drag along, pull, attract, carry away (as a current), excoriate (as a tiger), flay, draw, paint, write; (-v-, -nt-) to be drawn out; saw; i_rppu pul, tug, attraction; i_r-va_l. a saw (Ta.); i_ruka to saw, split; i_r splitting, sawing (Ma.); i_r-va_l., i_rcca-va_l. a saw; i_rcca sawing; i_rkkuka to draw, drag (Ma.); i.0- (i.0y-) to pull, drag; i.s.f- (i.s.t-) id. (To.); i_r to pull, draw (Ka.); i_rp- (i_rt-) to pull (Pa.); i_r- to pull, drag (Ga.); ric- to cut with saw (Go.); nir- (-t-) to pull (Pe.)(DEDR 542). cf. ir..u (-pp-, -tt-) to draw, pull, drag along the ground, attract (as a magnet)(Ta.)(DEDR 504). irampam a saw (Ta.); rampige shoe-maker's knife or awl (Ka.); rampi shoemaker's knife (Tu.); r-ampamu a saw (Te.); rampe cobbler's knife for cutting leather (Te.); r-ampaka~_d.u sawyer (Te.); rampa mattock (Pa.); rapam saw (Kond.a)(DEDR App.55). Chisel: rampa knife, scraper (Skt.); knife (Pkt.); rambo chisel, grass-scraper (S.); rambi_ small chisel (S.); small grass-scraper, cobbler's knife (P.); ramba_ spud, chisel (L.); ramma~_ hoe (L.); ramba_ hoe, flat trowel (P.); ra_mpa a scratch (Or.); ra_mpi mason's plane, wooden trowel or scraper (Or.); ra~_pi_, ra_pi_ leather-scraper (Bi.); ra~_pi_ id. (H.); ra~_p, ra~_pr.i_ hoe, weeding plough (G.); ra~_pi_ cobbler's tool (G.); ra~_pa_, ra~_pi_ chisel (M.); ra~_bho chisel (N.); ra~_bho, ra_bho digging tool (G.)(CDIAL 10629). rampai, rappai scrapes (Pkt.); ra_mpiba_ to scratch (Or.); ram.phai, ram.bhai scrapes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10630). o_ram.pia scraped, made thin (Pkt.); raphita wretched (RV.); raphati, ramphati injures (Skt.); orapn.e~, orbad.n.e~, orphad.n.e~ to scrape, scratch, strip off leaves (M.)(CDIAL 811). cf. si_ra plough (RV.); xir furrow, one ploughing (A.)(CDIAL 3441). siraur, siror, sira_ur furrow; sira_urke dharal to plough (Bi.); sira_ur furrow (Mth.); saira belonging to a plough(Skt.)(CDIAL 13442). s'i_ra_ pointed, sharp (RV.)(CDIAL 12495). s'i_rn.a broken (Skt.)(CDIAL 12496).

702.Seat: iruppu seat, residence, condition in life, stores, merchandise, wares (Ta.); irukkai sitting (Pur-ana_. 3,19); seat (Na_lat. i.143); residence, dwelling, situation; residential quarters, as in a village (Perumpa_n.. 242); town, village; temple (Kantapu. Ma_rkka. 144); irukkai-y-utaval providing a seat, esp. for a great person (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 58)(Ta.lex.); irikkuka to sit, remain, be in a place; irikka being; irippu sitting, residence, position; iruttuka to seat, place, detain, settle; iruttikka to cause to seat; irutti a seat; iruttam, iruttu sitting, staying (Ma.); ig- to exist, be in a place; irp collection of property; irpga.rn rich man (Ko.); ir- to sit, remain, live; is.t- to seat, keep in a place (To.); i.s.k dwelling, act of dwelling (To.); ir, iru to be, exist, remain, stay, delay; irisu to cause to be or stay, place, put, deposit; iravu, irapu being, abode, seat, place (Ka.); ir- to be in a place (Kod..); ippuni to be, exist, live in; have, possess (Tu.); iravu place, abode; firm; iravu-pad.u to become established, firm; iruvu neighbourhood, place, home; irugu neighbourhood, place, home; irava_ru to become firm, fixed, settled; ikka place, abode, dwelling, seat; in:kuva a place, haunt (Te.); ri_nda to be stable, steady, stand firm, stand still; pl. action ri_tka; ri_spa to steady, set in position (Kui); re'nai to abide (Kuwi)(DEDR 480). Dwelling place: rahan.a firmness, remaining (Pkt.); staying (Or.); rahan.i_ staying, residence (S.); ro~_r.~ staying (Ku.); rahan-sahan conduct, behaviour; rahani firmness, stopping place, dwelling place (N.); rahan.i residence (Or.); rahana staying (OAw.); rahan manner (H.); rahen.i_ manner of life (G.); rahn.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 10665). raha remains (RV.BhP.); rahas isolation, secrecy (MBh.);[cf. rahasya private, secret (MBh.); rahas lonely spot (Mn.); raha privacy, solitariness (Si.)(CDIAL 10669)]; raha_yate_ is lonely (Pa_n..gan.a.); raha_yati (Pali); rahati, rahayati leaves (Skt.); rahai, rahae~, rahe_i remains; rahia remaining; deserted, left (Pkt.); za_n, zo_n standing (Pas'.); rahn.u, rahnu, riun to remain (K.); rahan.u to stay (S.); rahan., ra_vun. to remain (L.); rahin.a_ (P.); re_hn.u_, re_hn.a_, ra~_n.u_, re~_he~to pres.part. (WPah.); raun.o (Ku.); rahanu (N.); rahiba to abate (of hunger)(A.); raha_ to continue to be, remain (B.); rahiba_ to remain (Or.); rahab (Mth.Aw.); rahna_ (H.); rahevu~ (G.); raha_n.e~, ra_hn.e~ (M.); raha_in.u to make stay, get on with (S.); randanava_, rndenava_ to remain (Si.)(CDIAL 10666). rahita deserted, lacking (MBh.); forsaken, lonely (Pali); rahia deserted, left (Pkt.); ria, re without (S.)(CDIAL 10670). ir-u (-pp-, -tt-) to stay, tarry; ir-uppu, ir-ai abiding, tarrying (Man.i.4,69)(Ta.); ir-u to stay, hesitate; ir-isu to cause to stay, put (Ka.)(DEDR 523). viramati stops (TS.Pali); viramai (Pkt.); viriman.u, virman.u to stop, stay, wait (S.); biramn.a_ to stop, stay, remain away from home; birma_un.a_ to cause to stop, to amuse (P.); biramna_ to stop, rest (H.); viramai abstains from (OG.); viramvu~ to stop (G.); viramn.e~ to stop, rest (M.)(CDIAL 11846). viricyate_ extends beyond (RV.); bercim I am left behind (Kal.); bercik to remain behind (Kho.); frin he remained (Ishk.); warecn to remain (Wkh.)(CDIAL 11861). virahayati abandons (S'a_n:khGr..); virahijjai is left (Pkt.); birasna_ to stop, remain   (H.)(CDIAL 11852).

703.House; home: il house, home (Na_lat.i. 198); place; wife (Kur-al., 59); lady of rank in towns or forest-pasture tracts (Tiva_.); domestic life (Kur-al., 41)(Ta.); family (Kur-al., 951); illat.ai anything lodged in a house for security; pledge, pawn (Arun:kalac. 70); illattuppil.l.ai title assumed by people of the Ir..uva caste (G.Tn.D. 144); illam house, home (Tiruva_ca. 7,17); illaval., illa_l. wife, mistress of house (Kur-al., 52); illa_l.an-, illa_li householder (Periyapu. Ka_raik. 20)(Ta.); il house, place; illam house of Nambudiri (Ma.); illavn man who is a relative (Kod..); illu house, dwelling, family (Tu.); illu (adj. in.t.i) house, dwelling, habitation; illat.amu, illan.t.ramu living in the house of one's wife's father (Te.); ella house; ilta_ma_ younger sister's husband; iltam boy who serves for a wife in her father's house (Kol.); ella house (Nk.); il podi roof (Pa.); il house (Go.); ilu (pl. ilku) house (Kond.a); il (obl. inj-, pl. ilku) house (Pe.); il id. (Mand..); id.u house, dwelling, shed, hut (Kui); illu_ (pl. ilka), illu, il (pl. ilka) house (Kuwi)(DEDR 494). cf. vi_t.u house, habitation, abode (Pu. Ve. 3,15, Kol.u.); squares as of a chessboard (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) il, ir to be, to exist (a defective verb of which at present only some forms of the negative mood exist); il an unusual abbreviation of illa not to be; ila a man who has not, or a place that has not, or is free from; ili not being (an abbreviation of illa); ar-ivili one without wisdom (Ta.); illa third person of the negative mood, used for all persons, genders and numbers; it, he, she is not or exists not; not, no (Ka.Ta.Ma.); ijji (Tu.); il being, place (Ka.Ta.Ma.); ilu, illu (Te.); illu (Tu.); ila a nounal affix, e.g. ga_vila, paccayila, pad.eyila; illi in this place, here; this place (Ka.lex.)

704.Image: iron bowl: ila_l, ila_li an iron bowl grated or open-mouthed, containing oil and rolls of cloth etc.; it is attached to the end of a stick, and kindled upon holidays etc. (Ka.); hila_la (M.)(Ka.lex.)

705.Silk-cotton: le_ki, leke, lkee bombax malabaricum (Go.); neluk silk-cotton tree (Pa.); le_ke maran bombax malabaricum (Kond.a); le_ko, le_ko marnu, d.a_ka_ngi id. (Kuwi); ila, ilavam, ilavu red-flowered silk-cotton tree, bombax malabaricum (Ta.); ilavam, ilavu id., bombax pentandra (Ma.); elava the seemul, or silk-cotton tree, bombax heptaphyllum (Ka.)(DEDR 495). ilavam-pacu silk cotton (A_tticu_.)(Ta.lex.)

706.Image: sheep, ram: e_l.aga, e_d.aka a kind of sheep; a ram (Ka.); a wild goat (Ka.); e_d.u = a_d.u (Tu.); e_d.a (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) lelo kid (S.); le_la_, le_li_ lamb, kid (L.); lela_, leli_ lamb (P.); lela_, leliya_na_ to bleat (H.)(CDIAL 11116). le_lya trembling (Skt.); le_la_ quivering (S'Br.); le_la_yate_ moves to and fro (MaitrS.); lela unsteady (Si.)(CDIAL 11115).

707.Image: seven: e_r.., e_r..u seven (Ka.); e_r..u (Ta.Ma.); e_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

708.Image: leaf: ele, ela a leaf (Ka.); ire, ele (Tu.); ilai (Ta.); ile (Ma.); a_ku, re_ku (Te.); ele the leaf, i.e. betel leaf (Ka.); ilai (Ta.); ele a leaf-plate (Ka.); elad.ike betel leaf and areca nut; ele-ka_vu the heat of leaves that have been held towards a light or a fire; ele-gattari a leaf split in the form of a pair of scissors, with which the head of a boy is touched before the first tonsure; ele-do_t.a a betel garden; ele-pen.d.i a bundle of betel leaves; ele bid.u to send forth leaves, to sprout, as a tree; eleya na_ru the fibre or vein of a leaf; eleya bal.l.i the creeper called betel-leaf pepper, piper betle; eleyambu an arrow with a point in the form of a leaf; elevani a drop on a leaf; elevane, elemane a leaf-house, an arbour or a hut made of leaves; ele-varadu, ele-haradu betel-leaf trade; ele-varada_d.u to carry on such a trade; ele-ga_r-a a male betel-seller; ele-ga_rti a female betel-seller (Ka.lex.) Image: leaf: la_b, la_bo leaf (Ku.)(CDIAL 10989).