2401.Vegetables: kira_ta kad.d.i a medicinal herb (Tu.lex.) ki_rai greens, pot-herbs, vegetables; ki_rai-ttan.t.u spinach, amarantus gangeticus (Ta.); ci_ra greens, eatable leaves, esp. chenopodium album and various amarantus species; ki_ra greens; ki_ra, ci_ra spinach (Ma.); ki.r sp. amarantus (Ko.); ki.ry id. (To.); ki_re, kire various species of greens (Ka.); ki_ra, ki_re herb, vegetable, greens (Te.)[amarantus paniculatus = amarantus speciosus; amarantus caudatus = amarantus paniculatus](DEDR 1617).

2402.Diadem: kiri_t.a diadem, crest (MBh.Pali); kiri_d.a diadem (Pkt.); tiri_d.a headdress (Pkt.); kirul.a crown (Si.)(CDIAL 3176). mukut. diadem (Santali.lex.) kiri_t.a is used by Su_rya (mukut.adha_ri_, Br.hat. LVII. 47); Kubera (va_makiri_t.i_, Br.hat. LVII. 57); and the Bhu_ta-gan.as (Br.hadya_tra_, XV. 12).

2403.Alphabet: cir-apper..uttu alphabetic letter peculiar to a language (Nan-. 274)(Ta.lex.) akhor a letter of alphabet (Santali.lex.) kir.aki, kir.a_ki the character used by kirar.s in writing. It is derived from the Sanskrit alphabet, but the letters are so mutilated that it is difficult in some cases to trace their origin. It is very deficien in consonants, having no ng, jh, t.h, d, y or s.; h is generally omitted in writing. The vowels a, i, u appear in the alphabet, but except as initial letters they are omitted in practice. The forms of the letters differ in different towns: kir.aki di likhat d.ilh d.ola hik. In kir.aki writing d.ilh and d.ola are the same (i.e. only d. and l without any vowels, would be used to express both words); kirar., kirar.i a tribe of Hindus also called aror.a. Kirar.s are divided into three main tribes: uttra_dhi (northern), dakhana (southern), and d.a_hra. The first two say they were so named because they fled to the north and south respectively. The origin of d.a_hra is not known. Each main tribe contains numerous sub-divisions, the nomenclature of which defies classification. A few names, as the mat.e and guruwar.a are found in three main tribes; a large number is found in two, and the majority in only one. The main tribes do not intermarry, but the sub-divisions of a main tribe do. They worship either Kr.s.n.a incarnation or the river Ganges or both. They are traders, money lenders and bankers. They have no prejudice against any kind of work, and will sell vegetables or shoes, load donkeys and do other work which an orthodox Hindu would not. In correspondence and accounts kirar.s use a peculiar character of their own kir.aki; kirat work, business, occupation (P.lex.) lan.d.a_ the written character used by shop-keepers (P.lex.)

2404.An annular continent: kiravuca-t-ti_vu : cf. kiravuca-kiri < krauca the eastern part of the Hima_laya range, in Assam, as split by Skanda (Pu. Ve. 6,9, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2405.Scribe: kera_ clerk; kera_ni id. (B.); ki_raka scribe (Skt.); qa_ri, pl. qurra_ reader, esp. of Qur'a_n (Arabic)(CDIAL 3170). keraku that is scratching or rough as a stone; keran.t.u to dig with the nails, to scratch (Ka.); curan.t.u (Ta.); ciran.d.u, curan.d.u (Ma.); kir-i (Ta.); ciragu, curagu to scrape, grate; cikku to scratch (Ma.); celuku to scratch (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kira_n.i clerk (J.)(Ta.lex.) kerani a writer, clerk (Santali.lex.) karan.an- accountant (Kantapu. Ma_rkkan.. 210); karan.am title-deed, document (R.F.); accountant, karnam (S.I.I. i,65)(Ta.lex.) Image: stripe, to draw lines: ki.r a mark, a line (Ko.); ki.ra stripe (Kol.); khi_r line (Nk.); gi_r line (Kond.a); line, mark (Pa.); gi_t line (Go.); gi_ri line (Ga.); ki_r-u a stripe (Ma.); to scratch, draw lines, scribble, write; n. scratch, mark, stroke, scrawl, writing (Ta.); gi_r-u a line, streak, stripe (Ka.); to scratch, scrape (Ka.); to scratch, scrape; comb with fingers (Te.); gi_r-a, gi~_ta stroke, line (Te.); gi_t.u line, mark (Te.); a line, stroke (Ka.); line, stroke, mark (Tu.); gere a line, row, stroke (Tu.); ki_r-r-u stroke, line, mark, stripe (Ta.); gi_ra line, mark, scrape (Kui); giri line (KUwi); gira_ a line (Or.); kiraka a scribe (Skt.)(DEDR 1623). kharok sound of scraping (Santali.lex.) To slit, rend, slice: kiresu, keresu to scrape (Tu.lex.) ki_r-u gash, cut, slice, piece; to slit, tear, rend, cut, gash, slice (Ta.); ki_r-r-u slice, piece (Ta.Ma.); ki_r-al a tear (Ma.); tearing (Ta.); ki_l to rend, tear (Ta.); ki_ntal a slice, piece (Ma.); ki.r- (ki.ry-) to tear, gash (Ko.); ki_tu piece, slice (of fruits and flesh)(Ka.); ki.t to tear (Kod..); ki_runi to split (Tu.); ki_ru split, rift (Tu.); ki_tu part, bit, splinter (Tu.); gi_r-u, gi~_t.u to tear, rend (Te.); keerke a bit or piece (Go.)(DEDR 1624). cira, ciro, sir.an., sir.o, tarar., or.ec to tear (Santali.lex.)

2406.Image: to rend: ki_r.. to rend (Tirukko_. 249); to split, rive, cleave (Ci_vaka. 1157)(Ta.); ki_l. id. (Ka.); part, portion, section (Ci_vaka. 2248); ki_l.(l.u)-tal to rend, split, tear (Kampara_. Pal.l.i. 71); ci_l id. (Te.); ki_l.- to burst, as the bund of an overfull tank (Pur-ana_. 118,3)(Ta.lex.) ki_l.ut.ai girdle of an ascetic or sanya_si, generally a long strip of cloth (Ka_l.at. Ula_, 500)(Ta.lex.) cf. ki_r-u-tal to slit, tear, rend (Tiva_.); ki_r-u (Ka.); gi_r-u (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ki_r-u-tal to draw lines; to scribble, make marks, write, engrave (Pin..)(Ta.); ki_r-u id. (Ma.); gi_yu (Te.); gi_ru (Ka.); ki_r-u to slice, cut off longitudinally; streak, mark, stroke, line, scratch; notch, furrow, indentation, gash, cut, slit, incision (Ta.lex.) cf. ke_r..i a line, a series; a group, flock (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ki_r, gi_r to scratch, to split; a split, a scratch (Tu.lex.)

2407.Ancient: ki_r adj. past, ancient; ki_rugu me_lugu buddhi a lesson for the past and the future (Tu.lex.) kir..a old (Ta.); ker..ava, ker..iva an old man (Ka.Ta.Ma.); kir..i to descend; to be subtracted,low, degraded (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kir..avu old age (Ci_vaka. 379); kir..avan- aged man (Te_va_. 648,4); kir..avan (Ma.); kir..am-pat.utal to grow old; to become worn out or useless by age (Piramo_t. 7,30); kir..at.u old age, senility (Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 217)(Ta.lex.)

2408.Image: water-lift: kir..a_r water-lift for irrigation, drawn by bullocks (Cilap. 10,110); garden (Nan-. 272, Mayilai.)(Ta.lex.)

2409.Profession: giri an affix denoting office, busines, profession (Ka.M.H.); guma_sta-giri, diva_n.a-giri, munis.i_-giri, sipa_yi-giri (Ka.lex.) giri proper noun of a male person (Tu.lex.) giri venerable, respectable, worshipful; an honorific title given to sannya_sins (Skt.lex.) kir..avan- owner (Kur-al., 1039); lord, master, husband (Tol. Po. 192); chief of an agricultural tract; oilmonger; black sediment in oil; kir..avi wife, mistress (Tol. Po. 186); kir..avatu < kir..a-mai that which pertains to or belongs to (Tol. Po. 84); kir..avo_n- proprietor, owner (Tirumuru. 317); lord, master,husband (Tol. Po. 234); kir..a_r ancient ve_l.a_l.a title (Tol. Po. 629, Urai.; I_t.u, 6,3,7); kir..a_n- owner, proprietor (Tiruvil.ai. Valaiv_ci. 42); kir..amai claim, right, propriety (Kur-al., 785); friendship, alliance (Ci_vaka. 544); kir..atti proprietress, she who has a right (Pa_rata. Cir-appu. 13); mistress, lady-love (Tol. Po. 118); ki_r..o_r cultivators (Paripa_. 17,40)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'friendship' cf. kel.e, gen.i, gen.e, gel.e union; friendship; ke_l.a a companion (Ka.lex.)

2410.Image: pot: kir..alai the lower side of a vessel, the side on which the sail is hoisted; < ki_r.. lower (Ta.); kir..akku bottom, foot; low place (Kur-un. 337); lowness, plainness (Tol. Po. 280); depression, pit (Tiva_.); kir..a_-an- curd-pot (Kalin.. 506, Putup.); curd (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. ge_l.a_ a round vessel to hold oil etc. (M.); ke_l, ke_lu a large earthen water-jar (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2411.Image: tawny colour: kura_l dim, tawny colour (Ta.); brown (Ma.); kira_l brown (Ma.)(DEDR 1776). kura_r--pacu tawny cow (S.I.I. iii,121); kura_l cow (Ce_tupu. Man:kala. 27)(Ta.lex.) kairi, khaera brown (Santali.lex.)

2412.Male calf; ox, horned cattle: kura bull calf, male calf (Go.); kur-a male calf (Kond.a); kurra id. (Kol.Nk.Pa.); kurra_ id. (Go.); kurra d.a_lu id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1801). [cf. ko_d.e du_d.a bull calf (Te.)(DEDR 2199) wherein ko_d.e (young bull) is an adj. male]. ko_t.i-p-paruvam youth (Ta.); ko_d.eparuvamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ko_ra_ untamed bull, horse, etc. (Ta.lex.) kurnja young male child (Pe.); kurl young cow (up to three years)(Ko.); kuruman- young of certain animals and birds (Ta.); kurule, kurle a young pig, a baby (Tu.); kurnja young male child; fem. kurnji (Pe.); kuru_ colt (Kur.); kurul.ai young of certain animals (viz., dog, pig, tiger, hare, fox)(Tol. Po. 564-565); young of a snake (Kur-un. 119); child (Ci Ci. Parapak. Pa_yiram. 4); tortoise (Ta.)(DEDR 1791); kurumbo 'n:kurah. (Skt.). kuruku young, as of an animal (Ta.); young of a beast (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 1, Vya_.); kuru young, as of an animal (Te.Ma.Tu.) (Ta.lex.)] go_ru_pa cow-shaped (AV.); bull, (coll.) cattle (Pali); go_ru_va a good bull; go_ru_ ox (Pkt.); go_ru_, go_rwi_ cow; go_rwa_ bull; guruv, guruvni, gurumni (Gypsy); goru_ bull (Sv.); go_ru_ cow (K.); goru_ cattle (excluding buffalos)_(P.); gro~, pl. gru cattle; go_ru_ (N.); goru_ cow (Ku.); goru bull, bullock (N.); go_ru a bovine animal, stupid person; gori_ya_ lazy (A.); goru, garu any animal of the bovine species, cattle, stupid person (B.); goru_ cow, ox (Or.); ox, horned cattle (except buffalos)(Bi.); go_ru_ cattle (Bhoj.); goru_, gorua_ ox, cow (H.); guru, gure~ cow, bullock, buffalo, black cattle (M.); geriya_ bullock; geri cow; gon.-geri ox (Si.)(CDIAL 4313). go a cow, an ox, bull, pl. cattle (Pali)[Lat. bos, OHG. chuo, Ags. cu_ = E. cow](Pali.lex.) go-parin.a_yaka leader of the cows, ep. of a bull [gopita protected, guarded, watched +]; gon.a an ox, bullock (for ploughing); gon.a-sira wild ox; gon.aka a kind of ox, a wild bull (Pali.lex.)

2413.Tells one's number (of troop of flock); gang: giroh a collection, a party of men, a gang (P.lex.) Image: a herd of kine: kere a herd of kine; go_samu_ha (Ka.lex.) se_r-i kor-u cock (Kond.a); sehi male (Kuwi)(DEDR 2820). xe_r fowl (Kur.); qru id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2013). cf. ke_ru (ke_ri-) to cackle (as a hen)(Ta.)(DEDR 2009). gan.a troop, flock (RV.); gan.ayati tells one's number (of troop of flock)(Ka_s'.); gan.a troop, flock (Pali.Pkt.); gan herd (Tor.); gan.aya company (Si.)(CDIAL 3988). avagan.a separated from one's companions (MBh.); o_gan.a separated, standing alone (Pali); ogn.o a grain of corn which remains hard after boiling, baking or grinding; ogn.a_ pl. small particles of cakes (G.)(CDIAL 739). sam.gan.ika_ society, the world; sam.gan.ana_ counting together (Skt.); san:gan.ika_ association (Pali); an:ganiya assembly (Si.)(CDIAL 12846). sam.gamayati brings together (AV.); sa~gwa_n.a_ to collect together (H.)(CDIAL 12847). kan.am < gan.a group; collection; class; tribe; clan; flock; herd; series (kan.an:kon.t.u cur-r-atta_r : Na_lat.i, 25); company, assembly, concourse of people (Tiva_.); kan.atta_r managers of village affairs (I.M.P.T. 569); kan.apperumakkal. managers of village affairs in ancient times (I.M.P. Cg. 516); kan.a-can:kiya_-pa_kam < gan.a + san:khya_ + aggregate number of shares into which the lands of a village are, at the time of the original grant, equally divided (Ta.lex.) kan.akku number, account, reckoning, calculation, computation (Ta.Ma.); account book, ledger (Kur-un. 261); order, sequence (I_t.u, 3,4, Pra.); thing, affair, circumstance; letter, writing (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Telling one's number of troop or flock: gan.a troop, flock (RV.Pkt.Pali) [cf. gan.ayati tells one's number (of troop or flock).]; gan herd (Dardic); beehive (K.); gan.ha_r beehive (Dardic); gan.aya company (Si.)(CDIAL 3988, 3991). [cf.Phratry names in a clan by number counts: aim-peru-ve_l.ir five great ve_l.ir (Akam.,125); er..u ve_l.ir seven ve_l.ir (Akam., 36; patinoru ve_l.ir eleven ve_l.ir (Akam., 246); patina_nku ve_l.ir fourteen ve_l.r (Akam., 135); patinen kut.i ve_l.ir eighteen septs of ve_l.ir (Tol. Po., 32, Urai) [cf. Mahadevan, I. 1970, p.185]; re: Gond.s of Adilabad: nal ven saga number four phratry; si ven saga number five phratry; sar ven saga number six phratry; er ven saga number seven phratry (Sethumadhava Rao Pagdi, Among the Gonds of Adilabad, Bombay, 1949, p.3; loc.cit. Mahadevan, I., Dravidian Parallels in Proto-Indian Script, Journal of Tamil Studies, vol.II, No.1, 1970, pp.157-276; p.185].

2414.Image: Indian file: giroe goroe, goyor goyor, gior goyor following each other in a line, trailing; gonto goto, gonto gotor, gonto goyo, gonto goyor one after another, Indian file (Santali.lex.) ha_r, ha_ri file of soldiers; ha_ri a_sa_t there are lines; harin in files (Kon.lex.) Image: line: gero, gerea_ drawn line; groove of a column (Kon.lex.) gire, gere a line (Tu.lex.) gere a scratch as with a finger nail or a chisel; a line; a streak; gere ha_ku to mark with lines by a ruler; to make a sign in the form of a line, to mark; to draw a line over (Ka.lex.)

2415.Images: series, herd: ke_r..i a line, a series; a group, flock, troop; a heap; ke_ri, pa_r..i, panti (Ka.); ce_t.u, ce_n., ce_y distance; length, breadth; height; greatness; crowd, assembly (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) kere a herd of kine (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s're_ni, se_n.i a line, a row, a range; a multitude, a number; a troop (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: line, series: se_d.hi_ line, row (Pkt.); s're_dhi_ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures (Pkt.); he_r, dat. he_ri ladder (K.)(CDIAL 12724). ceitr ladder (Ash.)(CDIAL 12720).

2416.Image: a line: gi_r-u, gi_t.u a line, a streak, a stripe, a groove; a scartch or its mark; gi_r-acu a stripe-like fine border of a cloth; gi_r-a cippu a shell with stripes; gi_r-u-gandha streaks of sandal on the body; a streak of sandal on the forehead; gi_r-u-na_ma a perpendicular sectarian line on the forehead made with go_pi; gi_r-u to draw, to draw lines or streaks (Ka.); gi_cu, ki_r-u, gi_ku, gi_ju, gi_r-u to scrape or scratch; to scrawl, to scribble; to draw a line or lines over with a pen; to draw lines or furrows; to lance a tree in order to extract its milky juice (Ka.Te.); gi_cu ba_cu reit. scrawl, scribble (Ka.); gi_t.u a line, a stroke (Ka.); ki_t.t.u, gi_te, gi_re, ji_re (Te.); ki_r-r-u (Ta.); ce_r (M.); ce_ra (Skt.); gi_t.a_t.a hop-scotch (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: one of the four chequered stripes: ke_ri one of the four chequered stripes on a pagad.e cloth (Ka.lex.) ki_r-r-u stroke, line, mark, streak, stripe (Ci_vaka. 782); ki_r-al tearing, scratching (Kuce_lo_. Kuce_. Vaikun.. 36)(Ta.lex.)

3674.Image: part, portion, wedge, split: ki_l. (ki_l.v-, ki_n.t.-) to rend, tear, split; burst (as bund of an over-full tank); n. part, portion, section (Ta.); ci_l. splinter, piece of wood, wedge (Ma.); ci.l. pieces (of pot, paper, etc.); division of land (Ko.); gi_l.u to rend; si_l., si_l.u to split, divide, be rent; split, etc.; n. splitting, a split, fragment, part (Ka..); ci_lu a split, splinter; si_l.u a crack, crash, split (Tu.); ci_lu to break, split, crack, be divided, broken, torn, rent, split (Te.); ci_lika slice, sliver (Te.)(DEDR 1622). Image: a flat stone for engraving: cil, cillu a flat stone for engraving, a small round piece (as draught) (Ma.); kelle a splinter, shiver (Ka.); kellu id. (Tu.); cilla-penku, cilla-pencu potsherd (penku, pencu id.)(Te.); cil small piece (as of broken glass), potsherd, flat round stone (Ta..)(DEDR 1577).

3675.Bark: chila bark, skin (S.); chill id. (L.); chil bark (WPah.); chi_lo bark (Marw.); chilet.u~ bark, peel (G.)(CDIAL 5052). cilike stick and other small pieces of wood (Ka.); hir.pen bark of tree (Go.); si_lpa chip of wood (Kond.a); cilpa id., bark (Pe.)(DEDR 2586). il.i (-v-, -nt-) to strip off, pluck (Ta.); cil.ikka (the rind of a fruit) to open from ripeness (Ma.); cilkuni to flay (Tu.); cilng to peel off, flake off; cilkip- (cilkit-) to peel off, scale off (Pa.); sil skin, rind (Br.)(DEDR 2585). Image: to open, split: cillu (-pp-, -tt-) to open, split; cilukku chipping, cutting; ciluval rags, tatters (Ta.); cilv- (cild-) to break along the length of the grain; (cilt-) id. (Ko.)(DEDR 2566). ki_l. to rend, split; n. part, portion, section (Ta.); ci_l. splinter, wedge (Ma.); ci.l. pieces, division of land (Ko.); gi_l.u to rend; si_l., si_l.u to split, divide, be rent; a split, fragment, part (Ka.); ci_lu a split, splinter; si_l.u a crack, crach, split (Tu.); ci_lu to break, split, crack, be divided, broken, torn, rent, split; ci_lucu, ci_lcu to split, break, divide, tear; ci_lika slice, sliver (Te.)(DEDR 1622). cf. kir..i to be torn, rent in shreds, to split (Ta.)(DEDR 1581). cf. ki_r-u to slit; cut, slice, piece (Ta.); ki_ru split, rift; ki_tu part, bit, splinter (Tu.); keerk a bit or piece (Go.)(DEDR 1624). Small hole, crack: cilli leak, hole, crack (Ta.); small hole as in a pot, paper, etc. (Te.); illi small hole (as in a pitcher), orifice as of the teat (Ta.); cilli-k-kuttu a little hole (Ma.); jilli small hole in an earthen vessel (Ka.)(DEDR 2575). To split, slit, saw, tear; sharp: i_ruka to saw, split (Ta.); sixb sharp end of piece of wood (To.); sigi to split (as wood), tear or rend with the teeth as sugarcane (Ka.); sigasu, sigisu to have split (Ka.); sigur- a splinter, a shiver (Ka.); si_bu bamboo-slit (Ka.); tigipuni, tigupuni, sigipu to split, slit, cut, saw, tear (Tu.); sinder a splinter of wood, bamboo, etc. (Go.); ci_ring to slit, slice, tear open (Br.) (DEDR 2491). ci_ra rag (Skt.)(CDIAL 4843). s'i_ra pointed, sharp (RV.); s'i_rin a kind of kus'a grass (Skt.); si_r the silky-headed grass imperata koenigii (P.)(CDIAL 12495). Rag, bark-cloth: citarvai cloth worn or reduced to a rag (Ta.); cita_r thin bark of certain trees used as clothing; cloth, rag (Ta.); citalai small piece of cloth, rag (Ta.); ci_ntuka to tear, strip (a plantain leaf)(Ma.); ci_ntu a shred, strip, streak (Ma.); cindar-a fragment, piece (Te.); kithre to split wood (Malt.)(DEDR 1547). Bowstring: sittha, sittha_ bowstring (Pkt.); s'it (M.)(CDIAL 13400). sit.ro one of the strings suspended from above in a loom to suppport the web (S.); prasiti fowler's net (RV.); s'it.a_ rope (?RV.)(CDIAL 13400). se_tr. binding (RV.); se_tra bond, ligament (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 13586). Hemp: kitta_n- linen, canvas (Ta.Ma.) < kata_n (U.); kitta_n-pacu tow, oakum for caulking ships; kitta_n--pa_y canvas sail; kittam that which is made (kr.ta)(Tirukko_. 388, Urai); kitta_n--kayir-u hemp rope (Ta.lex.) Cloth: kattiyam a kind of cloth of superior quality (Ta.); katta (Pkt.); ka_tna_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) citar (-pp-, -tt-) to separate, split, cut, hack; n. rag, cloth (Ta.); citaval cutting off, cropping; strip of cloth, rag, torn piece of cloth; citai (-v-, -nt-) to be sundered; (-pp-, -tt-) to shear (Ta.); cintu (cinti-) to cut off (Ta.); cinnikka to cleave, split (Ma.); ci_ntuka to tear (as paper, leaves), strip (a plantain leaf); ci_ntu a shred, strip, streak (Ma.); kidi_ta_na_ to shred chillies, etc. with fingernails (Go.); kithke to mince; kithre to split wood (Malt.)(DEDR 1547). Cloth: sendra cloth (Ga.Go.); hendra id. (Pe.Mand..); handra id. (Mand..); hendra_ id. (Kuwi)[Similar words in Munda languages, cf. Pinnow, p.241: e.g. se_ndara_ (Gutob)](DEDR 2771). ce_n.t.iravar weavers (Ta.); ja_d.a, je_d.a a weaver belonging to the Lin:gavanta sect (Ka.); ja_d.e, ja_d.ye weaver, spider (Tu.); je_n.d.ra, de_n.d.ra a caste of weavers (Te.)(DEDR 2809). citarvai cloth worn out or reduced to a rag (Ta.); citalai small piece of cloth, rag (Ta.); cita_r cloth, rag, thin bark of certain trees used as clothing (Ta.)(DEDR 1953). ci_thar.o old ragged clothes (S.); ci_thr.a_ rag (P.H.); ci_thar. (H.); cithr.u~ rag (G.); cithru~, citri_ rag ((G.)(CDIAL 4802). chittvara fit for cutting, roguish, hostile (Skt.); chittaru, chettaru old household utensil such as an old winnowing basket (Pkt.); chitaru old shoe or mat; chitiro worn out or in pieces (e.g. mat or shoe), troublesome (S.); chittur torn shoe (L.); chittar very old and worn shoe (L.); chi_tar shoe (H.); s'itri_ small and mean hut (M.)(CDIAL 5038).

3673.Cloak, dress: ci_la, s'i_la bag, purse (Ma.); ci_ra, ci_la, ci_lu bag, sack (Ka.); ci.le bag (Kod..)(DEDR 2632). cilai-man. (Ta.) ci_la-mannu (Te.) coat of clay on cloth spread over the mouth of a calcinatory pot; ci_lai (Ta.) cf. ce_la; ci_ra (Te.); se_la (Ka.); ci_la (Ma.) cloth, garment; ci_lai-k-kutumpai yoruka_tu (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,3,1); cloth of 2 1/4 cubits; woman's cloth; man's forelap, ko_van.am; ci_lai-kot.u to present a cloth to a widow in token of marrying her; ci_lai-t-tun.i piece of cloth; clothes; cloth for decoration; ci_lai-p-pe_n- (Ta.) ci_rape_nu (Te.) lice in cloths (Ta.lex.) kucer dress (Bshk.); kuce_la a wretched garment (Mn.); rag (Car.)(CDIAL 3218). ce_la clothes, garment (Gaut.); cloth, garment (Pali.Pkt.); cel dress, cloak (Dm.); ce_li_ bodice (Skt.); cila_ cloth, dress (Pas'.); celet.i shirt (Pas'.); ceu, ce_l cloak (Kal.); cel.a cloth, garment (Or.); hela carpet (Si.)(CDIAL 4910)). Woman's garment: gisi_r. cloth (Go.); kicri_ cloth, garment (Kur.); kic(e)ri (Mundari); kicri_ (Or.)(DEDR 1521). ci_vara dress of an ascetic (S'a_n:khS'r.Pali)[cf. ka_vi red ochre (Ta.); ka.yv sannya_si's dress of orange cloth (Ko.)(DEDR 1490)]; cloth garment (Pkt.); se~ora_ portion of an old cloth (A.); ci_var fine garment (G.); ci_r fine silken woman's garment (G.); sivura, sivra yellow robe of Buddhist monk (Si.)(CDIAL 4846). ci_val that which is loosely woven (Ta.); thinness of cloth (Ma.)(DEDR 2637). Bark, woman's dress: ci_rai bark of a tree (ci_rai tai i ya vut.ukkaiyar : Tirumuru.126); cloth; rags, tatters (Tiruva_lava_. 54,19); ci_rakar Buddhist, as clad in bark (Ta.lex.) ci_ra strip (of bark or cloth)(TA'r.); bark, fibre, bark dress, strip (Pali); rag (Pkt.); ci_raka announcement in a strip of paper (Skt.); curi slip of paper (K.); ci_ro a kind of coloured turban (S.); ci_r slit (P.); ci_ra_ variegated turban (P.); chequered turban (Bi.); cut, slit (H.); ciro piece (Ku.); cut, slice (N.); si_r torn or split piece, bark, old torn cloth (A.); sira_ piece of split cane (A.); cir tear, slice, lath, old torn cloth (B.); cira_ torn, a tear (Or.); strip of cloth (M.); ci_r clothes (in general)(Bi.); clothes, woman's dress (Mth.); bark, strip of cloth, bark garment, tear (H.); crack, slit, small piece (G.); clothes (esp. under-garments)(M.); ci_ro slit, long piece of canvas (G.); hira, ira line, streak (Si.)(CDIAL 4843). ci_rai cloth (Ta.); ci_lai cloth, garment, woman's cloth (Ta.); ci_la, s'i_la cloth (Ma.); si.ly a cloak (To.); si_re cloth, garment in general (not sewed)(Ka.); s'i_re, si_re female's garment (Tu.); ci_ra id., any cloth in general (Te.); ci_la cloak (Go.); si_le cloth (Go.); sila paciya dhoti (Kuwi)(DEDR 2629). kir-ige a small si_re worn by girls (Ka.); kirigi, kirige, girigi the garment worn by a girl (Tu.)(DEDR 1592). ki.r (obl. ki.t--) loose bosom and waist of woman's clothes when tied at waist for working (Ko.); girpuni, gidupuni to loosen, untie, break, pull down (Tu.); gidpu loosening (Tu.); girpu, kippu to pluck (Kor.)(DEDR 1616).

3713.Sun: si_ sun (Tor.); swi_r (Mai.); sir (Wot..); so_, suo sun (Ash.): so_i, so_ (Wg.); su_ (Kt.); ser (Dm.); sa~_ (Gmb.); su_ra sun (RV.); su_rya (Skt.); su_riya (RV.); su_ri_ a name of Kunti as wife of the sun (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); sauri_ wife of the sun; a name of Tapati_ daughter of the sun (MBh.); saura relating to the sun (MaitrUp.); su_ra sun (Pali.Pkt.); surya (Pali); sujja (Pkt.); suj (L.); sivi the sun's ray (Si.); siju sun (S.); sijjh, sijh, sejj (L.); su_ria (Pkt.); su_ri (Tir.); suri_ (Nin:g. Shum.); su_ri (Gaw.Kal.Kand.); surya (Sv.); su_ri (Phal.); sun, sunshine (Sh.); su~_re, siri_, siri sun (K.); (h)ira, hiri, hiru, hira (Si.); iru (Md.); sur sun (Pas'.); si_r (Bshk.)(CDIAL 13574). cu_riyan- sun (Tiruva_ca. 14,15)(Ta.lex.) lahiru newly risen sun (Si.)(CDIAL 7016).

3699.Image: scale-pan; ?balance: ci_rai scale-pan (ci_raipukka varaiya_ vi_kai yuravo_n-: Purana_. 43,7); ci_r equilibrium; balance; measure, quantity; libra of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) ci_r balance; equilibrium, evenness (Kampara_. Akat. 40); libra of the zodiac; ci_rmai weight (Man.i. 27,254)(Ta.lex.)

3700.Image: shoulder staff for carrying burden: ci_r shoulder staff for carrying burden (Malaipat.u. 154)(Ta.lex.)

3661.Image: ear of corn: cir ear of corn (Kal.)(CDIAL 12452).

3728.Fibrous root: hira band, strip (S'Br.); hir filament of a boiled silk cocoon coming out during spinning (A.); hi_r fibre of certain kinds of wood, the blea or part immediately under bark of a tree (H.); hi_r rib of a leaf, fibre of certain kinds of wood (= hirka_)(M.)(CDIAL 14109). hira_ vein, artery (AV.); hirai hair-like first sprouts of ears of corn (Wpah.)(CDIAL 14113). i_r, i_rkku rib of palm leaf (Ta.)(DEDR 544). si_r., s'i_r, hi_r, i_r root (Go.); ci_ra id. (Pe.); si_ru pl. roots; si_rka id. (Kui); hi_ru, hi_ru_ id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2626). si_r fibrous root of tree or plant (Mth.); xera_ long slender and round thing, long raised weal (A.); xir vein, artery (A.); sira_ vein, nerve, tendon (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 13421). sira_la, sira_lu having large or numerous veins (VarBr.S.); sira_l.a having conspicuous veins (Or.); s'ira_l having varicose veins, veiny, streaky (M.)(CDIAL 13422). s'ipha_ fibrous or flexible root (Mn.); sibha_ fibrous root of trees (Pkt.); xiha_, xiya_ fine fibrous root; xiya_iba to take root (A.); sia fibrous root, creeping root of banyan tree above ground (Or.); xihari rootlet (A.); s'ihad.a root (OB.)(CDIAL 12443). s'ipha_ruha banyan tree (Skt.); siha_ru the shrub boehmeria salcifolia (having fibrous bark used for making net ropes)(P.)(CDIAL 12444).

3662.Copper; wealth: ci_run.am copper (Kantapu. Vilvalan--va_ta_-vivatai. 13); ci_run.i, ci_rul., ci_rul.iyam copper; ci_rul. prosperity, wealth; lead; pewter (Ta.lex.)

3663.Implements of husbandry: e_r-c-ci_r implements of husbandry; wealth produced by husbandry (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ci_r prosperity, wealth; ci_r-ceytal to give presents as to a daughter, on the occasion of her marriage; cf. s'ri_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) e_r-t-ta_yam ploughing in season (W.); e_rur..uvu ploughing, tillage, agriculture; extent of land that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in a day (G.Sm.D. i,288) (Ta. lex.) e_rur..uvar ploughmen (ville_ rur..avar pakaikol.in-um : Kur-al., 872); e_ro_r id. (Tol. Po. 76); e_ra_l.ar husbandmen, agriculturists, ploughmen (Ta.); e_r-t-tor..ilar agriculturists, husbandmen (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Renown: ci_rtti < ki_rti great reputation, renown (Tol. Col. 313)(Ta.lex.)

3664.Image: ornamental structure: ci_rkkam an ornamental structure in a hall (Perun. Makata. 9,36)(Ta.lex.)

3665.Granary: ce_r straw-receptacle for paddy (G.Tj.D. I,103); granary; ce_r-kat.t.u-tal to measure and store up paddy in straw receptacle or granary; ce_rve_n- excess in quantity of the grain measured and stored up in granary; ce_rat.i the place where granary or straw-receptacle for paddy stands (Ira_mana_. Cun. 3) (Ta.lex.)

3666.Plough; pair of ploughing bullocks: cf. he_rka pl. plough; pair of ploughing bullocks (Kuwi)(DEDR 2816). Image: drill for sowing seed: si(h)a_ra_ drill (for sowing seed)(L.); sia_ra furrow (Or.)(CDIAL 13429). Furrow: ci_tai < si_ta_ furrow (Tiruppo_. Can. Pil.l.ait. Cen:ki_. 8); ci_ta_ (Kampara_. Urukka_. 85); wife of Ra_ma, as having sprung from a furrow (Pur-ana_. 378)(Ta.lex.) Furrow; cultivation: si~_ cultivation (L.); furrow (L.WPah.); furrow, ploughing (P.Si.); si_ id. (P.); the second ploughing (WPah.); [cf. semant. ci_t.t.ai, ci_t.t.ai-k-katir ear of corn in the second growth (J.)(Ta.lex.)]; sia_r. furrow (P.); sea_r. (WPah.); si_a_ furrow (Pkt.); si_ furrow (Pkt.); si_a~, si_vi~ (L.); si_ya~_ a ploughing (L.); siha_ furrow (WPah.); siyo a ploughing; s'yu furrow (Ku.); siyo (N.); hi_, hi_ya furrow, ploughing (Si.); Goddess of agriculture: si_a_ Si_ta_ (Pkt.); siya (OAw.); si_ta_ goddess of agriculture, furrow (RV.); furrow (Pali)(CDIAL 13428). siya_u_ a deity presiding over agriculture (H.)(CDIAL 13428a). si_ta_yaja sacrifice to the furrow (Gr.S.); si_n a ploughing (L.); siun furrow (WPah.)(CDIAL 13430). Ploughed land: si_ta_ a furrow, track or line of a plough-share; (hence) a tilled or furrowed ground, ploughed land; husbandry, agriculture (e.g. si_ta_-dravyam.); name of the daughter of Janaka, king of Mithila, and wife of Rama. [She was so called because she was supposed to have sprung from a furrow made by king Janaka while ploughing the ground... and hence also her epithets, ayomja, dhara_putri_ etc.]; name of a goddess, wife of Indra; si_ta_-dravyam. implements of agriculture, too,ls of husbandry; si_tya measured out by furrows, tilled, ploughed (Skt.lex.) si_tya ploughed (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 13431). Cultivation: cf. se_dya cultivation, farming (Ka.); se_dyamu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2811). Furrow; line; plough: si_ra plough (RV.Pali.Pkt.); ?cords of the plough; furrow; [ac. to BHSkt. ii, 596 si_ra_h- nom. pl. ( = Pali. si_ta_yo) is mistake for si_ta_h., but A. attests meaning 'furrow']; siru a ploughing (Sh.); si_ra long string by which bullocks are guided in the plough (S.); xir furrow, one ploughing; xirlu_ furrow; xirluwa_ furrowed (A.); si_r ploughing (H.); siru-va, siri plough; (h)ira, (h)iri- line, streak (Si.)(CDIAL 13441). siraur furrow; siror, sira_ur (Bi.); siraur ke dharal to plough (Bi.); sira_ur furrow (Mth.)(CDIAL 13442). tsari, tsariye furrow (Kon.lex.) saira belonging to a plough (A_past.)(CDIAL 13441). cf. selli_ rope (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13591). cf. kayir-u rope, cod, string (Ta.); ki.r-na.n. rope (Ko.); ce.ri coconut fibre, coir (Kod..); ce_ru string, cord (Te.); ce_ri fibre (Tu.)(DEDR 1254). hali_ra plough (P.); halasi_ra plough (BHSkt.); haler the day on which neighbours join to plough one man's land (P.); hali_ri_ small plough (P.)(CDIAL 14010). Temple treasure: ci_-pan.t.a_ram (s'ri_ + bha_n.d.a_ra) temple treasure; temple property (Ta.inscr.)(Na_.)(Ta.lex.) ci_vat-vipa_kam < ji_vad-vibha_ga partition of an ancestral estate among sons by the father during his life-time (W.G.)(Ta.lex.) s'ri_ wealth, riches, affluence, prosperity, plenty; royalty, majesty, royal wealth; dignity, high position, state; beauty, grace, splendour; the goddess of wealth, Laks.mi_, the wife of Vis.n.u; decoration; s'ri_-sakhah., s'ri_dah. epithets of Kubera (Skt.lex.) Land cultivated by owner: si_r land cultivated by owner (P.Ku.); sir-jamin (N.); si_r id. (H.)(CDIAL 13441). Management of sacred buildings: ci_karam < s'ri_-kara prosperity, fortune (Kantapu. Cayantan-pu. 20); ci_ < s'ri_ Laks.mi_ (Kantaran. 8); light, brilliancy (Kantaran. 69); part. an honorific prefix added to the names of deities, eminent persons and sacred objects, e.g. ci_ra_man-, ci_pa_tam (Ta.lex.) ci_ka_riyam < s'ri_ + management of sacred buildings and institutions (S.I.I. ii,311)(Ta.lex.) ci_r prosperity, wealth; greatness, excellence, superiority (Pur-ana_. 1)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ci_r beauty, esteem, fame, balance, measure (Ta.); good condition, increase (Ma.)(DEDR 2624). s'ri_ light, beauty (RV.); welfare, riches (AV.); siri_ (Pali.Pkt.); si_- prosperity (Pkt.); -s hon. affix to names of relationship (e.g. a_ja_-s, a_ji_-s)(M.); siri health, happiness (Si.)(CDIAL 12708). s're_yas better (RV.); auspicious (MBh.); better state (AV.); seyyo_ nom. sg. m. excellent; happiness (Pali); se_a fortunate; fortune; se_am.sa-, sejjam.sa adj. (Pkt.); s'e_ happy (Gypsy)(CDIAL 12721). cf. s're_s.t.ha most splendid, best (RV.); set.t.ha best (Pali)(CDIAL 12725). cf. semant. se_d.hi_ line, row (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12724). Wealth; prosperity: ci_r-cir-appu great prosperity; gifts to a girl given by her parents on the occasion of her marriage; ci_r-ceytal to give presents, as to a daughter, on the occasion of her marriage; ci_r-pa_t.al extolling or recounting the excellence of wedding parties, usually on the fourth day of marriage; ci_r-varicai presents given to a bride, dowry; ci_ra_t.i-k-kon.t.u-po_kai going of a married girl from her husband's house to her father's on the pretext of a petty quarrel; cir-apput.ai-k-kil.avi words of hospitality (Perun.. Ucaik. 34,44); ci_ra_t.t.utal to extol, applaud (Civaraka. Te_viyut.an-. 24); ci_riyar the noble, the great (Mu_turai, 18); ci_riya_r id. (Na_lat.i, 232); ci_riya adj. of surpassing excellence (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 23); ci_rit.am suitable place or opportunity (Kur-al., 821); ci_rul. prosperity, wealth; ci_rittal to be magnificent (Tan.ikaippu. Kal.avu. 494); ci_ra_l.an- distinguished person (Patin-o. Ar-puta. 44); ci_rtti < ki_rti great reputation, renown (Tol. Col. 313); ci_r-p-pa_t.u greatness (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 11); ci_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be excellent, be superior (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,7,6); be suitable, fitting (as an opportunity)(Kur-al., 490); fall into rhythmic movement; n. prosperity, wealth; beauty, gracefulness (Malaipat.u. 570); goodness; greatness, excellence, superiority (Pur-ana_. 1); paramount importance (Tirumuru. 220); esteem, regard, reputation, fame, nature, good normal condition, literal meaning; equilibrium (Kampara_. Akat. 40); evenness, balance; measure, quantity (Pur-ana_. 6,8); heaviness; time-measure, song, metrical foot, sound of musical instruments; ci_rmai greatness, excellence, eminence (Kur-al., 123); reputation, renown (Tacaiva_. 241); weight (Man.i. 27,254); moderateness; decorum, good behaviour (Tiruppu. 109); smoothness, evenness, polish; [cillaa shining (Pkt.); cilkan.u to be bright (S.); cillo smooth, polished (N.); cilakna_ to be bright (H.)(CDIAL 4827)]; ci_rppu excellence (Perun.. Ucaik. 42,148); ci_rkka to swell, become stout; ci_rppikka to increase; ci_r-u good condition, luck (Ma.)(DEDR 2624). cir-a (-pp-, -tt-) to be eminent, illustrious (Pur-ana_. 6,19); surpass, excel (Tiruva_ca. 1,61); be abundant (Maturaik. 244); to be dear (Kur-al., 515); be auspicious, be graceful; rejoice (Kantapu. Yuttaka_n.. Emaku_. 31); cir-anto_r the great, the illustrious, gods, relaives, ascetis; cir-appu pre-eminence, superiority (Tol. Po. 28); pomp, grandeur; that which is special, distinctive, peculiar,opp. to potu (Kur-al., 972); abundance, wealth, prosperity (Pur-ana_64,5); happiness (Kur-al., 1208); honours, privileges (Cilap. 16,109)(Ta.); regard, esteem (Kur-al., 195); courtesy, hospitality (Na_lat.i, 159; present, gift (Kur-al., 590); foodstuffs provided for the marriage parties at a wedding; periodical festival in a temple (Kur-al., 18); a ceremony observed by Na_t.t.ukko_t.t.ai Chetty community; heaven, heavenly bliss (Kur-al., 31); cir-appet.uttal to celebrate a festival (Arut.pa_. 1, Cecar-i, 388); cir-avu meritorious deed (Tiruva_ca. 5,86); cir-appa_t.u excellence, splendour (Te_va_. 500,4)(Ta.); cir-avu meritorious deed (Ta.); cir-akka (cir-annu) to be glorious (Ma.); ser-apu hospitality, honour, festival (Ka.)(DEDR 2589). ir-a (-pp-, -nt-) to go obeyond, transcend, excel, be pre-eminent, pass by (of time), transgress; ir-appa much, exceedingly; ir-appu transgression, passing, excess, abundant (Ta.); er-t- (er-ty-) to overcome in contest, outstrip (To.); esna_ (essas) to transgress (Kur.)(DEDR 515). Full: a_ru fullness, abundance; to the full of, fully; cf. nu_r-a_ru, sa_vira_ru (Ka.); a_r to be united (Ka.); a_l to be complete (Te.); a_r to bind (Te.); a_l to heap up (Ma.); a_r to abound, to be filled, to teem (Ka.); a_ra so that it or they be filled, or to the full of (Ka.Ta.); a_ra-ka_d.u a perfect wild: a place that has never been cultivated (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) e_ra_l.am abundance, plentitude, plenty (Ira_mana_. Cun. 3); e_ra_l.amu, pe_ra_l.amu (Te.); he_ra_l.a (Ka.); he_ral.a (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Whole; strong: sa_ra value; essential (Pali); sara (Dhp.); sala, s'a_la the essential (As'.); sa_ra strength, wealth (Pkt.); sa_ru the best part, whole (Ap.); sa_r all (Gypsy); sar, sa_ro (Gypsy); sa_ra whole (Ash.); sa_re (Wg.); sa_ro fully developed, full, filled (Sh.); sa_r essence; sry essential, all; saurui all; sa_ru_i_ (K.); sa_ru pith, essence; sa_ro whole (S.); sa_ra_ whole, all (L.); sa_r pith; sa_ra_ whole (P.); sa_re adv. completely; sa_ri_ adj. all (WPah.); sa_ro complete (Ku.); sa_rhai adv. very (N.); sa_ra_ whole (B.); whole, completed (Or.); whole (OAw.H.); sa_ra, sa_ro all, complete, whole (OMarw.); sa_ru~ whole, good (G.); sa_ra_ whole (M.); sara_ whole, complete (Si.)(CDIAL 13355). cf. a_r (-v-, -nt-) to become full; n. fullness, completeness (Ta.) (DEDR 368). Strength; abundance: a_r-r-u (a_r-r-i-) to become strong, powerful, be possible, be sufficient, accumulate (as wealth), sustain, carry; a_r-r-al strength, power, prowess, ability, abundance, endurance, courage; a_r-r-a greatly, exceedingly, entirely; a_n-r-a excellent, grand, splendid; a_n-r-al greatness, dignity, abundance, copiousness; a_n-r-avar, a_n-r-a_r, a_n-r-o_r erudite, wise persons; a_n-r-o_l. lady of exalted character (Ta.); a_r-r-uka to grow richly, thrive; a_r-r-am much; a_r-r-al growing; healthy, magnificent growth; a_nr-a wide, excellent (Ma.); a.r- (only in negative, following S -ul.) not to be willing to do so-and-so; (only in negative, following S -l) cannot do so-and-so (Ko.); o.xar-e- you will not be (To.); a_r- (a_rt-) to be or become strong, be powerful, able, or competent, be possible, can, may, be adequate, be able for, be able to endure; a_r-u power, daring, self-will; a_rpu might, force, daring, valour; a_ke power, valour; a_pa being strong, being able, being possible (Ka.); a.t- (a.ti-) (body) attains maturity (at about 21 years), (fruit, grain) becomes mature but not yet ripe; a.ti full-grown but not yet ripe (guava, jack, coconut)(Kod..); a_t.u, a~_t.u to be adequate, sufficient, be capable of, endure (Te.)(DEDR 407). arr- to be correct, be satisfactory; arro taboo, used chiefly of food; aror enemy (Go.); abga to be seemly, be proper, be fitting, be suitable, suit, fit, agree, fulfil; n. suitability (Kui)(DEDR 325).

3667.To sprinkle, shake out: si_r-umbul. being scattered, sprinkled, etc. (Ka.); ci.rl (to rain) in a drizzle (Ko.); si.r spray (To.); si_r-u to be scattered, be sprinkled, fly about; si_r-pani spray or fine drops of water (Ka.); ji_ria_ fountain (Te.); sir.k to sprinkle water (Te.); si_rpa (si_rt-) to shake out, sprinkle; n. act of sprinkling, shaking out; sir.si giva to sprinkle (Kui)(DEDR 2640). sira_, si_ra_ stream (RV.); sira stream (OG.); se_r bleeding at the nose, bleeding (K.)(CDIAL 13421). siran.u to flow, glide (S.); seran.u to move, put on one side (S.); sirra spoutingly (of blood or water flowing)(N.); sirko flowing, gliding (S.); sirko a rush or stream (of milk)(N.)(CDIAL 13420). Image: to fling, throw: cir-umu to fling, throw (Te.)(DEDR 2640).

3668.Image: string of pearls: sarika_ string of pearls (Skt.)(CDIAL 13260).

3669.Tank: caracu a tank, pond, lake (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 14,8)(Ta.lex.) cir-ai tank, bank, boundary (Ta.); cir-a tank, reservoir, enclosure, dam, limit (Ma.); ker tank (Ko.); ker-f- (ker-t-) (water) is dammed (To.); ker-e tank (Ka.); kere tank (Kod..); ker, kir, kedu an artificial tank (Tu.); cer-uvu, ceruvu artificial lake, tanki (Te.); ceru tank (Kol.); saru tank (Nk.); eru pond, tank (Go.); ket.- to shut (Ga.); keR- (-t-) to build a wall (as enclosure)(Kond.a); ker- to fence (Kuwi) (DEDR 1980). saras lake, pool (RV.); sara lake, pond (Pali.Pkt.); sur fountain, lake or pool with bubbling water unfit to bathe in (Ash.); [cf. cun-ai mountain pool or spring, tank, reservoir (Ta.)(DEDR 2716)]; sor, so_r lake (Wg.); sur fountain (Kt.); sur, su_ru (Pr.); sar pool, pond (Phal.); sar, saruna pool, lake (Kal.); sar pool, pond (Phal.); sar lake, flood (in river), standing water (Sh.); sar pond, lake (K.); saru pond, tank (S.); sar (P.H.G.); sara lake, name of a lake near Puri (Or.); sara pool, tank (OAw.); sara pond, lake, sea (Si.)(CDIAL 13254).

4034. Goldsmith's chisel; cutting: chewani chisel (N.); chewni (H.); che_dana cutting; act of cutting (MBh.); instrument for cutting (Pali); che_dana cutting; che_danaka one who cuts (Pali); che_an.a cutting, a tool (Pkt.) chyunu goldsmith's chisel (K.); chen.i_ smith's cold chisel (S.); che_n.i_ chisel (L.); chain.i_ cold chisel; chaini_ (P.); chin.i iron wedge for splitting wood (WPah.); chi_n.o iron crowbar; chen.i a tool (Ku.); chinu, cheni chisel (N.); sena_ chisel, instrument for letting blood (A.); cheni wedge (B.); cheni wedge (B.); chen.a_ scraping a log with an adze, iron pick; chen.i_ cold chisel, punch (Or.); che_ni_ (Bi.Bhoj.Aw.); cheni_ chisel for notching millstones (H.); chen.i_, chi_n.i_ chisel (G.); sevana separation (Si.); chevan.i_ potter's cutting string (S.)(CDIAL 5066). cf. cimni, chini a chisel (Santali.lex.) ca_na, ca_n.a, ce_n.a, ci_ran.a a small chisel (Ka.); se_na id. (Te.)(Ka.lex.) To cut, slit, peel: chirnu to pierce, bore a hole (N.); siriba to tear (A.); s'irn.e~ to enter forcibly or suddenly; s'irakn.e~ to pierce (M.)(CDIAL 5049). chinna cut off (AV.); cut (Pali); chinnaka cut (Pali); cinist pret. of cya_ to cut asunder, break (Kt.); chinoiki to cut; chinyo_nu to tear (Sh.); chyonu cut off; chenun to be split (K.); chino pp. of chijan.u, chinan.u to snap off, pluck (S.); chin socket, mortise; chinnan. to mortise, cut a socket (L.); chinon.u_ to be torn; chilli small clip of wood (WPah.); chinnu to break with one stroke (N.); chininu to be cut in two; china_unu to break, pluck (N.); china_, china_na to break, tear away (Or.); chi_nai snatches away (Or.); china_iba_ to break, tear away (Or.); chi_nai snatches away (OAw.); chi_nna_ to snatch, pluck (H.); chinvu~ to slit, peel; chi_navvu~ to snatch, take away (G.); s'ina_ separate (M.); sun cut off (Si.)(CDIAL 5047). chinatti cuts (RV.); chin.vu~ to slit, peel (G.); chan.vu~ to scratch (G.)(CDIAL 5045). chinatti, pl. chindanti cuts off, splits (RV.); chindati (Pali); chim.nati, pp. chim.nida (NiDoc.); chim.dai (Pkt.); chind to cut (Pas'.); chindani_, chindana_ knife (Pas'.); chindiba to cut (A.); chindiba_ to cut off (Or.); s'indata_ cuts (Konkan.i); sindinava_, hindinava_ to cut off, pluck off (as feather), presses out (as oil)(Si.); s'e~dn.e~ to make small cuts in (M.); chin, cin to cut; chin, chen (Gypsy); cena_, cina_ to divide, put aside, hide (Ash.); chin to cut, break (Dm.); cen to cut, fell (Wg.); cin to tear (Gaw.); sin to cut (Wot..); chin to cut, break, fell (Kal.); chin to cut, break, pluck (Kho.); cin to cut (Bshk.Tor.); chin to cut, break (Phal.)(CDIAL 5046).

5043a.Chisel used in cutting metals: ci_ran.a, ci_rn.a, ji_rn.a a small chisel, esp. used in cutting metals (Ka.); ci_ran.amu a small chisel (Te..); cirn.e~ id.. (M.)(DEDR 2627). ciran.i_ a small chisel, esp. used in cutting metals (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. irne chisel (Kon.lex.) cf. sira_n.i large whetstone (S.)(CDIAL 12462). ca_y, cira_y splinter (Tirumuru. 312)(Ta.lex.) ki_r-u (ki_r-i-) to slit, tear, rend, cut, gash, slice; n. gash, cut, slice, piece (Ta.); ki_r-al tearing; ki_r-r-u slice, piece; ki_l (ki_lv-, ki_nr-) to rend, tear (Ta.); ki_r-u rag, shred; ki_r-r-u fragment, piece (Ma.); ki_ntuka to slice, cleave; ki_ntal a slice, piece (Ma.); ki.r- (ki.ry-) to tear, gash; ki.r gash (Ko.); ki.r-- (ki.r-y-) to tear (Ko.); ki_tu piece, slice (of fruits, flesh)(Ka.); ki.r- (ki.ri-) to tear; ki.t- (ki.ti-) id.; gi.r- (gi.ri-) to make gash; ki.ti torn piece (paper, cloth)(Kod..); ki_runi to split; ki_ru split, rift; ki_tu part, bit, splinter (Tu.); gi_r-u to tear, rend (Te.); gi~_t.u id. (Te.); kirr, ki_r a wound; keerk a bit or piece (Go.)(DEDR 1624).

3670.Row, collection; arrangement: cire_n.i street, row of houses (Pin..); herdsmen's street (Cu_t.a_.); line, row, series (Can.. Aka.); cire_n.iyam id. (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) s're_n.i line, row, troop (RV.); sen.i row of rafters in a thatched roof, the wooden plates on which the rafters are put crosswise (Or.); se_n.i row, collection (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12718). cf. se_na_ army (RV.Pali)(CDIAL 12718). ce_n.i ladder; order, arrangement (Ta.lex.) ce_n.i (vicaiyar ce_n.i celavit.t.u: Cu_l.a_. Cuyam. 192); party of workmen, set of players, company of travellers, kur..u (J.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vicam the Vindhya mountains (Ta.lex.) Eighteen servile castes: cire_n.iyar the eighteen servile castes, patin-en. kut.imakkal. (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)[The eighteen kut.i-makkal. are: van.n.a_n-, na_vitan-, kuyavan-, tat.t.a_n-, kan-n-a_n-, kar-r-accan-, kollan-, taccan-, en.n.ey-va_n.ikan-, uppu-va_n.ikan-, ilai-va_n.ikan-, pal.l.i, pu_ma_lai-k-ka_ran-, par-aiyan-, ko_vir--kut.iya_n-, occan-, valaiyan-, pa_n.an- (W.); the term kut.i-makkal. also means 'slaves' (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 13, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.)]

3515b.Image; rat: ginen orli a kind of rat (Pe.); ginen urli id. (Mand..); ginesi orli id. (Kuwi); genesi orli squirrel (Kuwi)(DEDR 1605). orli rat (Pe.); urli id. (Mand..); od.ri id. (Kui); ori'i id., mouse (Kui); or.li, orli rat (Kuwi)(DEDR 994).

3515a Image: vein of leaf: i-n-ai vein of a leaf (Ta.); i_ne mid-rib of a leaf, or any one of the ribs running from it (Te.); i_n.a a sinew (Kuwi)(DEDR 556). hi_r rib of a leaf (M.); hira band, strip (S'Br.)(CDIAL 14109). hira_ vein, artery (AV.); yu_ru vein (Kal.); yuru vein, artery, pulse (Kho.); hirai hairlike first sprouts of ears of corn (WPah.); ira placenta of cow or buffalo (Or.)(CDIAL 14113). i_r, i_rkku, i_rkkil rib of palm leaf (Ta.); i_rkkil, i_kkil, i_rkkal, i_l. stalk of coconut leaf, mid-rib of any palm leaf (Ma.); ci_kuru rib of palm leaf (Tu.)(DEDR 544). sira_ vein, nerve, tendo (Ya_jn~.); id. (Pali); sira_, chira_ vein, sinew (Pkt.); si_r fibrous root of tree or plant (Mth.)(CDIAL 13421).

3515.Artillery: jinsi_ a heavy piece of artillery (P.lex.) s'i_ra pointed, sharp (RV.)(CDIAL 12495). ir-ai chief, eminence (Ta.); ir-a_n, ra_n sire, used in addressing princes (Ma.); er-e state of being a master or husband (Ka.); er-a lord (Te.)(DEDR 528). irmu_ throw!; irh'nai to pelt (Kuwi)(DEDR 859). ey arrow (Ta.); e_ shooting, arrow (Ta.); e_vu arrow (Ta.)(DEDR 805). er-i (-v, -nt-) to throw, discharge; throw, fling, kick; er-iva missiles (Ta.)(DEDR 859). ji_a_na_ to throw, strike, hit (Go.); to beat, kill; ji_ to strike, beat; hi_ to strike, shoot with bow; caus. jih-; i_ to strike, beat (Go.); ji_ali to shoot an arrow; ji_ to shoot with bow; ji_ to shoot (Kuwi)(DEDR 2602). injna_ to shoot (arrows)(Kur.); in.he (inj-) to pelt; ece to throw out (Malt.); eyttu shooting (Ma.); eyyuka to shoot an arrow (Ma.); ey to discharge arrows (Ta.)(DEDR 805).

3514.Armoury: ji_nas'a_le an armoury (Ka.lex.) je a particle of respect (G.M.); jayati conquers (RV.)(CDIAL 5143). jina_ti overpowers (RV.); conquers (Pali); jin.ai, ppp. jin.iya (Pkt.); ze_nun, pp. zyu_nu to conquer, earn (K.); jin.an., pp. jitta_ (L.); jin.nu~ (WPah.); ziniba (A.); jina_ (B.); jin.iba_ (Or.); jin.iu conquered (OG.); jin.an.em. (OM.); dinanava_, dananu victory (Si.)(CDIAL 5226). ji win (Skt.); jita won, conquered (RV.); ji_n.em. to win (OM.); jita (Pali); jia (Pkt.); jittn.a_ to conquer (P.); zi_tn.u_, jittan., jittn.a_, jitn.a_ (WPah.); ji_tn.o (Ku.); jitnu (N.); zi_tiba (A.); jita_ (B.); jitiba_ (Or.); ji_tab (Mth.); ji_tai (OAw.); ji_tna_ (H.); ji_tan.u (S.); ji_tvu~ (G.); jitn.e~ (M.); ji_pai wins (OG.); zikiba to conquer (A.); ji~kn.e~ (M.); jikta_ (Kon.); jin.n.a conquered (Ap.); dina victory (Si.)(CDIAL 5224). jiti gaining, victory (RV.); ziy victory, earnings, profit (K.)(CDIAL 5225). cf. se_na_ army (RV.Pali); sen.a (Dhp.); sena (KharI.); sen.a_ (Pkt.); si~ (Sh.); si_na (K.); sena (OAw.); sen (H.Si.)(CDIAL 13587). s'en.ai, s'en.vai_, s'en.vi_ a class of brahmans (M.); s'en.vi (Kon.); se_na_pati general (Pali); se_n.a_vai (Pkt.); senevi general (Si.); se_na_pati leader of an army (AitBr.)(CDIAL 13589). xena_ soldier (A.); sena, sena_ (Or.); sena_ general, official who collects revenue in a village (H.); sen.na, sin.n.a army (Pkt.); sen (G.); se_niya soldier (Pali); seniya, seni (NiDoc.); sainya belonging to an army; soldier; army (MBh.); sainika id. (MBh.); sem.niga (NiDoc.); se_n.iga (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13602).

4011.Image: worm, insect: ji_, jhi_ louse (Phal.); jia_ worm (Or.); ji_v insect (G.); jivr.u~ insect; jivr.o small creature (G.); ji_v mite, insect (M.)(CDIAL 5239).

4012.Live long!: ci_va < ji_va expr. meaning 'may you live long' (Ci_vaka. 323)(Ta.); ci_vakan- < ji_vaka the hero of the epic Ci_vaka-cinta_man.i, a Jain epic poem composed by Tiruttakkate_var, about the beginning of 10th century, one of paca-ka_viyam (Ta.lex.) ji_va the soul; life; ji_vana, ji_va_na living, means of substence, livelihood (Pali); ji_vika_-kappaka finding one's livelihood (Pali)[vi_vus (Lat.); quius (Goth.); queck (OHG.); quick (E.); gyvas (Lith.); diaura diet (Gr.)] (Pali. lex.) ji_va long live! (imper. of ji_vati)(Skt.); ji_u yes, honorific particle added to names (S.); particle of assent or respect (L.P.); jyu_ term of respectful address (Ku.); jiu particle of assent or respect (N.); ji (B.); ji_ (H.G.M.); [as honorific particle added to names perh. < 3 sg. ji_vatu](CDIAL 5240). ji_vati is alive (RV.Pali); ji_vai, ji_ai (Pkt.); jiv (Gypsy); zonu to exist (Sh.); zuwun to live (K.); jian.u (S.); ji_van. (L.); ji_un.a_ (P.); ji_n.u_ (WPah.); jyu_n.o (Ku.); jiunu (N.); ziba (A.); jiya_ (B.); ji_iba_ (Or.); jiyab (Mth.); ji_yal (Bhoj.); ji_yai, jiai (OAw.); ji_na_ (H.); ji_vai (OMarw.); ji_vvu~ (G.); jin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 5241). ji_va living; any living being, vital breath (RV.); life (MBh.); life, soul (Pali); living creature (As'.); life, living creature (Pkt.); ji~_a id. (Pkt.); ji_vaka living; living being (Skt.); zi_v, zuv living creature, body (K.); ji_u life, living being, animal; jiur.o body, person (S.); ji_u life, soul; ji_ creature (P.); jyu_, jyo life, soul; jiyaro (Ku.); jiu body, life (N.); zi_u soul; zi_ya_ alive, fresh (of meat or vegetables)(A.); ji_u, ji life, spirit, courage (B.); ji_u spirit of the dead (Or.); ji_ life, mind, heart (Or.); ji_a~_ living (Or.); jiu life, soul; jia_ life (Mth.); ji_u, jiw animal, life (Bhoj.); jiu life (Aw.); ji_u, jiw animal, life (Bhoj.); jiu life (Aw.); ji_u, ji_, jiya_ life, soul (H.); ji_va living being (OMarw.); ji_v living being, life (G.); ji_v living being, energy (M.); ji_vu life (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 5239). ji_vatva state of life (Ra_matUp.); zi_wuth, zi_watas condition of a living being, life (K.)(CDIAL 5242). ji_vana vivifying (S'Br.); life (RV.); livelihood (Pali); ji_van.a, ji_an.a life (Pkt.); ji_on, jiniste (Kt.); ji_un. livelihood (P.); jiu_n. (P.); ji_n. life (WPah.); zi_yan water applied to a plant to revive it, means of living (A.); jion, jian remaining alive (B.); jioni fishmonger who keeps fresh fish alive (B.); jiuni livelihood (Or.); jian life (Bhoj.); jiana (OAw.); ji_an, jiyan (H.); ji_van. livelihood (G.); jin.e~ life (M.)(CDIAL 5243). ji_vanta long-lived (Skt.); ji_vant living (RV.)[pres. part. of ji_vati]; jivam.taga, jivam.ti living (NiDoc.); jivam.ta (Pkt.); jindo, jido (Gypsy); jit, zit body; yo_n, yu~_test alive (Ash.); ji_t body; je~_ta alive (Wg.); jit body (Kt.); za~ta alive (Dm.); jinde (Tir.); jimandu_ (Pas'.); jando (Pas'.); zi_t body (Nin:g. Shum.); syen alive (Wot..); zia~_ta (Gaw.); jhan, jha_nd body (Kal.); zunu alive (Kho.); ju_nu (Kal.); ja_ndo (Bshk.); jandi_ (Tor.); ja_ndu (Phal.); ji_nu, udu, zonu (Sh.); ji~_da_, jund body; junda_ alive (L.); zintu_, jinta_, ji~_ta_ (WPah.); jyu~_da_, jyu_no (Ku.); jiu~do (N.); zi_yanta_ (A.); jiyanta (B.); ji_anta_ (Or.); ji_ta_ (H.); jivtu~ (G.); ji~t, jita_ (M.)(CDIAL 5244). ji_vama_na living (MBh.); alive (Pali); ji_vama_naka alive (Pali); ji_ya_na kept alive (MB.); jiono (B.); divaman, di_manu alive (Si.)(CDIAL 5246). ji_vaputra having live offspring (RV.); ji_vapraja (A_s'vGr..); je~a_c woman whose child is living (B.)(CDIAL 5249). ji_va_payati restores to life (R.); ji_vayati (RV.); ji_va_ve_i (Pkt.); jiva_un.a_ to revive, feed (P.); jiya_unu to resuscitate (N.); ziya_iba id. (A.); jiya_na to keep alive (as fish in a pond)(B.); ji_a_iba_ to revive (Or.); jiwa_na_ (H.); jivavin.e~ to bring to life (M.); jio_n.o~_ to wax (of moon)(WPah.)(CDIAL 5250). ji_vita living, life (RV.); life, lifetime (Pali); ji_vita_ya dat. sg. (As'.); ji_via, ji_a (Pkt.); ji_o pp. of ji_an.u (S.); kha_yo-jiyo livelihood (N.); ji_vi_ life (OG.); divi (Si.)(CDIAL 5252). jivtar life (G.)(CDIAL 5253).

4013.Land for livelihood: [ji]vl land granted for maintenance as reward for service (OSi.); divela id., pay (Si.); *ji_va-va_t.i_ garden for livelihood (Skt.); ji_v live (Skt.)(CDIAL 5251). ci_vantan- < ji_vantah. nom. pl. of ji_vat living person (Ta.); ji_vante id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Rice offerings in a temple: ci_pali (s'ri_ + bali) rice offering in a temple; a small idol carried round the temple every day; daily procession of ci_pali idol around the temple, making offerings to the minor deities (Cilap. Uraiper-ukat.. 4, Urai.); ci_-pa_ta-k-ku_li wages of vehicle-bearers in a temple; ci_pa_tan-ta_n:kikal. vehicle-bearers attached to a temple, as supporting the feet of god; ci_var-cam < s'ri_-vatsa image of Laks.mi carried on special occasions, as a symbol of auspiciousness (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.ap. 67)(Ta.lex.) jilo livelihood (N.); ji_vala full of life (AV.); ji_va_la_ (Skt.); jil life (Sh.); jiaro alive (S.); jila_na_ to vivify (H.); jiva_lan.a_ to revivify (P.); jiya_lo tenacious of life (N.); jiva_l. living (G.); jiva_l.(h)a_ soul (M.)(CDIAL 5247). For suffix va_l.- cf.: va_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to exist, live, flourish (Ta.)(DEDR 5372).

3514f.Chisel: ca_n.a, ca_na, ce_na a small chisel (Ka.); ce_nu, ce_n.u awl, chisel (Tu.); se_namu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2445).

3514a.Razor: sine, heni razor (Kui); hin.- (-h-), hirhali, hinh'nai to shave;hin.pa, hir.pa, hinipa, hin.ipa razor (Kuwi); sinpa (-t-) to shave (beard, head, etc.); sinpis- (-t-) to cause to shave; sir-im razor (Kond.a); hen- (-t-) to shave (Pe.); silpa (silt-) to shave (berd, head); n. a shave (Kui); in.un:ku (in.un:ki-) to pull off as a leaf from a twig, pluck as a flower (Ta.)(DEDR 2522). cinala, cinala_ sharp (Ash.); cenala (Wg.)(CDIAL 12441). s'ita whettted, sharp (RV.); sita sharp (Pali); sia (Pkt.); cya (Kt.); ci_l edge, sharp (Kal.); cilaka sharp; ci_ra sharp (Kal.); hiya, iya, i_-ya arrow (Si.)(CDIAL 12438). s'o_ to whet (Skt.); sam.s'yat (metr. sam.s'iyat) 3 sg. imperf. being sharp (RV.); ci_~ta, ci_~ti sharp (Dm.)(CDIAL 12447). s'i_ra pointed, sharp (RV.); s'i_rin a kind of kus'a grass (Skt.)(CDIAL 12495). nis'a_na whetting (Vop.); nisa_na hone (Pali); n.isa_n.a (Pkt.); nisa_n.a_ (M.); nihun.u-ga_nava_ to whet (Si.(CDIAL 7432). nis'ita sharpened (RV.); nisita id. (Pali); n.isia (Pkt.); nisila_ (OM.); niyu (Si.)(CDIAL 7435). nis'yati sharpens (AitBr.); nisiba_ to whet (Or.)(CDIAL 7456).

3672.Whetstone: sira_n.i large whetstone (S.) (-a_- < -a_ha_-), sara_n. (G.) -- Derivation from intrusive r from s'a_na is most unlikely; but an -n- extension of s'ila_- as in pa_s.a_n.a ~ pa_s'i_ is possible.](CDIAL 12462). sala_r.i_, sala_r.u~ cobbler's whetstone (G.)(dissimilation from l. -- d.) (CDIAL 12460). cf. s'a_na whetstone (Skt.)(CDIAL 12388). sira brick (S.); sil brick (L.); sillh, silh brick, hone (L.); si_l grindstone (Bi.); silla_, silli_ barber's whetstone (Bi.); si_l stone (Mth.); silli_ = sili_ (H.); s'ila_ rock, crag (AV.); lower millstone (Skt.); sila_ rock, stone, quartz (Pali); stone (As'.); stone slab (Pkt.); s'il flat stone for braying things on (Sh.); s'e_l large stone, rock (K.); s'il stone slab used for sharpening knives or grinding spices (WPah.); sil id. (P.); rock, flat grinding stone (H.); sili_ whetstone, hone (Ku.); stone, whetstone, hone, touchstone (H.); silo stone for grinding spices on (Ku.); sili whetstone (N.); xil stone, hailstone (A.); sil flat stone for grinding on, hail (B.); sil.a stone, grinding stone (Or.); sil.a_ hailstone (Or.); sal., sal.i_ whetstone (G.); sala_r.i_, sala_r.u~ cobbler's whetstone (G.); s'i_l. stone (esp. smooth flat stone)(M.); sal-a rock, mountain (Si.)(CDIAL 12459). The hard stone used in cutting metals is related to the second element in these compounds and semantically to 'hailstone': a.n-gal hail (Ko.); a_n.i-kallu, a_n.e-kallu, a_ni-kal, a_ne-gallu hailstone (Ka..); a_n.e-kallu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 355).] sala_t. stone-cutter (G.)(<? sal.a_t)(CDIAL 12460).

3670b.Edge of a blade: e_n-am tool (Ta.); e_nam tool (Ma.)(DEDR 918). e_nu one edge of a blade of hoe or spade (Te.); e_n. e_n.u edge, point (Ka.); e.ner edge (Ko.); e_n.u edge, chiefly the three edges of the coconut (Ma.); e_n. e_n.i boundary, limit (Ta.)(DEDR 886). e_n., e_n.am, e_n.ai, e_t.ci firmness; en. strength (Ta.); e_n.am steadfastness (Ma.); e_n.u energy, firmness, stability (Ma.)(DEDR 886).

3670a.Image; elephant: e_ni, e_n, aini_, e_nig, ye_ni_, e_nal elephant (Go.); e_ngu, e_ni (Kond.a); ya_n-ai, a_n-ai (Ta.); a_na (Ma.); a.n (Ko.To.); a_ne, ya_ne (Ka.); a.ne (Kod..); a_ne (Tu.); e_nugu, e_nika, e_niga, e_nige, e_nuga (Te.); ena_gi_, e_ngi (Kol.); e_nagi_ (Nk.); e_nu pl. (-l)(Pa.)(DEDR 5161).

3885.Squirrel: t.ilka squirrel (Mand..); t.illi, tilli, t.ili orli id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2959). sid.d.e squirrel (Kol.); s'id.d.e id. (Nk.); cid.ra_l, cid.ral (pl. cid.rahk) id. (Go.); cir.ra_, cid.ra_ id. (Kur.); sirkuli squirrel (Kond.a); hirkoli id. (Pe.); siruni, sirur.i, herur.i id. (Kui); her'ur.i, hir'uni id. (Kuwi); cikrod.a id. (Skt.); cikro_d.amu (Te.); ci_khur (H.)(DEDR 2518). can.ilu, canilu, tan.ilu, an.ilu squirrel ()Tu.); an.il, an.ilam, an.iyal, an.n.atta_n squirrel (Ta.); an.il, an.n.al, an.n.a_n id.; en.un:ku a variety of mountain squirrel (Ma.); e.n.d.l. squirrel (Ko.); an.il id. (To.); an.al, an.il, al.ale, al.il, al.ul, al.l.u_ma, a_l.indaki, in.aci, can.ila id. (Ka.); an.ekot.t.i id. (Kod..)(DEDR 2315). ud.ute squirrel (Ka.); ud.uta id. (Te.)(DEDR 590). ur-uta squirrel (Te.); ur-uttal id. (Ta.)(DEDR 713). ginem orli a kind of rat (Pe.); ginen urli id. (Mand..); ginesi orli id.; genesi orli squirrel (Kuwi)(DEDR 1605). cf. orli rat (Pe.); urli id. (Mand..)(DEDR 994).

3514j.Image:pregnancy: i_n. (i_n.p-, i_n.r--) to bear, bring forth; i_r-r-am giving birth (Ta.); i_nuka to shoot into ears; bring forh, yean (Ma.); i_n (i_d-) to bring forth young, yean, cub (Ka.); hi_ning to lamb, kid, foal, calf, etc. (Br.)(DEDR 555). cin-ai foetus, embryo, pregnancy (Ta.); cana pregnancy (Ma.)(DEDR 2592). jan be born (Skt.); janani_ mother (S'a_n:khS'r.Pali.); jan.an.i_ (Pkt.); jan.n.i_ (P.)(CDIAL 5100); janana birth (Mn.); jan.an.a (Pkt.); janani family, race (B.); dananaya birth, production (Si.)(CDIAL 5099). janita born (Skt.Pali); jan.ia (Pkt.); dini, dunu (Si.)(CDIAL 5104). zut birth (Kt.); swa_t, zo_t. lying-in house (Pr.)(CDIAL 5109). janiman birth (RV.); dinim birth (Si.)(CDIAL 5107). janus birth, race (RV.)(CDIAL 5108). jantu offspring, creature, man (RV.); any animal of lowes order, insect, worm (Mn.); living being (Pali); jam.tu (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5110). jama_rau birth, life (OG.)(CDIAL 5111). janmada progenitor (Skt.); jama_n birth (Pas'.)(CDIAL 5112). janman birth, creature (RV.); janman, janana birth (Pali); janma, gen. jas.a (NiDoc.); jamma, jan.a (Pkt.); jamu birth, age (S.); jam birth (L.); ja_m son, seed; anja_ma_ barren; jamr.a_ father; jamr.i_ mother (H.); ja_ma birth (OB.); jamm birth, offspring, growth (P.); jammai is born (Pkt.); jaman.u to be born, take root (S.); jamman., jaman. to be born, grow; jaman.a_ birth (L.); jammn.a_ to be born, to come into existene, grow (P.); to bear (P.); jama_un.a_ to act as midwife (P.); jamn.a_ to be born, bear; jamn.o_~ to grow (WPah.); ja_mn.o to germinate (Ku.); ja_mal to grow (Bhoj.); ja_mna_ to germinate, sprout; jama_na_ to plant (a tree etc.)(H.) (CDIAL 5113). jammia born (Pkt.); jammi_~ born, flourishing (P.)(CDIAL 5115).jan to be born, bears (Gypsy); dana having been born (OSi.); janyate_ is born (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 5117). jan to bear, be born (Gypsy); dana absol. having been born (Si.inscr.); ja_ne_ti begets (Pali); jan- to bear (Kho.)(CDIAL 5192). za to be born (Wg.); ja_yate_ is born (RV.); generates (R.); ja_yati is born (Pali); ja_ai (Pkt.); ja_y to bear (of animals)(Pas'.); joiki (Sh.); zonu (Sh.); zyonu (pp. za_v)(K.); za_um.k to happen, become, be (Kon.); ja_pan.u (pp. ja_o) to be born (S.)(CDIAL 5204).

3514r.Image;crab: ja_na crab (Kui); ja_na_, ja_na crab (Kuwi)(DEDR 2487).

3879.Image: earthen basin: sa_hn.ak an earthen basin, an earthen kneading trough (P.lex.) sa_nhki_ a small earthen plate (P.lex.)

3880.Image: lute: san.i_ a fine kind of harp (P.lex.)

3878.Image: sacred bull: sa_hn. a sacred bull, a sacred horse; a stallion; an independent, extravagant or lecherous fellow (P.lex.) sa_n.d.h a bull, a stallion; sa_nh a bull, a stallion; a large buffalo bull, a bullock after 4 years of age (P.lex.)

3514s.Image;battle: cen.anu to oppose (Te.)(DEDR 1944). cin-am war; cin-aval battle (Ta.)(DEDR 1600).

3514t.Image;to copulate: xenna_ to copulate (Kur.)(DEDR 1944).

3671.Image: pillar: ce_ni, cyu_nu pillar, wall acting as pillar (K.); cen.i folds (G.); ci_n heap, pile (Sh.)(CDIAL 4681).

3514h.Image; ear of corn: sen, cennu ear of corn or paddy (Ga.); e_n-al ear of corn (Ta.); ennu, vennu id. (Te.); cen head of paddy (Kol.); s'en (pl. senkul.) head of jowar (Nk.); cen head of paddy (Pa.); s'en head of paddy; senk corn (pl.; san head of jowar; han head of paddy; hennu ear of wheat or jowari; enni(i) head of grain; en ear of corn (Go.); ser-en (pl. ser-eku) id. (Kond.a); hessu cannu head of rice (Kur.); canu pod (Malt.)(DEDR 2798). cf. ce_nu field of a crop (Te.) cf. cin-ai to bud, branch out on all sides; flower bud, branch of a tree (Ta.); canaccam smaller branch of a tree or antler; cina branching out as an ear of corn; cinekka to branch out, rice to sprout (Ma.); jane yolk of an egg (Ka.); sane conceiving (Tu.); jena yolk of an egg (Te.)(DEDR 2592).

3514p.Image;goat's hair: ja_t hair of head (D..); jat hair of animals (Sh.); jati soft downyhair (S.); jatt, jat goat's or camel's hair, sheep;s wool, short hair on body; jat goat's hair (L.); jat hair (WPah.); jas. goat's hair (Tor.); jac goat's hair; zoc (Kho.); zas hair (Wot..)(CDIAL 5093). cf. jham.t.i_ zmall bunch of hair (Pkt.); jha_t. goat's hair (Phal.)(CDIAL 5334). jha_l tassel of hair (M.)(CDIAL 5357).

3811.Image: hole, perforation: sall a hole, perforation; salwai_ the act of perforating, mortising; also wages for the same; salln.a_ to dig, to perforate with a chisel, to mortise (P.lex.) s'alyayati hurts, torments (Skt.); sallia pained by a thorn (Pkt.); salan.u to pierce, bore (S.); salln.a_ to perforate (P.); sa_lai pierces, pricks (OAw.); sa_lna_ to pierce, penetrate, prick, to smart, hurt (H.); salna_ to be pierced, pierce, enter (H.); sa_lvu~ to prick, pinch, punch; to smart, ache (G.); saln.e~ to prick; to be felt as sharply painful (M.)(CDIAL 12354). salhan:g, salhan:ga_, salan:gha_ small pitchfork (P.)(CDIAL 12355). s'ala staff (TBr.); dart, spear (Skt.); sari_ stick forming part of a waterwheel (S.); sal.a pin, thorn (Or.); sar sticks used in setting up the warp (Bi.); sarka_ (Mth.); sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); sal.i_ small thin stick; sal.iyo bar, rod, pricker (G.); s'ol. reed (Kho.)(CDIAL 12343). s'ili_ dart, arrow (Skt.); se_la a kind of weapon; se_lla (Skt.); s'ili_pr.s.t.ha epithet of a sword (MBh.); s'il (Psht.Pers.); s'il spear (Ash.); s.i_l (Wg.); s'ili_ iris (the plant)(Gaw.); s'iu spear (Kal.); s'il wedge for door (Kho.);[s'ili, s'ili_ lower timber of a door (Skt.); sira_ id. (Mth.); sil threshold, doorframe (H.); s'il door (wedge)(Kho.)CDIAL 12465)]; s'il.i_k, s'il.ak small pin or peg or spike of bamboo (M.); sella, silla spear, arrow (Pkt.); s'e_l spear (Wg.); s'el (Kal.); s'e_l arrowhead (K.); selhu large thorn (S.); sel long spear (P.); sela_ spear (P.); xel dart, stake (A.); sel dart, javelin, spit (B.); sella, helle_, pl. hella_ spear, dart (Si.)(CDIAL 12466). s'ili_mukha arrow (MBh.); bee (Skt.); sili_muha arrow (Pkt.); silimuva_ bee (Si.)(CDIAL 12469). cf. s'u_la spike, spit (RV.); impaling stake (Mn.)(CDIAL 12575). Thorn: al.aku, al.uku to prick, throb (as a thorn in the flesh); n. pricking of a thorn, state of being pricked as with a thorn, state of being distressed or annoyed (Ka.); alugu, aluvu to be angry or displeased, take offence; aluka, alukuva anger, displeasure (Te.)(DEDR 304). Anger: cul.i (-v-, -nt-) to be angry; (-pp-, -tt-) to be angry with, show displeasure toward, dislike, feel pain; cul.ivu anger; cul.ukku (cul.ukki-) to screw one's face up in displeasure, frown (Ta.); cul.iyuka to be wrinkled; cul.ikka to be wrinkled, frown; cul.ippu a frown, impatience; cul.iccilu wrinkle (Ma.)(DEDR 2700). lul.iba_ to dangle, be wrinkled (Or.)(CDIAL 11080).

3816.Image: duck: salaki, salage, salakiba_yihakki the grey or spot-bill duck, anas poecilorhyncha (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: duck: hilla an aquatic bird (Skt.); hi_lai duck (Psht.); zalai duck (Ash.); jalai, zelai (Kt.)(CDIAL 14117). cf. jhil lake, pool (N.B.); jhi_l deep reservoir of water (G.)(CDIAL 5392).

3936.Image: stone-cutter's chisel; cold chisel: s'ila_-bhe_di a stone-cutter's chisel (Ka.lex.) Image: perforation: sa_l a perforation, a bore (Punjabi.lex.) cf. chidra having holes, pierced (Ka_tyS'r.); chidda cutting, slit, hole (Pali); chi~r., che~r., cher. hole, cleft (N.); chi_n.d.a_ hole (P.); chedna_ to bore (H.); chi~_d.u~ hole in hedge (G.); chiddita perforated (Pali)(CDIAL 5043). cf. chillia torn (Pkt.); chilla hole (Pkt.); s'i_l breach in a river bank, place to make a dam (M.); sila, hila hole, perforation (Si.)(CDIAL 5051). irne, irnea_ a chisel (Kon.lex.) Image: to cut: cf. chindanti pl. cuts off, splits (RV.)(CDIAL 5046). cf. che_dana cutting (MBh.); chen.i_ smith's cold chisel (S.)(CDIAL 5066). Image: small hole: cf. cilli small hole (Te.)(DEDR 2575). cilli-k-ka_tu bored ear, dist. fr. tol.l.ai-k-ka_tu; cilli-y-akappai flat perforated ladle (Tailava. Pa_yi. 37, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) calli-k-karan.t.i a broad perforated ladle (Intupa_ka. 58)(Ta.lex.) cf. sid.i a hook or goad(Te.)(DEDR 2761).

3937.Image: fragment: {Echo word} cilla-pollam shivers, fragments, small pieces; cillam id. (Ta.); cilla id. (Te.); cf. s'ithila (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cilumputal to have an uneven surface by the rise of splinters, fibres etc; to stand on end, as man's hair, porcupine's quill etc. (Tiruva_lava_. 27,39); small splinter or splint rising on the smooth surface of wood; cilumpal tear, as in a garment; ciluval rags, tatters (Ta.lex.) cillu a round piece used by children in play (hopscotch); a game of hopscotch played with potsherd wheel; knee-cap as being round; cil anything flat and round, as eye-glass, wheel; wheel as of a car; flat round stone or seed of a sea-plant (Ta.lex.) hil.l.e-ko_lu a small piece of wood or a piece of a stick used in the game of tip-cat (Ka.lex.) cf. bille a circular object (Ka.Te.); pillai, villai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: crack: cilku-tal to become few, dwindle (Akana_. 17); cilli leak, hole, crack (Ta.); id. (Ta.Ma.); jilli id. (Ka.); cillun.t.i trifling thing; cil some, few (cf. s'ithila); small, slight (Kantapu. 196, Urai.); small piece as of broken glass; potsherd etc.; cillan.-ket.utal to be scattered, broken; cillar-ai trifling, insignificant matter (Ta.); cillara id. (Te.); cillar-a id. (Ka.); cillare id.(Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Image: split: cf. cilu to open, split (Ta.)(DEDR 2566). Fractional quantity: cillar-ai things scattered here and there in small quantities, sundries, fractional quantities, change (as of a rupee); trifling, insignificant matter; cilva_n-am odd; savings effected from the sum allotted for household expenses (Ta.); cillar-a small, trifling matter; cilva_nam, cilla_nam odd; remaining fraction, small articles of daily use bought in the bazaar (Ma.); cilr odd (over a round number; ca.vrm cilr ka.c a thousand-odd rupees); cilr de.va.dy a small-change god (contrasted with co.ym the great god)(Ko.); silo.r, silfo.rm silver, small change; sily silver (in songs)(To.); cillar-a, cillar-e, cilr-e smallness, pettiness, fractional quantities, money under the value of a rupee; cilava_n the odd money over a round sum (Ka.); cillar small money, change, trifle; little, trifling; cilva_na, ciluva_na the odd money over a round sum; little, small, trifling, mean, low (Tu.); cillara small, unimportant, insignificant, trifling, of no note or consequence, minor, non-essential, sundry, miscellaneous, odd, extra, additional; sundries, odds and ends, miscellaneous articles, change, small coins (Te.); cillera pra_ncu to retail; sirlu change (coins)(Kuwi); cillar petty, trifling article, change (of money)(M.)(DEDR 2574). Petty taxes: cillir-ai < cil + ar-u petty taxes (S.I.I. III,142)(Ta.lex.) cilk-panti < silk-bandi adjustment in account of balances due (C.G.); cf. cilakku < silak (U.) something more (Ta.lex.) cillar-ai remainder, surplus, balance (Ta.); cillara id. (Te.); cillare id. (Tu.); cillar-a id. (Te.); cillar-ai change as of a rupee (Ta.); cillara id. (Te.); cillar-a id. (Ka.); cillare id. (Tu.); cillar-ai things scattered here and there in small quantities, small quantities or amounts, sundries (Ta.); cillara id. (Te.); cillar-e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. chidra (Skt.) cf. cilva_n-am odd (Ta.) cf. cillar-ai-k-kut.i ryots who hold small holdings; petty ryots (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) cilar some, a few persons, opp. to palar (Kur-al., 270); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Balance in hand: s'iluku balance in hand (of money, articles etc.)(Ka.); s'ilaka (M.H.); s'ilukina ba_ki balance left (Ka.lex.) siluku, silku balance in hand (of money, articles etc.)(Ka.); s'ilaka (M.H.); silli-mil.l.i insignificant, trivial, trifling; hil.i to crack, to burst, to split (Ka.); pid., pil., pil.a (Ta.); hil.a a crack; hisi to burst (as a jack fruit, a very tight jacket; to crack (as a wall, a cooking vessel)(Ka.lex.)

4080.Images: ram; male elephant; male shark: takar sheep, ram, goat, male of certain other animals (porutakar ta_kkar-ku-p- pe_run takaittu : Kural.486); male elephant; male shark (Ta.lex.) (ya_l.i, elephant, shark)(Ta.); takaran huge, powerful as a man, bear, etc. (Ma.); tagar, t.agaru, t.agara, t.egaru ram (Ka.) tagaru, t.agaru id. (Tu.); tagaramu, tagaru id. (Te.); tagar id. (M.)(DEDR 3000). tan:gad.i_, tagara a ram (M.H.); tagade_ra having a ram for his vehicle: fire; tagarven.agisu to cause rams to fight (Ka.lex.) da_dlo bokro ram (Kon.lex.) takar male ya_r..i ; male elephant; male shark (Ta.lex..) [cf. kara_ male alligator; kar.e_n.u elephant (Ta.lex.)]

3514q.Image; goat: cana, ca~r.a kid (Ash.); can new-born kid (Mj.); ce~, co~ (Wg.); chani goat (Kho.); cu_~ (Kt.); chani_k, canar. a male kid (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4961). chor.u goat; pl. che_r.i he-goat; che_r.o (K.); che_r.o (WPah.); cher.i goat (Or.)(CDIAL 4959). chaga goat (Skt.); cha_ga he-goat (RV.)(CDIAL 4958). cherua_ goat (in general)(Bi.)(CDIAL 4962). chagala goat (TS.); chakala, chakalaka (Pali); chagalaga (Nidoc.); chagala, che_la, che_laga (Pkt.); cilo, cilo_ sheep (Ash.); cula lamb (Wg.); cele_ goat (Tir.); caloik small kid (Shum.); seya_l goat (Wot..); chalo kid (Gaw.); che_l goat (Bshk.); cha_l (Tor.); cael (Mai.); sa_li (Gau.); cha_li (Sv.); cha_l newborn kid (Phal.); che_li goat (Phal.); chal kid (Sh.); chali she-goat (D..); ce_li she-goat; cel, che_li (K.); chela_; cha_li_ (L.); chela_ goat more than one-year old (P.); chila_r, chila_ru_ young kid (P.); che_lu_ kid; cheur.u (WPah.); cheli goat (B.); chel.i (Or.); cher (Bi.); che_ri (Bhoj.); chela_, cheli_, chera_, cheri_ (H.); cha_la_ pl. goat; cha_li_ (OG.); cha_l.i_ goat; (Kathiawar) ca_l.u_ sheep; ca_l.i_ she-goat (G.); s'el.i_ goat; s'el.d.u_~ (M.); chelo kid (S.); chella_ (P.); chelli_ she-goat; chelli, chellu kid (WPah.); cirr.u_ he-goat (K.); cherr.o   goat (WPah.); cherr.u male kid; cher.ri f. (WPah.); s'erd.u_~ goat (M.); cha_gar he-goat; cha_gri_ f. (Bi.); chagari_ goat (Aw.); sa_gal. goatskin, leather made from it (M.)(CDIAL 4963). cha_gala coming from a goat (Sus'r.); goat (R.); coming from a goat; goat (Pkt.); cha_galiya goatherd; cha_la goat; cha_li_, cha_liya_ f. (Pkt.); cha_wul, cha_wulu he-goat; cha_waji; ca_wali-pu_t kid (K.); cha_la, cha_li_ goat (L.); cha_la_n of or belonging to a goat (L.); ca_li_ goat (L.)(CDIAL 5009). cha_lla_ pertaining to goats; flock of goats; cha_la_ (L.)(CDIAL 5910). sa_ga_ flock of sheep or goats (M.)(CDIAL 5011).

3648.Image: he-goat: ceccai he-goat (Pur-ana_. 286); sheep (Ja_n-a_. Pa_yi. 5,12); aries of the zodiac (Vita_n-a. Nalvin-ai. 9)(Ta.); tcutcu (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

3649.Sandal unguent: ceccai sandal unguent (Tiva_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. carca_ (Skt.) cf. cecantan-am red sanders, pterocarpus santalinus (Ta.); ceca_ntu fragrant sandal paste (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,64)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3650.Casket: ceccai a little casket for lin:gam worn by Lin:ga_yats (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3651.Image: pair: ceccai pair or set (Aka. Ni.); cf. jatai (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3766.Image: elephant goad: caran.am elephant goad (Ta.lex.) s'r.n.i a hook for pricking an elephant; a goad (Skt.lex.) sr.n.i a hook for driving an elephant; a hatchet; lo_hita, kod.ali (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3652.Image: sieve: ca_rn.i_ sieve (G.)(CDIAL 4759).

3653.Images: manger; trough; pasture; place for feeding cattle: carna_ manger, trough (P.); caran.a going about (RV.); fodder, behaviour (Pkt.); caran manger, trough (N.); caran.i_ pasture, beasts on pasture (Or.); caran, carni_ wooden feeding trough for cattle (Bi.); carni_ place for feeding animals (H.); small manger, small trough (P.); caran. pasture, meadow (G.); pasture grass, cost of grazing (M.)(CDIAL 4685). carati moves (RV.); grazes (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 4686). xa_rna_ to gnaw or nibble at, eat (Kur.); ka_r to bite, eat (Ka.); arali to nibble (Kuwi); qare to bite off (Malt.)(DEDR 1474). ta_ru to move about, wander, stroll (Te.); sa_ran. nearness, proximity (Ka.)(DEDR 2460). cari_ stalk and leaves of jowar used as fodder (L.); cari fodder (Mth.); car green growing or cut grass (Sh.)(CDIAL 4689). ca_ro fodder (S.); ca_ra_ (P.); sa_r the state of having the belly filled with grass or other fodder (of cattle)(A.); ca_ra_ fodder, food, meal (B.); fodder (Bi.Aw.); fodder (H.)(CDIAL 4755). caraho pasture (S.); carah, caraha_ fodder (whether in the field or stored)(P.); carahi_ place for feeding cattle (OH.)(CDIAL 4687). tsarai pasture (Kon.lex.) cara_z pasture (Shum.)(CDIAL 4761). ca_ri grazing, grass (Pkt.); car, pl. carya_ grass (Gypsy); ca_r (Phal.); s'uki ca_r hay (Phal.); ca_ri green grass (G.)(CDIAL 4762).

3749.Image: spy; to move; graze: sa_raka a messenger (Pali.lex.) car move; cara moving (Pa_n..gan.a); caraka messenger (Pali); cara spy (R.); caraka wanderer (S'Br.); spy (Skt.); cara secret emissary (Pali); cara-purus.a intelligence agent (NiDoc.); cara, caraya, cariya spy (Pkt.); car (K.); cer, pl. ceri watchman, guard (Sh.); cer (Bur.); car spy (B.)(CDIAL 4683). cf. he_raka, he_rika, hairika spy (Skt.)(CDIAL 14165). cf. er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.)(DEDR 903). ca_rin spy (A_p.); ca_ria spy (Pkt.); ca_ri_ spy, scout (S.L.); sariya_ (A.)(CDIAL 4765). ca_ra one who moves about; spy (MBh.); ca_raka (MBh.); ca_ra spy (Pali.Pkt.); ca_rapa business of a spy (S.); sa_r spy (A.); ca_ra_ (Or.); ca_ru_ scout stationed by thieves to give warning (L.); ca_r scout (G.M.)(CDIAL 4754). cara walking, moving (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 4684). wai-ca_r collect. 'goats' (Pas'.)(CDIAL 14486). ca_raka setting in motion (MBh.); herdsman (Skt.); laco-ca_ro goatherd (Sh.)(CDIAL 4757). caran.a going about (RV.); grazing (Skt.); walking about, grazing (Pali); fodder (Pkt.); sarani grazing (A.); caran.i_ pasture, beasts on pasture (Or.)(CDIAL 4685). carati moves (RV.); grazer (Ya_j.); carati moves, grazes (Pali); care 3 sg. opt. (NiDoc.); carai (Pkt.); caroiki to graze (Sh.); carun to walk (OK.); carun to go forward (with meaning 'to increase, be more than enough')(K.); caran.u to graze (S.); caran., carun. (L.); carka_ (of cattle) a good feeder (L.); carna_ to graze (P.); carnu_, caran., carn.a_, carna_ (WPah.); carnu (N.); sariba (A.); cara_ to move about, graze (B.); cariba_ (Or.); carab (Mth.Aw.); carna_ (H.); carvu~ (G.); carn.e~ (M.); carta_ (Konkan.i); cara_pe_ti makes move (Pali); cara_un.a_ to graze (P.); caru_n.o (Ku.); cara_unu (N.); sara_iba (A.); cara_na (B.); cara_iba_ (Or.); cara_eb (Mth.); cara_na_ (H.); cara_vvu~ (G.); caravin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4686). caratha wandering (RV.); caraho pasture (S.)(CDIAL 4687). ca_ran.a in: go_-ca_ran.a grazing cattle (BhP.); tending of cattle, grazing-ground (Or.); sa_ran. tending of grazing cattle (A.); ca_ran (B.)(CDIAL 4758). cara_ [in dat. inf. cara_yai (RV.)] moving (Skt.)(CDIAL 4689). ca_rayati grazes (AV.); ca_re_ti makes graze (Pali); car to graze; eat (Gypsy); caus. carav to let eat, graze (Gypsy); cary, cari, cara_ to herd cattle (Wg.); cara_y (Dm.); car (Tir.Pas'.); cara (Kal.); ca_r (Bshk.); ca_ (Tor.); cia_ (Tor.); sa_r (Mai.); caroiki (Sh.); carizoiki to graze (Sh.); ca_rn.o to herd cattle (K.); ca_ran.u (S.); ca_ran. (L.); ca_rnu, ca_ran., ca_rn.a_ (WPah.); ca_rna_ (OH.); cara_na_ caus. (H.); ca_rvu~ (G.); ca_rn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4760).

3514n.Image;person: jeno person (also used as numerative)(Gypsy); janya common man (TS.); jana person (Pali); id. (RV.); jana, jam.na person (NiDoc.); jan.a (Pkt.); zen (Ash.); zan (Dm.); jan (used as numerative) (Pas'.); zan person (Pas'.); zen (Shum.); jun (Kal.); zun (Kho.); za_n (Phal.); zan, zonu (K.); jan.o (S.); jan.a_ person, husband; jan. the inhabitants of a village; jan.a_ person (L.P.); jan, jana_ (P.); zon.o_ (WPah.); jan. (Ku.); jana_ (-a_ from common use in plural as numerative )(N.); zan person; zana_ respectable person (A.); jan.a plural affix (OB.); jan person; jana_ id. (B.); jan.a, jan.e (Or.); jan person, agricultural labourer paid in kind (Bi.); jan, jana_ person, labourer (Mth.) ; jan person (Bhoj.); jana_ (Aw.H.); jan.o (Marw.); jan. (G.M.); jan.a, zan. (Kon.); dana_ (Si.) dena (OSi 1-th cent.)(CDIAL 5098).

3514k.Image; procession: jan.n.a_ bridegroom's procession; pl. jan.n.a_ (Pkt.); jan~a_ (S.); jan~j (L.); jan~j, ja_~j; janni (P.); jane_i_ (WPah.); ja_n (G.)(CDIAL 5116). janyaya_tra_ bridal procession (Skt.); jan.n.ayatta_, jannatta_ (Pkt.);jan~atra, jan~atriya (NiDoc.); zanig (Gaw.); janet the procession; janetar, janetar., janeti_, janeti_a_ a member of it (P.); jane_tar. a member (WPah.); janta the procession; janti a member (N.); janeta the procession (OAw.); janet (H.); ja_natra (OG.)(CDIAL 5118). ja_nya member of groom's party (S.); friend of bridegoom (Skt.); ja_~ji member of groom's party (L.); ja_n~ji_ (P.)(CDIAL 5197).

janwa_~sa_ lodging the wedding procession (Bi.); janma_sa_ (Mth.); janava_sa place at the bride's home where the groom's party is received; janwa_s the grooom's party (OAw.); janwa_s, janwa_sa_, janwa_~sa_ the place where it is received (H.); janavsa_, janivsa_ lodging of the groom's party (M.)(CDIAL 5119).

3154m.Image;loins: jaghana hinder part, hip and loins, mons veneris (RV.); jaghana loins, buttocks (Pali); jahan.a (Pkt.); duvana hip, lap (Si.)(CDIAL 5077).

3514k.Image:snake: zyen snake (Wg.); zeni (Pr.); syen (Wot..); ziant (Gaw.); jam.dunam. gen.pl. snake (Skt.); zan snake (Dm.); ja_n, zan (Pas'.); za~t (Shum.); jan (Tor.); jon pl. joni (Sh.); zon (Sh.); ja~t intestinal worm (M.); zandra (Sv.); jhandura (Phal.); jandera (Sh.); jandura (Bur.)(CDIAL 5110).

3514g.Back: jen back (Pe.); je_nu, je_~o (loc. je_co) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2825).

3514c.Image;body: sina body (Skt.); sinu corpse (N.); s'i_rn.a broken (S'Br.); fallen out (MBh.); sin.n.a decayed (Pkt.); si_na fallen off, destroyed (Pali)(CDIAL 12496).

3514d.Image;bracelet: cinup (pl. cinpul), sinup (pl. sinpul) bracelet (Ga.); sinnnu_m id. (Go.); ci~dup (pl. ci~dpul) bracelet (of men)(Pa.)(DEDR 2531).

3514b.Fineness, delicate: jin.agu, jin.ugu, jinagu, jinugu fineness or thinness (as of texture, thread, powder, written letters, etc.)(Ka.); jilu~gu, jiluvu fine cloth; small, slight, fine, delicate (Te.)(DEDR 2519).

3517.Money-changer, seller of jewels: cinivara, cinnivara, ciniva_la, cinniva_la a money-changer, a seller of jewels (Ka.lex.) cinva_r, cinva_ra_ money-changer, gold-seller (Kon.lex.) cf. cinna gold (Ka.lex.) Miser: jina miserly, stingy (Tu.Ka.); ji_ne miser (Tu.lex.) cin-n-am coin as a piece of metal (I_t.u, 4,9,2); gold piece put by a warrior in his mouth when starting for battle (Ci_vaka. 2303, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cin-n-a-me_l.a-mo_kara_ [ + mohur (U.)] Tinnevelly gold coin = 3 pagodas, 34 fanams, 7 cash (M.M.)(Ta.lex.) cin-n-elu < cinnelu (Te.) foppery, extravagance (W.) (Ta.lex.)

3518.Pure silver: ci_ni-bol.l.i pure silver; ci_ni sakkare white sugar (Tu.lex.)

3516.Image: saddle; leather: chi_n.dhi_ a piece of leather attached on both sides of an axis of a carriage near wheels (P.lex.) ji_na a leather bag (Skt.lex.) ji_n a saddle (Tu.lex.) cf. res.ui_ri, res.iri ( < *r.s.abha-dhr.ti) ox-hide (Kho.)(CDIAL 2459). jin, jina_ saddle (Kon.lex.) ji_na, ji_ni, ji_nu a saddle; jinaga_ra a caste of leather workers, saddlers who also do a little work in brass, iron etc. (Ka.M.); ji_nu, ji_ni a saddle (Te.); ci_n-i (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

3062.Image: chisel; burnishing stick: ci_vul.i block-plane; burnishing stick; ci_vul.i-k-ku_t.u wooden stock of a plane (Ta.lex.) Image: polishing, planing: ci_vat.am planing, polishing (Ta.); ci_vut.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ci_vu- to pare off, shave or scrape off (Ka_cika. Piraman-ve_. 8); smooth or polish by planing (Ta.)(DEDR 2600). sivur-u to scratch; ci_ru, civaru, civuru to scratch with the nails or claws (Ka.); ci_ka to scratch (Ma.); ci_ to scratch (as fowls), tear up earth (as pigs)(Ta.); ci_ru to scratch; ci_rud.u scratching (Te.); ci_rna_ to scratch (Kur.); circe to scratch (as a bird with talons); circo spurs of a cock (Malt.)(DEDR 2601). ci_ to scrape (Ta.); ci_y to rub (Ta.); ci_ka to scrape, smooth, polish (Ma.); ci_vuka to scrape, peel, polish (Ma.); ci_vu, civvu to cut thin, shave, scrape, peel, pare or trim the nails, smooth, furbish, polish (Ka.); civit.u to cut or cut off with the nails, nip off (Ka.); sigur-, sigur-u, sibar-u, sivar-u, sivur-u that is pared off, rind (Ka.); civvu to cut, shave, pare, mend or sharpen (as a quill or pencil)(Te.)(DEDR 2600). jigat.u, civit.u, civut.u, civun.t.u to cut or cut off with the nails, nip off (Ka.); ci_val parings, shavings (Ta.)(DEDR 2000). ci_ve a slice (Ta.); civva thin strip or shaving of wood (Te.); cuvaka, cuvva twig, small flexible stick or cane (Te.); sivva piece of fuel (Kol.); s'ivva wood (Nk.); suvval pl. fuel (Nk.)(DEDR 2600).

3506.Image: split: ci_rn.a split, divided (Skt.lex.) chinna cut, divided, rent, riven, torn (Skt.lex.) cin-n-am < chinna piece; anything broken (Kampara_. Karan-. 177)(Ta.lex.) cihna, cinna, cinne, cinha a mark, a sign (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3512.Image: to pierce: janjanao to pierce, or drive to the head as a nail; tun janjanao to pierce deeply with an arrow; kut.am janjanao to drive to the head, as a nail; pat.i janjanao to pierce deeply, as a thorn in the foot; jankao to be firmly embedded as a well driven nail (Santali.lex.) ci_ran.a, jinna (Tadbhava of ji_rn.a) a small chisel, used especially in cutting metals (Ka.Te.); ciran.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) ce_n.o a chisel to work a stone (Tu.lex.)

3953.Image: chisel; to pierce: cf. ul.i chisel, burin (Ta.Ma.); ul.y chisel (Ko.); ul.i chise, burin, awl (Ka.); chisel (Tu.); uli id. (Te.); ulli id. (Ga.)(DEDR 699). To thrust: hu_lan.a_ to goad, thrust; hu_l thrust, stab (P.); huln.u cause to penetrate, drive in (cattle into a fold), thread (needle)(N.); hu_r thrust (Mth.); hu_lna_ to goad, stab, rush in; hulakna_ to rush at (H.); hulai throws (Pkt.); hul any small pointed thing, thorn; hula_ piece of pointed split bamboo for turning earth up (A.); hul barb, sting, point, awn (B.); hul.a (Or.); hull shooting pain in head (P.); hula sting (Or.)(CDIAL 14147). ho_l- to enter (Go.); ho_r.p- to insert (Go.); sor.i-, sorita_na_, hor.i_, o_r.-, oir.iya_na_ to enter (Go.); so_r.i_ta_na_ to enter, (lumbago) attacks (Go.)(DEDR 2876). To dig out: cu_l (cu_lv-, cu_n-r--) to scoop, dig out, pierce, cut off (Ta.); cu_r..al, cu_r-r-al, cu_n-r-al scooping, digging out (Ta.); cu_luka to make a deep and boring cut as into melons and jackfruits (cu_nnu no_kkuka to taste such); pluck out (Ma.)(DEDR 2734). cu_r-al scooping, digging out (Ta.lex.) Image: impaling stake: cf. s'u_la spike, spit (RV.); impaling stake (Mn.); su_la stake (Pali); spit, trident (Pkt.); s'u_l thorn (Pas'.); su_l spike, thorn (P.); impaling stake (Ku.); sul.i_ impaling stake (Or.)(CDIAL 12575).

2416b.Adze; carpenter's plane; small chisel; to scrape, scratch: ul.i battle-axe, barber's instrument for paring nails, chisel, burin (Ta.); chisel, burin (Ma.Ka.); awl (Ka.); chisel (Tu.); ul.y chisel (Ko.); branding iron (To.); uli chisel (Te.); ulli id. (Ga.)(DEDR 699) ki_s-ul.i, gi_sul.i a carpenter's plane (Tu.); gi_suni to pare, strip off, shave, scrape (Tu.); ki_s to scrape, scratch (Kond.a); kisla_ adze (Kur.); ki_s-ul.i a small chisel (Ka.); ki_su to make thin, scrape, furbish or polish; n. scraping, scratching (Ka.); ki.c to scrape (To.); to cut by chipping (Ko.); ci_y to cut with adze, cut down (Ta.)(DEDR 1612). ci_ to scrape; ci_vu to pare off, shave or scrape off, smooth or polish by planing (Ta.)(DEDR 2600). cimni, chini a chisel (Santali.lex.) Chisel: ca_n.a, ca_na, ce_n.a a small chisel (Ka.); ce_n.u, ce_nu awl, chisel (Tu.); se_namu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2445). cimni, chini a chisel (Santali.lex.) Small chisel: ci_ran.a, ci_rn.a, ji_rn.a a small chisel, esp. used in cutting metals (Ka.); ci_ran.amu a small chisel (Te.); cirn.e~ id. (M.)(DEDR 2627).

2438.Image: pincers: cira_van.am pincers, ca_van.am (Ta.); sra_van.amu (Te.); s'ra_van.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

2441.Image: chisel: si_ran.a, ci_ran.a, si_rn.a a small chisel (Ka.lex.) cf. ci_rn.a a small chisel, especially used in cuttng metals (Ka.); ciran.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) ci_ru, civaru to cut in slices (Ka.Te.); id. to tear into shivers, to rend (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cirattal to crush, grind (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

3954.Image: spying; machan in tree for tiger-shooting/spying: cu_la, hu_la, tu_la to see (Tu.); cu_t.u, cu_t.i perception (Tu.); cu_r. to see (Pa.); su_r.-, cu_d.-, su_d.-, to see (Ga.); su_r.-, hu_r.-, u_r.- to see (Go.); sur. to see (Kond.a); hur.- to see (Pe.); hur.- id. (Mand..); su_r.a (su_r.i-) to see; n. act of seeing, sight (Kui); cu_t.ci counsel, investigate carefully (Ta.); u_r.. to think (Ta.); cu_t.iyan minister (Ta.); cu_r.. deliberation, investigation; to conspire, know (Ta.)(DEDR 2735). ulloketi [ud + loketi, cf. loka, a_loka, viloka] to look on to, to look for, await; ullokita looked at, looked on; ullokaka looking on (to), looking out; ullola a wave; a commotion, unrest; oloketi to look at, to look down or over to, to examine, inspect; olokana looking, looking at, sight; olokanaka window (Pali.lex.) ul.i hiding, ambush, lurking-place, hunter's hut (Ka.); ul.iga man who hides or lurks (Ka.); oyl. machan in tree for tiger-shooting (Ko.); to hide (Ko.); ol.i hiding, lurking-place, screen, cover for a fowler, decoy animal (Ta.); concealment, ambush (Ma.); ul.avu one's secret (Tu.); secrecy, spying (Ta.); ol.avu, ol.agu a secret (Ka.); ol.avu a secret (Te.); on.pi to hide (Kor.); o_lamu a shelter, cover, screen (Te.); olp- (olup-) to hide (Ga.); ol.-, ol- to bend down (Go.); o_la_ resting-place of a wild beast, hiding-place or lair (Kur.)(DEDR 1015). o.l (o.lt-) to see, look at (Kol.); o_l- to see (Nk.); o_lip- to show (Nk.)(DEDR 1066). or-r-u (or-r-i-) to spy out; n. espionage, a spy (Ta.); private intelligence, secret information (Ta.); or-r-an a spy (Ta.Ma.); or-r-uvan, or-r-a_l. a spy (Ta.); or-r-umai qualities requisite in a spy (Ta.)(DEDR 1022).

3956.Image: after-birth: s'e_j after-birth (WPah.)(CDIAL 12339). s'alya anything lodged in the body and causing pain (applied inter alia to dead foetus)(Sus'r.); sa_l afterbirth (N.); dead foetus in womb (M.); hal afterbirth (K.); sa_l cause of pain (G.); pain (H.); piercing pain (M.)(CDIAL 12352). halun to begin to be in labour (K.); sulini to be got with child, be swollen (N.); s'u_late_ hurts (Car.); s'u_lati (Dha_tup.); s'u_lyati, s'u_lyate_ (Car.); s'us'u_re pierced (Skt.); s'u_ryate_ (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 12576). su_taka impurity caused by childbirth or miscarriage (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 13554). su_a_, su_ia_ woman who has given birth (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13555). s'u_li, sul.i suffering sharp pain (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3957.Image: pregnant woman: cu_l (cu_lv-, cu_n-r--) to become pregnant; n. conception, pregnancy (Ta.)(DEDR 2733). cur.in ghost of pregnant woman (Santali.lex.) Image: blood which precedes the birth of a child: to_r.a_ blood which precedes the birth of a child (Go.); to_r.a (to_r.i-) to be liquid, flow, trickle (Kui)(DEDR 3523). tu_l pregnancy (of animals)(Ga.); cu_l pregnancy (Ta.); cu_li pregnant woman (Ta.)(DEDR 2733).

3958.Image: to take an oath: cu_l. (cu_l.p-) to take an oath (aiya cu_l.in-at.itot.u kun-r-ot.u : Paripa_. 8,70); to vow (Kampara_. Nikumpa. 82); n. vow (Kalit. 41); oath (Tol. Po. 147); malediction, curse (Kantapu. Tun.aiva. 10); cu_l-ur-u to swear, take oath, take a vow (Man.i. 3,102)(Ta.); cur..ar-uka to swear; cur..arcca ascertaining the truth by oath or by ordeal; cu_r.. oath (Ma.); su_rul. (su_rul.t-) to swear, utter a solemn declaration; n. an oath (Ma.); su_lu swearing (Tu.)(DEDR 2738). cu_l.aravu oath (Kantapu. Acamukipu. 29)(Ta.lex.) sul.l.u falsehood, untruth, fiction, a lie (Ka.); a lie, falsehood, fib; false, untrue (Tu.)(DEDR 2708). cu_l.ar-avu oath (Ir-ai. 18, Pak. 107, Urai)(Ta.); su_rul. id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

2417.Pledge, pawn: girwi < girau (Pers.) a pledge, a pawn; girwi pain.a to be pawned; girwi paun.a to pawn (P.lex.) girhar. trust, guidance, benevolence (Santali.lex.) kiro_ < girwi_ (Pers.) pledge, mortgage, pawn (P.T.L.)(Ta.lex.)

2418.Image: oblique: giria obliquely, from the side; giriaten makkedea I cut him down with a side stroke from the left or right; ghiria with a swing of the arm, with the arm stretched out, to swing round as one does a sling (Santali.lex.)

2419.One-fourth: gira, gidda one-fourth; giraka_lu 1/16. the sixteenth part; girapa_vu dupl. 1/4 or the fourth part of a measuring seer; 1/16 of a seer (Ka.lex.) gira, girha, girah the sixteenth part of a yard (P.lex.) cf. girda, gira, gidda a fourth part; giddana, gidna the fourth part of a solige (Ka.); gidda, gidde one-fourth of the so_la measure (Te.)(DEDR 1553).

2420.Image: knots: gira, girah, girha a knot (P.lex.) gan.ike, gan.alu a knot, a joint (Ka.lex.) gan.thi [Vedic granthi] a knot, a tie, a knot or joint in a stalk (Pali.lex.)

2421.Image: to spin: vol. to spin (Kon.lex.)

2422.Image: river: vol.o current of river (Kon.lex.) oliyal river (Kantapu. Ka_l.inti. 6)(Ta.lex.)

2423.Image: seven: o_r..u, yo_r..u, e_r..u seven (Ka.lex.)

2424.Image: sexual intercourse: o_r.. sexual intercourse (Ta.); o_l. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o.l.- to have sexual intercourse with (Kod..)(DEDR 1071).

2425.Mortgage: ol bandhi, ol bandki mortgage, to mortgage; noa jaega don ol bandhi akata I have mortgaged this rice land (Santali.lex.)

2426.Marriage invitation: voul.ik sa_ng to invite; vo-ul.e, vo-ul.i invitation to a marriage; voul.ik, voul.ike invitation for marriage (Kon.lex.) ol to mark, to make a mark, to write, to draw patterns, figures etc.; jangateye ol akada he has made a mark with his foot; sohraere gor.a duarreko ola during the Sohrae fesival they draw figures (or patteerns) at the door of the cowshed; olok par.haok cet jon.me learn to read and write; oladinae he wrote to me; olos kanae he is writing; olotkoae he is writing down their names (Santali.lex.) cf. ko_lam patterns drawn at the doors (Ta.lex.) ol-bal a written paper, especially a written document; hatupe kirintada, mendo ja_n olbalpe nakada ci? the act of writing, especially the act of writing a document; ol-bal (jingle of ol) to write, especially a document; na_doin olbaltana, pi_t.ido or.o gr.kadin sena I am writing now, I shall go to the market after a while; olbal-en rflx. v. (1) of two people, to write a document of their contract; na_do jukalanjana enamente ote bandarreoko olbalena these days are bad times, therefore people now write their contract even when they only mortgage a field; (2) to get one's name written down; asa_mte senoko d.ipureko olbalena the coolies going to Assam get their names taken down at the depot; olbal-o especially of a document, to be written; na_do kain omama, sobena olbaloka, en hulan entarege t.akain omea I shall not pay now, let the contract be written, there and then I shall pay; ol-bal alphabet, characters; ape jatire sidaa_te ci olbal ka_ taikena? was there from the beginning no alphabet in your tribe? ne disumre hat.ikut.i olbal mena: Urdu, Bangali, Ur.ia, Parsi, eman in this country there are number of different alphabets or characters: the Urdu characters, the Bengali characters, the Uria characters and so on; ol-nala to write for daily wages; to write something here and now for pay without being a regular clerk; ol-adu_, ol-adur.u, olar.agu, oluturao to copy in writing, in contrast to olur.un to write an extract; ne kitabra taramara kajiko oladu_ime; oladu-u to get copied in writing; hakim olakad kajiko oladu_jantedo nakal menotana a copy of a judgement is called nakal; o_l to write, to write down, to write on; cit.i oleme, apummente write to they father; sobenko olkom write them all down; sobenkoa nutum oleme write down the names of all; soben kajim olkeda ci? hast thou written all that was to be said? olrikan to case one's name to be written down; o-p-ol to write to each other; the writing of letters to each other; inilo alinre cit.i opol hokaakana our correspondence has been broken off; olakan may refer to one's fate written down by Singbonga; cilka olakana enkage gonoe hobaoa dead comes as decreed by Singbonga; o-n-ol the extent or manner of writing; onole olkeda, musinre bahii peregir.itada he wrote so much that he filled a copy book in one day; oloni one whose name is written down; olni, oloni agency, a writer; olote adv. to go and write; to go and do clerical work; to go and get one's name written down; onol a mark or line drawn, especially on the ground; o-lo to get cracked; onol stripes or spots in the fur of an animal (Mu.lex.) o_kul.i crimsoned turmeric water used on auspicious occasions; o_kon.u to answer a call (Tu.lex.) o_ha gift (RV. i.180.5; RV. iv.10.1; TS. iv.4.4.7; VS. xv.44); o_ha-brahman praying for gifts (RV. x.71.8); o_has value, worth (RV. vi.67.9) (Vedic.lex.) ollunar friends, associates (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. olicai presents given by the near relations of the bride to the bridegroom on the fourth day of the marriage (W.)(Ta.lex.) o_lago a royal assembly (Tu.lex.) o_lakkan.-kot.uttal to grant an audience, as a king; o_lakka-man.t.apam place of assembly, durbar hall, hall (Ta_yu. Enna_t.. Arul.iyalpu. 10); o_lam-it.utal to call for succour, cry for protection (Tiruva_ca. 7,5) (Ta.lex.) o_lit.utal to make a noise (Pa_rata. Man.ima_n-. 20); o_lar-uttal to emit a pleasant sound (Ir-ai. 2,42, Urai.); o_l sound (Iraku. Nakara. 42); o_lar-utal to be filled with sound; to resound (Iraku. Nakara. 42); o_lai-ppa_curam communication written on a palmyra leaf ('varuka' en-n-umal.avum o_laippa_curam : Ci_vaka. 2147, Urai.); o_laippa_yiram id. (Tol. Po. 461, Urai.); o_laippur-am command, order (Kuruparam. 10, Pan-n-i_.); o_lai-na_yakan- Chief secretary in the time of the cho_las (Ta.inscr.); o_lai-er..uttu office of clerk (I.M.P.N.A. 676); o_laimukappa_curam prefatory address in a letter on a palmyra leaf (Cilap. 13, 87, Urai.); o_lai-muttirai stamp imprinted on a palmyra-leaf document (W.); o_lai-mur-i memorandum on a piece of a palmyra leaf; chit (Ta. lex.) o_lagisu, o_laysu, o_lavisu to serve; to pay homage to; to assemble, to bring together; o_laga_rta desire of paying homage; o_le an ear-ring of gold etc., worn in the lobe of the ear of a female whose husband is alive; o_leka_r-a, va_leka_r-a a servant in the employ of government (or private persons) who carries letters etc. (Ka.lex.) olepu, ol.epu, leppu to call (Tu.lex.) oli-ttal to sound as letter (Kur-al., 763)(Ta.); uri (Tu.); uli (Ka.); uliyu (Te.); oli loud or audible recitation of a mantra (Caivaca. Potu. 151, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Configuration of an articulate sound: oli-vat.ivu (gram.) the sound-configuration of an articulate sound, dist. fr. varivat.ivu (Nan-. 89, Virut.); oli-k-kur-ippu a symbol of a sound; onomatopoetic term as kalakalen-al (Ta.lex.) ar..aippu invitation, call (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 38); ar..ai-ttal to call, invoke, invite (Tiruva_ca. 29,1); to summon, direct to appear or to be brought (Kantapu. Vin:kut.i. 40); to call by name (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,6,2); ar..aippu-p-pattiram letter of invitation (Ta.lex.) vol.ka_ recognition (Kon.lex.) cf. ar..ivu tenderness, love (Ma.)(DEDR 281). vol. line; vorro furrow; vol.ombo vertical, a plumb-line determines the vertical (Kon.lex.)

2427.Marriage invitation: gira_ [Vedic gir, ge_r song; gr.n.a_ti to praise, announce; gu_rti praise = Lat. grates 'grace'] utterance (orig. song, important utterance, still felt as such in older Pa_li, therefore, mostly poetical), speech, words; Skt. girati, Lat. voro, OHG. querka (Pali.lex.) gira a knot; bapla gira the marriage knots, or the Santal method of intimating date of a marriage; seven or eight days before the date fixed for the marriage, seven or eight as the case may be, knots are tied on a large number of strings, one of which is sent to each family who is invited to be present at the marriage. One knot is loosed each night, and when all have been loosed the time for the marriage has arrived. Knots on a string are also employed to keep accounts, each knot representing so much; girja to join in a religious service, to conduct a religious service (Santali. lex.) gir addressing, invoking; speech, words, language; invocation, praise, song; gira_ speech, speaking, language (Skt.lex.) Ögr., Ögir praise; song of praise (RV. iii.62.8); girvan.as delighting in invocations, fond of praise or songs (RV. i.62.1); gr. to celebrate, sing, praise (Vedic.lex.) ki_r word, speech (Tiva_.); ki_r-va_n.am < gi_r-va_n.a Sanskrit as the language of the gods (Ta.lex.) gr. to utter a sound, call out, invoke; to relate, promulgate; to praise, extol; to make known, relate; to teach; gi_rn.i praise (Skt.lex.) gr._ declare, praise (Skt.); grand, grunzuu counting; ganzarun to count (K.); ganti (N.); ganti_, ginti_ (H.) (CDIAL 4234). cirar-r-u-tal to shout, call loudly (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 268); to be angry with (Kali. 97,29)(Ta.); ciracira (Te.)(Ta.lex.) gr.n.ati addresses, praises (RV.); girai says (Pkt.); caus. ga_rayate_ teaches (Dha_tup.); gar. to speak (Tir.)(CDIAL 150). jarate_ praises, addresses (RV.); jar- to speak (Pas'.); jar., jar to say (Par.); gar- to praise (Av.)(CDIAL 5149). a_gurate_ approves, praises (RV.); ahuran.u to please, suit (S.); a_ur.an.u id. (S.)(CDIAL 1050). cf. gan.ayati counts (MBh.); ga_n. to count, read (Ash.)(CDIAL 3993). cf. ga~_garvu~ to bellow like a bull (G.)(CDIAL 3951). cf. gun.ayati advises (Dha_tup.); gun.u calculation (Kt.); gurrun (Bashg.); gunai thinks (OAw.); gunna_ to think about, praise (H.); gun.ai ponders (OG.)(CDIAL 4191). ganya calculable, numerable; to be counted or regarded; worthy of esteem (Ka.lex.) cf. kir-a_vu (kir-a_vi-) to cry (Ta.); kire_ng abuse (Br.); kire_ng tining to abuse (Br.)(DEDR 1590). kirot korot to talk continuously, to cackle as a hen (Santali.lex.) gi_ra the voice (Kui)(DEDR 1615). gan.a [Vedic gan.a; Lat. grex flock; Skt. gra_ma; Lat. gremium to comprise; OBULG. gramada village community; OHG. chram; Pali. ga_ma a collection of houses, a hamlet (cf. Ger. gemeinde), a habitable place ] a meeting or a chapter (of two or three) bhikkhus, a company (opposed to sangha, the order and puggala, the individual); in general: a crowd, a multitude, a great many; gan.a-sanganika adj. coming into contact with one another (Pali.lex.) gan.aka a counter, one skilled in counting familiar with arithmetic; an accountant, overseer or calculator; enumerated as an occupation together with muddika and sankha_yika; as an office at the king's court (together with amacca_as gan.aka-maha_matta = a ministerial treasurer); as overseer; as accountant (Pali.lex.)

3774.Image: slit, rent: cir a slit, a rent; a sharp pan; to tear, to rend; cira a rent, a rip, a cut, a slit; cira_i the price of splitting and of sawing timber and boards; cirn to rend, to rip up, to slit, to split, to divide longitudinally with a saw; to be slit, to be torn, to be rent,, to be sawed (P.lex.) cira to tear, rend, split; a strip; mit cira bar.ge emanme give me a strip of garden land; ciri biri, ciri biti into small pieces; to mince; to splt into thin strips; ciro to tear, rend, split, divide; citil bitil, citir bitir to divide, to apportion, to break in pieces (Santali.lex.)

2428.Image: line: si_r-a, gi_r-u a line, a streak, a stripe; full of lines or stripes; ci_ru scratching; a shiver, fragment; ci_ra_gisu to shiver; civuru, ci_ru scratching; civvu, ci_vu to cut thin, shave, or scrape; to peel or bark; to pair or trim the nails; to make a pen or pencil; to form into a pointed shape; to smooth, furbish or polish (Ka.); ci_vu (Ma.Ta.); civvu, ci_vu (Te.); ki_su to scratch; si_l., gi_l.u, si_l.u to split, to be cleft; to be rent; si_l.ked.aha to split and throw to the ground (Ka.lex.) cf. cira_y splint, splinter, shivered chip of palmyra or other timber (Ta.lex.) cirai-ttal [cf. ks.ur] to shave (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 38); to cut with a sickle (I_t.u, 3,9,6); kere to shave (Ka.); cirekka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

2429.Honorific term: siri_ an auspicious or honorific term prefixed to the names of persons and divinities, places and at the beginning of manuscripts, letters and documents (P.lex.) siri_ prosperity, beauty (P.lex.)

2430.Independent: serin (Skt. svairin) self-willed, independent; according to one's liking; seriviha_ra adj. lodging at one's own choice (Pali.lex.) serita_ independence, freedom (P.lex.)

2431.A measure: se_ra a kind of measure (Skt.); s'e_r (M.)(Skt.lex.) [pa_do_nadya_naka tulyam t.an:kairdvisapta tulyaih kathito_tra se_rah a : Li_la_vati_](Skt.lex.) se_ru a seer, a measure of weight or capacity that varies in various parts of the country (Ka.Te.); ce_r (Ta.); s'e_r (Ma.); s'e_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ce_r a standard weight = 8 palams; dry or liquid measure = 1/24 par-ai in Ceylon = 70 cu. in. and upward in S. India (Ta.lex.) sirsa_hi_ the eighth part of chitta_n:k, a square measure of land each side of which is a karam which equals 5 1/2 ft. in length (9 sira_hi_ makes one marla_, 20 marla_s, one kana_l, 4 kana_ls one wigah)(P.lex.)

2432.Image: cascade: si_r-ud.u a cascade; si_r-umbul. being scattered, sprinkled etc.; si_r being scattered, sprinkled etc.; si_rpani spray or fine drops of water (Ka.lex.) cirar-u-tal to scatter (Patir-r-up. 22, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) siran.u to flow, glide (S.); Ösr. move (Skt.); sara going (Pa_n..); course? (VS.)(CDIAL 13247). saraka_iba_ to move to one side (Or.); xarkiba to go through, flee (A.); sarakvu~ to move, slip, slide (G.); sarakn.e~ (M.); si_run to go round, circulate (K.); siran.u to flow, glide (S.); serik to glide, slip, slide (Ash.Wg.); sarkn.a_ to move, get out of the way (P.); sarkan.o to move, disappear (Ku.); sarkanu to go the wrong way (of food); sarkinu to move a little, withdraw (N.); sarati runs, flows, glides (RV.); goes, flows (Pali)(CDIAL 13250). sar sudden forceful gush (M.); seri stream of liquid, jet of water (G.); se_ri_ spring (Sv.); sarit stream (RV.)(CDIAL 13261). sarva_n.i_ spring of water (G.)(CDIAL 13263). sari cascade (Skt.lex.) seran.u to move, put on one side (S.); sirra spoutingly (of blood or water flowing)(N.); s'irn.e~ to enter, go in (usu. forcibly or smartly)(M.); caus. s'iravin.e~ to insert (M.); s'irakn.e~ to enter; s'irkavin.e~ to thrust, pierce (M.); sirko flowing, gliding (S.); sirko a rush or stream (of milk)(N.)(CDIAL 13420). sira_ stream; si_ra_ (RV.)(CDIAL 13421).

2433.Land watered by floods of the Indus: si_r a plot of land in the saila_ba_ cultivated by a separate tenant or a set of tenants; si_r.h, sir.h a plot of ground without a well, irrigated by the rising of the Indus; that part of a river where the stream is rapid; saila_ba_ land watered by floods of great river; saila_b inundation, dampness (P.lex.) ser (Chamba) also called seri crown land; state demesne (Chamba) a weight of 80 tolas; ce_rvai (ASLV)(Ta.) < seva_ a service ina_m or grant (IEG, p.309). s'e_va_r = s'e_va-va_ra treasury (RV. viii.1.22); s'e_va dear, precious (RV. i.73.2); s'e_vadhi treasure (RV. ii.13.6)(Vedic.lex.) s'e_vadhi one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra (Skt.lex.)

2434.Land liable to assessment: ciri < s'e_ri land liable to assessment, dist. fr. in-a_m (Ta.lex.)

2435.Image: fish: siri_han a fish of the carp family, labeo curchius (P.lex.)

2436.Image: broken pieces: ku_r-u broken pieces of anything (Kampara_. Nakarni_n.. 104); half; ku_r-it.u-tal to cut into pieces or slices, bisect, divide; to distribute in portions or small quantities (Pu. Ve. 1,14); ku_r-at.attal to dive into lots (S.I.I. i,65); ku_r-u-ceytal to cut in pieces, divide; to distribute in portions or small quantities; to exercise authority, as in the assessment of taxes etc. (As.t.a_taca. 71)(Ta.lex.) kucra_ broken to pieces (P.)(CDIAL 3489).

2437.Image: monkey: cirai monkey (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) ? cf. ciri to kill, hurt, injure (used only in the Veda) (Skt.lex.)

2439.Sacred ceremony: cira_van.am < s'ra_van.a ceremony performed generally on the full-moon day in the month of a_van.i, when the study of the ve_das is commenced with the investiture of a new sacred thread; cira_van.i a sacrifice performed on the full-moon day in the month of a_van.i (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

2440.Image: ladle: cirukku < sruk nom. sg. of sruc wooden ladle for pouring ghee on sacrificial fire (Te_vai. 175)(Ta.lex.)

2442.To cry: kel.ar, kil.ir, keral. to cry out, to roar; to dispute, to wrangle (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: the voice: gi_ra the voice (Kui); gi_ga, gi_ta, gi_ya word, syllable (pl. gi_anga)(Kuwi); giya~ voice (Kuwi)(DEDR 1615). kir-a_vu to cry (as a peacock)(Ta.); kiry- (kirc-) to shout; kiry a shout (Ko.); kir-c- to shout (To.); kir-acu, kir-icu, kir-uvu, kircu to cry, shout, scream (Ka.); kir-acuvike crying, etc.; kir-ugut.t.u, kirgut.t.u to cry, scream (Ka.); ki_r-u, ci_r-, ci_r-u to scream, cry out; gi_r-u, ci_r-u, ji_r-u screaming, shrilling, buzzing (Ka.); ki_rottuni to roar, as an elephant (Tu.); ci_ru, ci_r-u to call (Te.); ci_rud.u calling (Te.); kihpa (kiht-) to shout, cry out (Kui); ki_rr.- (-it-) to shriek, moan with pain, shout (Kuwi); kire_ng abuse (Br.); kire_ng tining to abuse (Br.)(DEDR 1590). To shout: cirar-r-u to shout, call loudly (Ta.); kerkir.- to shout (Nk.); keral to cry, shout (Ka.); ke_rle sound, noise (Tu.); ke_ru to cry out, be jubilant (Te.); keralu to cry out from alarm (Te.); ceralu jubilation (Te.); kere- (cock) to crow (Kond.a); gernga, grenga to groan, moan (Kui); qerge to sound (Malt.)(DEDR 1960). keral story, tale (Ga.); ke_r- to sing (Pe.Mand..Kuwi); ke_rond.i soty, tale, fable (Kui); khi_ri_ tale, fable, legend, riddle (Kur.); qeri tale (Malt.)(DEDR 2006). kel.ar to cry out, roar (Ka.); kil.a to express clearly (Ta.); kil.avu word, speech, language (Ta.); kil.ir-, kil.ir to sound, neigh (Ka.); ke_r. (cock) to crow (Kond.a); kel, kell to tell (Go.); kr.e id. (Pe.); kla_pa to crow, coo, lament (Kui); kelpa to invoke, petition a deity, repeat incantations; n. incantation, invocation (Kui); kr.e-/kr.en-, kre_cali to crow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2017). ke_ru (ke_ri-) to cackle (as a hen)(Ta.); to chuckle with joy, warble, cluck (as a laying hen)(Te.); ke.ri noise, shout (Kol.); ke.ri kak- to shout (Kol.)(DEDR 2009). Image: fowl: xe_r fowl (Kur.); qeru id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2013). Speech: gi_r, gira, gir, gire speech; the goddess of speech, Sarasvati (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ga_yane, ga_yani_ singer (MBh.); singing (Ca_n..); ga_an.a singer (Pkt.); ga_ine (N.); ga_in (B.); ga_yana singing (Pali); ge~_r.~ (Ku.); ga_in.a_ (Or.); gayanu playing a musical instrument (Si.)(CDIAL 4136). ge_ya to be sung (Pa_n..); singing, song (MBh.); geyya a mixed style of prose and verse (Pali); ge_a song (Pkt.); ge_ song (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4249). ki_ta-ca_lai hall where music is taught (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 7,131); gi_tam song, chant (Kampara_. Ka_rmuka. 40); melody, music (Tiruva_ca. 18,1); ki_ta-v-ur-uppu limbs or component elements of a musical piece, which are four: ukkiram, turuvai, a_po_kam, pirakalai (Cilap. 3,150, Urai); ki_ta_n:kam instrumental accompaniment to vocal music (Cilap. 3,14, Urai); ki_ta_n-ukam id. (Cilap. 3,14, Arum.); ki_rttittal to praise, extol (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,9,2); ki_rtti fame, celebrity, renown, distinction, glory (Tiruva_ca. 8,8); ki_rttimai id. (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 13)(Ta.lex.) Long story: katittal to tell, direct (Pa_rata. Ira_cacu_. 112); katai a long story, anecdote, or narrative (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 31); epic (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,64); Perun:katai, the story of Utayan.an- (Cilap. Uraippa_yiram, Pak. 9); talk, conversation; kataital to speak well of; to praise (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,64)(Ta.lex.) kath speak (Skt.); kathana narration (Sus'r.); conversation (Pali); kahan.a, kahan.a_ (Pkt.); ko~_r.~ saying (Ku.); kahini_ story (B.); kahan.a talking (Or.); kahan.a_ narrative (Or.); kahini_ (Mth.); kahani_ (Bhoj.); kahan saying, byword; kahani, kahani_ (H.); kahan.a, kihin.a story (OG.); kahen. message; kahen.i_ proverb, bad reputation (G.)(CDIAL 2702). kathayati converses with, describes (MBh.); kathe_ti speaks, preaches (Pali); kahe_i, kahai says (Pkt.); kahan.u (S.); kahin.a_, kaihna_ (P.); ka_hnu_ (WPah.); kaun.o (Ku.); kahanu (N.); kaiba (A.); kaha_ (B.); kahiba_ (Or.); kahal (Bhoj.); kahab (Mth.Aw.); kahna_ (H.); kahai (OMarw.); kahai (OG.); kahevu~ (G.); katha_pe_ti makes say (Pali); kaha_ve_i causes to be called (Pkt.); kaha_n.a_ to be called (WPah.); kau~r.~e to make say (Ku.); kaha_vvu~ to send a message (G.); kaha_na_ (H.)CDIAL 2703). katha_ conversation, speech (A_s'vGr.); story (MBh.)[subst. formed of katha_ how, why? (RV.)]; katha_ talk, story (Pali); kaha_, kahiya_ (Pkt.); kaha_ cry (L.); noise, rumour (P.); kiyu language (Si.); kuha_ speech; ku- in kuna_iba_ to send word (Or.)(CDIAL 2704). katha_naka a little tale (Skt.); kaha_n.aya (Pkt.); kiha_n.i_ (L.); kaha_n.i_ (P.); kaha_ni (N.); ka_ha_n.i (Or.); kaha_na_, kaha_ni_ tale, proverb (H.); ka~_n.i (Marw.); kaha_n.i_ (G.M.); ka_n.i_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 2705). kaha_ta a saying (S.); kaha_ut (P.); kaha_wat, kaha_ut (N.); kaha_wat (H.); kahevat (G.); kuha_ta halloing (Or.)(CDIAL 2706). kathita told (Mn.); conversation (MBh.); tale (Skt.); spoken (Pali); kahiya (Pkt.); kahia_, kiha_ saying, order (P.); kaio~ order (Ku.); kahi impers. it was said (OMarw.); kahyu~ ordered; order (as pp. of kahevu~ replaced by ki_dhu~ after type labdha- etc.)(G.); kahya_ (M.); ki_, kiv said, speech (Si.)(CDIAL 2707). kathyate_ is called (Skt.); kathya to be spoken about (R.); kacchati is spoken (Pali); kaccha fit to be spoken (Pali); ka_chab to make excuses, excuse oneself (Mth.)(CDIAL 2708). katth boast (Skt.); katthati boasts (Pali); katthai praise (Pkt.); katthate_ boasts, mentions with praise (MBh.); kad- to speak, tell (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2700). Song: ga_tha_ song; ga_th (RV.); ga_thika_ epic song (Ya_j.); ga_tha_ verse, stanza (Pali); ga_ha_ (Pkt.); ga_ha a kind of verse (S.); ga_ verse (B.); ga_he sings (MB.); ga_ha_ (Or.); description of a parti. kind of verse (H.); ga_ha verse (OG.); gaya song (Si.); gai song (Pas'.); ga_e singing; gai, gae (Sh.); gela_ singing (Mai.) (CDIAL 4126). ga_na singing (Ka_tyS'r.); ga_n.a (Pkt.); na_c-ga_n dancing and singing; ga_na_ singing (N.); ga_n (A.B.); ga_n.u~ singing (G.); ga_n.e~ (M.Konkan.i); ganu playing a musical instrument (Si.)(CDIAL 4130). ga_yati sings (RV.); ga_payati (MBh.); ga_yati (Pali); ga_ai, ga_i (Pkt.); ga_vu~ (G.); ga_n.e~ (M.); ga_vai sings (Pkt.); ga_in.u (S.); ga_van. (L.); ga_un.a_ (P.); ga_un.o (Ku.); ga_unu (N.); ga_iba, ga_uni wages for singing (A.); gauya_ (B.); ga_he (MB.); ga_iba_ (Or.); ga_va (OMth.); ga_bab (Mth.); ga_vai (OAw.OG.); ga_na_ (3 sg. ga_we)(H.); ga_ve (OMarw.); gab-, giv-, gib- ( i from gili)(Gypsy); gewun, gyewun (K.)(CDIAL 4135). ceppu to say, tell, relate, narrate, recite, scold, reprove (Te.); kebna_ (keppas) to scold, lecture (Kur.); ceppuka to say, (dog) growls when snatching at something (Ma.); ceppu (ceppi-) to say, speak, declare, tell; n. speech, word, answer, reply; ceppal saying, replying, declaring (Ta.)(DEDR 1955). Song; singing: gi_ta singing (S'Br.Pali); gi_taka (Pali); gi_a (Pkt.); giya (Si.); gi_la song (Mai.); gile singing (Sv.)(CDIAL 4167). gi_ti singing (Nir.); gi_tika_ (Pali); gi_i, giya_, gi_ya_ (Pkt.); qire, gref, gilav, gili (Gypsy); gi_a (D..)(CDIAL 4168). ga_tu song (RV.); ga_u song (Pas'.); ga_u_ cradle song (M.)(CDIAL 4123). Music: iyampu to sound, say, utter; iyakku to cause to sound; iyakkam a musical composition, pitch (of three kinds); iyam sound, word, musical instrument; iyantai an ancient melody type; iyavan- drummer; icai (-pp-, -tt-) to sound, sound as a musical instrument, express, signify, play as on a lute; n. sound, noise, word, fame, song, music; e_e Sa_maveda (Ta.); iyampuka to sound; ica, is'a song, music; is'ampuka to say, speak, utter (Ma.); ese to sound (Ka.); e_sa (e_si-) to sing, chant, recite, read aloud, relate, tell, say; n. act of singing, relating, telling (Kui)(DEDR 470). gi_ta singing (S'Br.Pali); gi_taka (Pali); gi_a (Pkt.); giya (Si.); gi_la song (Mai.); gile singing (Sv.)(CDIAL 4167). gi_tika_ singing (Pali); gi_ti (Nir.); gi_i, gi_iya_, gi_ya_ (Pkt.); qire, gref, gilav, gili (Gypsy); gi_a (D..)(CDIAL 4168). hi_t talk, conversation, promise, matter (talked about); hi_t kanning to talk, discuss, say things about one; hi_tmi_t conversation, gossip (Br.)(DEDR 470). ge_ya to be sung (Pa_n..); singing, song (MBh.); geyya a mixed style of prose and verse (Pali); ge_a song (Pkt.); ge_ song (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4249). gai sing (Skt.); song (Pas'.); ga_e, gai, gae singing (Sh.); gela_ singing (Mai.)(CDIAL 4126). gauya_ wages for singing (B.); ga_ve sings (OMarw.); gab, giv, gib, gili (Gypsy); gewun, gyewun (K.); ga_yati sings (RV.)(CDIAL 4135). sam.gi_ta chorus, concert (Skt.); san:gi_ta (Pali); sam.gia (Pkt.); sangiya collection of Buddhist sacred books (Si.)(CDIAL 12849). cf. iyar-r-u to compose; iyaipu harmony; icai union, harmony (Ta.); iyayuka to harmonise; is'ayuka to join together (Ma.)(DEDR 471).

2443.Parrot: ki_ra parrot (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); ki_r (G.); kirava_, girava_, gira_ parrot (Si.); kiro_t.a_ common wild parrot (M.)(CDIAL 3198). kare a paroquet (Santali.lex.) kil.i, kil.l.ai parrot (Ta.); kil.i (Ma.); kil.y vaky (Ko.); kil.y (To.); gil.i, gin.i (Ka.Tu.); gin.i (Kod..); ciluka (Te.); kil (pl. kilkul)(Pa.); killin (pl. kilkil)(Ga.)(DEDR 1584). sir.i_, hir.i_ (pl. -k) parrrot (Go.); hidkoo (pl.) id. (Go.); sir.a id. (Kond.a); hir.a a kind of bird (Pe.)(DEDR 2582). cf. ra_gho-si_r.i_ parrot (Go.); ra_go id. (Go.Nk.); ra_ghok (Nk.)(DEDR 5164). cf. ra_ga musical harmony, melody (Skt.lex.) cf. kitti_ praise (Pali); ki_rti report (RV.)(CDIAL 3200). ki_rtana telling (MBh.); ki_rtana_ id. (Sus'r.); kittana praise (Pali); kittan.a, kit.t.an.a praise, recitation (Pkt.); kitan singing (N.)(CDIAL 3199). si_rba- to cry (pair-word with ar.ba-); ar.baden si_rbaden crying constantly (Kond.a); hi_rba to call (intensive base only)(Pe.); cirqe to shout, make a noise (Malt.)(DEDR 2631). cf. arpini to weep, cry (Tu.); ar.up- to make to cry (Ga.); ar.ba- intens. to cry (of animals)(Pe.); to weep, cry (Kond.a)(DEDR 282).

2444.Wife: girni, ghirni wife, mistress of the house (Santali.lex.) gr.hin.i the mistress of a house, a wife (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kirakasti < gr.hastin married woman (Ta.lex.)

2445.Title: kitta_ppu < khit.a_b (U.) title, degree, honour (Ta.lex.) Accounts: kirdi an account of receipts and disbursements (Ka.); kirda (M.H.); kirdapatra (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kita_b book (H.lex.) Day-book: cit.t.ai memorandum of account containing details of major items of expense (Ta.); cit.t.a_ < cit.t.aha_ (U.) day-book (Ta.lex.) cit.t.i, cit.t.ha a rough daybook, an account taken on slips of paper before written fair (Ka.); cit.t.ha_ (H.); cit.t.ha a roll of lands under cultivation (Ka.); cit.t.a_ (M.H.); ci_t.u, ci_t.i a slip of paper; a bill, a bond (Ka.); ci_t.t.u (Ta.Ma.); ti_t.t.u (Ma.); cit.i_, cit.hi_, cit.t.i_ (M.H.); ci_t.i a written order (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ci_t.ni_sa an under-secretary, a clerk of higher standing (Ka.); cit.anavi_sa, cit.an.i_sa (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) centirukkam ola envelope of an ola letter; an ola scroll passed through the string of a flying kite (Ta.); < candraka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

2446.Lattice: gira_di lattice, battlement (Ka.); kira_ti (Ta.Ma.); grade (Port.)(Ka.lex.)

2447.Image: span: ge_n.u a span, distance measuring from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger (Tu.lex.) gen. span (measure)(Ka.lex.)

2448.Saleable: gira_ki a purchaser; customers (Ka.); girha_yaka (M.); kra_yaka (Skt.); gira_ki salable, in request, dear in price (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) Contract: gen. lease, rent; gen.e-ja_go tenement (Ka.lex.) ge_n.i rent on property, leasehold; ge_n.i ci_t. a lease deed; ca_la ge_n.i temporary lease subject to renewal at the end of every year; moola-ge_n.i a permanent lease; va_yide-ge_n.i a lease for a fixed number of years (Tu.lex.) ge_n.i rent, contract (Ka.Tu.); ge_n.ici_t.u a lease (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) kre_n.i, ke_n.i buying, purchasing, purchase; kre_tavya purchasable; kre_tr. a buyer, purchaser; kre_ya purchasable (Ka.Skt.); vikre_tr. a seller, a vendor (Skt.Ka.); vikre_ya to be sold, saleable, vendible (Skt.Ka.); vikraya = bikari sale, selling, vending (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Purchase: cf. xe_ndna_ (xindyas) to buy, purchase (Kur.); qnde to take along with, have with, possess (Malt.)(DEDR 2001). ke_n.ika_r-a a trafficker (Ka.); ke_n.e_m. an article of traffic (M.); mun:ge_n.i-ka_r-a a chief trafficker, a set.t.i; a chief (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s're_ni, se_n.i a corporation of artisans following the same business, a guild of traders dealing in the same articles (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) To sell and buy: biki-kini selling and buying (B.)(CDIAL 11641). Trader: cf. vahoro, voro, horo trader (G.)(CDIAL 12175). cf. va_vr business, activity (Konkan.i); beora_ affair (B.)(CDIAL 12205). Grocery: cf. kira_n.i grocery, as sugar, spices etc. (Ka.); kira_n.a_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) kiran.a an occupation, place of work, workshop; to scatter; pp. kin.n.a scattering, effusion (of sun rays), effulgence (Pali.lex.) cf. kirayam < kraya sale (Ta.lex.) kiranava_ to weigh (Si.)(CDIAL 3172). kirayam sale (Ta.); selling price (Ta.); kraya sale (Skt.); kiraya-ca_san-am bill of sale, sale-deed (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kira_ta the name of a savage tribe that inhabits woods and mountains, lubdhaka, s'a_bara; a dwarf, kir-u = small (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Merchant: kira_t.a merchant (Skt.); kiri_t.a merchant (BhP.); kira_t.a fraudulent merchant (Pali); kira_d.a, kira_ya, cila_a, cila_i_, cila_iya_ a non-Aryan tribe, slave (Pkt.); kira_r.u Hindu shopkeeper (S.); kira_r., kara_r., kira_r.i_ member of a tribe of Hindus (also called aror.a_) who act as traders and moneylenders (L.); kira_r. merchant (H.); ke_ra_t.ika, ke_ra_t.iya false; kira_sa fraudulent (Pali); kirr.akka_ connected with Hindus (L.); kira_ta a degraded mountain tribe (VS.); cila_ti woman of this tribe (Skt.)[Alternance of k- and c-,-t.- and -t- suggests Drav. origin](CDIAL 3173). kila_ta, kira_ta dwarf (Skt.); kira_ta, kira_t.a man of a jungle tribe (classed with dwarfs among the attendants of a chief)(Pali); kela_ boy (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3182). kira_tam name of a country, one of 56 te_cam (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 97); kira_ta-mu_rtti S'iva as a hunter (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) kir-i falsehood (Te_va_. 228, 6); kr.trima (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kira_ya rent, hire, fire (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) kri_ barter (Skt.); to purchase; mark (KS. xxxiv.3)(Vedic. lex.) Groceries, drugs: kraya_n.aka goods for sale (Skt.); kaya_n.a, kaya_n.aga, kiya_n.aga (Pkt.); kiria_n.a goods for sale (Pkt.); kirya_n.o small kinds of grain from which oil is expressed (S.); karia_n.a_ small wares for sale (esp. grocery)(P.); karia_na_, kira_na_ groceries (H.); kiriya_n.u~ groceries, drugs (G.); kira_n.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 3584). karan.i medicine (Tailava. Pa_yi. 1); karan.am ingredients mixed and used in connection with funeral rites, being seven, viz., the five products of the cow together with rice and rapeseed (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Merchandise; to buy: kraya purchase (VS.); kaya (Pali.Pkt.); kraya (NiDoc.); kre_r-kerar lures (Gypsy); kre price (Kal.)(CDIAL 3581). gayar to sell (Bshk.)(CDIAL 3582).krayan.a buying (Ka_tyS'rS.); ken.e~ merchandise (M.); ke_ai buys (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3583). kirin to buy, to purchase; kikrinic a buyer; nui d.an:gran kirin akadea I have bought this ox (Santali.lex.) kri_n.a_ti buys (RV.); kin.a_ti (Pali); krinita bought (NiDoc.); ki_n.ai, kin.ai, kirin.ai (Pkt.); kuna_r sells; kin to buy (Gypsy); krenik, pp. kreniru to buy (Kho.); krin to sell (Phal.); krinoiki, imper. krin, krinyo_nu (Sh.); kanun (K.); kinnu to buy (N.); kiniba (A.); kina_ (B.); kin.iba_ (Or.); ki_nab (Bi.Mth.); kinab (Mth.); kinal (Bhoj.); ki_nna_, kinna_ (H.); kin.iya, absol., caus. ken.avi (OSi.inscr.)(CDIAL 3594) cf. konu to buy (Te.lex.) kaya purchase, buying; -(a)kkaya buying and selling; vikkaya (kraya vikraya) buying and selling, trade in: vikkaya-pat.ivirata; kayati to buy; inf. ketun.; kayika a buyer, a trader, dealer; krayika (BHSkt.); kayin a buyer (Pali); kin.a_ti to buy; pot. kin.e; ger. kin.iva_; inf. kin.itun. (Pali)(Pali.lex.) kre_ya purchasable (Skt.); krayya (S'Br.); keyya for sale (Pali); kejja, kijja (Pkt.); keje~ grain or coconuts given in barter for vegetables (M.)(CDIAL 3604). xe_ndna_ (xindyas) to buy, purchase (Kur.); qende to take along with, have with, possess (Malt.)(DEDR 2001). konu (kon.t-) to buy, take (Te.); kon.- to take (Te.inscr.); ko_lu vb.n. of konu; taking, plunder (Te.); kor-- (-t-) to buy (Pe.); kod.a (kod.i-) to buy, take; buying, taking, plucking (Kui); ko_dali, kod.d.inai to take, buy; kod.- (-it-) to buy; bring (Kuwi); kol. (kol.v-, kon.t-) to seize, receive, buy; kol.vo_n- buyer, student; kol.l.unar buyers, learners (Ta.); kon.t.al receiving, taking; kon.a_- to bring, take, fetch (Ta.); kol., kol.u, kol.l.u (kon.d-) to seize, take away, obtain, buy (Ka.); kol.-/kon.- (kod.-) to marry (wife), buy (cattle), begin (funeral)(Ko.); kol.l.- (kovv-, kon.d.-) to take (Kod..); kon.uni (kon.d-) to take, hold, keep (Tu.)(DEDR 2151). Buyer: kaya [from kri] purchase, buying; kaya-(a)kkaya buying and selling; kaya-vikkaya buying and selling, trade; kayika a buyer, trader, dealer; kayin a buyer (Pali.lex.) cf. -kri_ 'barter' embedded in the following etyma: Sale: vikraya sale (AV.); vikkaya sale (Pali); vikraya, vikra (NiDoc.); vikkaa (Pkt.); vika_ (L.P.); bika_, biki (B.); bika_ (Or.); veku_ for sale (S.); vikiro sale; vikiri_ id. (S.); bikri (N.Or.); bikaruwa_ for sale (A.); bikri_ (H.); vakro (G.); vikra_ (M.)(CDIAL 11638). kra_payati (Pa_n..); vikka_yama_n.a sells (Pkt.); vika_un.a_, bika_un.a_ to sell (P.); bika_unu (N.); bika_iba (A.); bika_na (B.); bika_iba_ (Or.); bika_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11640). Barter: biki-kini selling and buying (B.)[cf. ken.e~ merchandise (M.)(CDIAL 3583)]; vikka_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11641). vikraya sale (AV.); vikkaya sale (Pali); vikraya, vikra (NiDoc.); vikkaa (Pkt.); vika_ (L.P.); bika_, biki (B.); bika_ (Or.); veku_ for sale (S.); vikiro, vikiri_ sale (S.); bikri (N.); bikaruwa_ for sale (A.); bikri sale (Or.); bikri_ (H.); vakro (G.); vikra_, vikri_ (M.)(CDIAL 11638). kra_payati sells (Pa_n..); vikka_yama_n.a (Pkt.); vika_un.a_, bika_un.a_ to sell (P.); bika_unu (N.); bika_iba (A.); bika_na (B.); bika_iba_ (Or.); bika_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11639). vikri_n.ite_ barters (AV.); sells (Mn.); vikri_n.ati barters (Skt.); vikkin.a_ti sells (Pali); vikrinati (NiDoc.); vikkin.ai, viki_n.ai (Pkt.); bikin, vegn, vukn (Gypsy); brikin (Dm.); r.eken, reken, ligin (Pas'.); bikin (Gaw.); bre~_kr (Kal.); bigin (Tor.); vikin.an.u (S.); vikun.anava_ (pret. vikka_) to sell (Si.); vikin.enava_ to be sold (S.); vrai~c sale (Kt.); ve_can. (L.); vikke_i, vikke_ai after fut. kre_s.yati, ger. kre_tavya (Pkt.); viketaviye (As'.); vikke_tum. inf. (Pali)(CDIAL 11640). vikri_ta sold (MBh.); sale (Mn.); vikrida, vikridaga, pret. vikridemi (NiDoc.); vikki_a, vikkia (whence pres. vikkai sells)(Pkt.); vikka_ pret. of vikun.anava_ (Si.); biki-kini selling and buying (B.)(CDIAL 11641). vikri_yate_ is sold (Skt.); vikijan.u to be sold (S.); vikan.u to be sold (S.); vikkan. (L.); vikn.a_, bikn.a_ (P.); biknu (N.); bikiba_ (Or.); bikna_ (H.); vikn.e~ (M.); bikiba to sell (A.); bika_ (B.); vi_kai (OG.); vikn.e~ (M.); vikkan (Md.)(CDIAL 11642). ve_ca_ (v.l. ve_ta_) hire, wages; ve_tana hire, wages (MBh.); ve_tane_na kri_tah- hired (Pa_n.. com.); ve_tana price (Skt.); vikri_n.a_no 'lpave_tanaih- (Skt.); ve_ti procures (RV.); veccai, vicce_i spends (Pkt.); ve_can. to sell (L.); vecn.a_, becn.a_ (P.); becn.o (Ku.); becnu (N.); besiba (A.); beca_ (B.); beciba_, biciba_ (Or.); becab, be~cab (Mth.); becna_ (H.); vecvu~ (G.); vecn.e~ to spend (M.)(CDIAL 12100). vyaya change, loss, expense (Mn.); vaya, vyaya expense (Pali); vyaga (NiDoc.); vaya (Pkt.); baya_ expenses (Or.); vaya, viya (Si.)(CDIAL 12170). vyayati spends (Dha_tup.); bayiba_ to spend (Or.)(CDIAL 12171). vikraya = bikari sale, selling, vending; vikrayika a seller, a vendor; vikrayisu to sell, to vend; bikari selling, sale (Ka.M.); vikara_, vikari_ (H.); bikarida_ra that sells, a vendor (Ka.lex.) va_n:ku to buy, take, drag, pull, take away (Ta.); va_n:kal receiving, borrowing, buying (Ta.); va_n.n.al purchasing; va_n.n.ikka to demand back; va_n.n.ippikka to make one take (Ma.)(DEDR 5336). Traders of leaves (tree products): ce_n-ai-t-talaivar men of the Ilai-va_n.ikar caste (Ta.lex.) ce_n-ai-t-talaivar, ce_n-ai-mutaliya_r chief of Vis.n.u's hosts; men of Kaikko_l.ar caste (Ta.lex.) Revenue collector: ce_n-ai-p-peruva_n.ikan- chief purveyor for an army (Perun.. Ucaik. 40,344); cf. va_n.ikan- trader (Ta.); va_n.ijya trade (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) sena_ official who collects revenue in a village, general (H.); sen.n.a, sin.n.a army (Pkt.); sen (G.); se_niya soldier (Pali); seniya, seni (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 13602). e_n-a_ti name of a division among sha_n.a_ns (whose occupation is toddy-drawing)(Tj.); barber; en-a_ti-na_yan-a_r name of a canonized S'aiva saint, one of 63 (Periyapu.); en-a_ti-mo_tiram ring being the insignia of the title of e_na_ti (Ci_vaka. 2569, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) s'en.vai, s'en.vi_, s'en.ai a class of brahmans (M.); s'en.vi (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13587). ce_n-ai weapon; multitude, crowd; friends, relations; ce_n-ai-p-pat.aikal. big crowd, concourse of people (Ta.lex.) Company of travellers; market: ce_n.i side of a street; party of workers, set of players, company of travellers; ce_n-ai street; bazaar; market, fair (Ta.lex.) cf. seni_ the broad flat metal plates in a tobacconist's shop (Bi.); s're_n.i_ line, row, troop (RV. metr. often s'rayan.i); se_n.i guild, division of army (Pali); row, collection (Pkt.); sen.i row of raters in a thatched roof, the wooden plates on which the rafters are put crosswise (Or.)(CDIAL 12718). [cf. Pali lex. (Rhys Davids): sen.i (Classical Skt. s'ren.i in meaning 'guild'; vedic = row); a guild; their number was eighteen; -pamukha the head of a guild; a division of an army sen.imokkha the chief of an army; sena_ (vedic sena_ perhaps from si to bind); an army; -gutta a high official, a minister of war, only in cmpd. maha_-; -na_yaka a general; -pacca the position as general; -pati a general; -byu_ha massing of troops, grouping and fitting up an army; seniya belonging to an army, soldier; senaka a carter; sena (Skt. s'yena) a hawk. s're_n.yaka tribesman (?Skt.); s.i_n. a Shina man (Sh.)(CDIAL 12719)].

2449.A street: ke_ri a street (Ka.); ge_ri (Te.); ce_ri (Ta.Ma.); ke_rigol. to take a street, i.e. to betake one's self to it (Ka.lex.)

2450.To send or take back; Image: to face about: kirna_ (kirryas) to come back, return, face about, come round in turn (Kur.); kirta'a_na_ to send or take back, return; give in return (Kur.); kire to return (Malt.); kirtre to give or take back, recover (Malt.)(DEDR 1566). gir-i, gir-a, gir-u, gir-iki going round, whirling (Ka.); giragira round and round, spinning (Te.)(DEDR 1595). kere kere head forced down on the shoulders by carrying a heavy weight on the head, moving slowly and stiffly through having a load to carry (Santali.lex.) kirokoro head pressed down on the shoulders, as by carrying something heavy on the head (Santali.lex.) kerker stiff-necked (Santali.lex.)

2451.Image: rays of the sun: kiran.a rays of the sun (Skt.lex.) kiran.an- Sun as having rays (Pa_rata. Patin-a_n-ka_m. 108); kiran.am ray of light, beam (Ta.lex.) kiran.a ray of light (MBh.); effulgence (Pali); ray (Pkt.); keran pl. rays (of sun etc.)(K.); kirin.i sunbeam (S.); kiran. (P.); ray of light (A.B.); kiran.a (Or.); kiran, kirin (Mth.); karan., kiran (G.); kiran. ray, sunlight; kira_n. first rays of rising or last of setting sun (M.); kiran.a sunbeam (Si.)(CDIAL 3171).

2452.Scab: kiran.i a kind of itch; keran.i, kera_n.i a kind of scab; warts (Tu.); ciran:ku eruption, pimple, itch (Ta.); cirau itch, scab (Ma.); keraku scab (Ka.); kirmbuni, kirmbaruni to itch; rub, scratch; kirmba_t.a, kirmbelu itching, scratching; kra_n.i the eruptive kind of rickets; ke_re ka_ru a scaly-skinned leg; ke_re-me_yi a scaly skin (Tu.); cirugud.u a species of leprosy which causes large round spots all over the body, ringworm (Te.)(DEDR 1560). Scab: kila_sa leprous (VS.); a species of leprousy (Ka_tyS'r.); a cutaneous disease (Pali); kila_s whitish leprous spot, blotch, scab (B.); kil.as, kil.os strange mark indicating disease (M.)(CDIAL 3183). cilanti pimple, small boil, abscess, ulcer, venereal boil (Ta.); cilanni a kind of ulcer or bubo (Ma.); celidi a kind of skin-disease; a skin rash will small boils; celdi id. (Te.)(DEDR 2563). khasra, kasra, khas khos itch (Santali.lex.) gara a partic. disease (Sus'r.); ger, gel itch (Gypsy); garu mange (S.); garo mangy (S.); gar itch in throat and breast of a horse, farcy (H.); id., scurf on hair of horse of man (M.); geralo, gelalo affected by itch or scab (Gypsy); garal eczema (B.)(CDIAL 4039). cf. kharju itching, scratching, scab (Skt.)(CDIAL 3827). kin.a callosity (MBh.); scar (Skt.); callosity, scar, scab; kin.iya_ little boil (Pkt.); kin. wart, mole, scar (B.); kin.a scar, callosity, callosity on an archer's hand (Or.); kin wound, sore, scar, callosity (H.); kin., kin.e~, kin.a_ scar, callosity (M.)(CDIAL 3159). kina_ calloused (MBh.); kin.avant id. (MBh.); kinhe~, kine~, kina_ callosity (M.)(CDIAL 3162). Image: pustule: kuru pustule, blister, boil, sore (Ta.)(Cilap. Urai per-u kat.t.urai); pustule,, boil (Ma.); kuru, kuruvu a protuberance or excrescence on the body, a boil (Ka.); kuri a boil (Tu.); kur-upu a boil, abscess (Te.); kurup pimple (Nk.); kur small boil (Pa.); ku_r boil (Ga.); kurpum id. (Go.); kurpu id. (Go.); ku_ru a boil (Kond.a.Kuwi); ku_rr.u_ (pl. ku_r.ka) bubo (Kuwi); kura_r.a inflamed swelling, esp. in the neck (Br.)(DEDR 1780). gurul.e, gul.l.i, gul.l.e bubble, blister, pustule, small round shell (Ka.); gul.l.e, gulle bubble, blister, pustule; gulla a kind of small mollusk (Tu.); gulla a shell, a white pustule; gulaka shell, pebble (Te.); gurgela snail (?Kol.); gulli shell, cowrie (Pa.); gula snail (Pa.); gola, goli shell (said to be <Or.)(Kui); ghula snail (Halbi)(DEDR 1795). gut.i pustules of small-pox (Santali.lex.)

2453.Chiretta: cir-a_yita, kiriya_tu, cirya_ta, kira_ta a kind of gentian, agathotes chirayta Don., gentiana chirayta Roxb. (Ka.); cir-a_yattu (Ta.); kira_ta-tikta (Skt.Ka.); cira_tikta (Skt.); cira_i_ta, cira_yata (M.)(Ka.lex.) kira_kati a medicinal plant, nilave_mpu (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) cir-a_yattu-k-kucci Himalayan chiretta (Ta.); chira_ita_ (U.); kira_ta-tikta (Skt.); kira_yatu chiretta (M.M.)(Ta.); kaira_ta (Skt.); nilave_mpu French chiratta, andrographis paniculata; chiretta, swertia chirata (M.M. 177)(Ta.); ne_lave_mu (Te.); nelabe_vu (Ka.); nilave_ppu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Gentiana chirayta = ophelia chirata : kira_ta-tikta (Skt.); bhu_nimba (Skt.); chireta_ (B.H.); the ophelia chirata is indigenous to the mountainous regions of northern India from Simla through Kumaon to the Morung district in southeastern Nepal. kira_ta-tikta means 'the bitter plant of the kira_tas, an outcast race of mountaineers in the north of India.' It is also called ana_ryatikta or the bitter plant of the non-Aryans. The Bhavapraka_sa mentions a variety of chireta_, under the name of Naipa_la, that is, produced in Nepal and describes it as a febrifuge. Chireta_ is regarded as tonic, febrifuge and laxative, and is used in fever, burning of the body, intestinal worms, skin diseases etc. It is much used in fevers of all sorts in a variety of forms and in combination with other medicines of its class... e.g. gulancha, raisins, emblic myrobalan, zedoary root... kira_ta_di taila or oil of chireta_... including root of sanseviera zeylanica (murva_) lac, turmeric, wood of berberis asiatica (da_ruharidra_), madder, root of citrullus colocynthis (indrava_runi), pa_chak root, root of pavonia odorata (ba_la_), of vanda roburghii (ra_sna_), scindapsus officinalis (gajapippali), long pepper, black pepper, ginger root, root of stephania hernandifolia (pa_tha_), indrajava seeds, sochal, vit, and rock salts, root of justicia adha_toda (va_saka), calotropis gigantea (devada_ru) and the fruit of trichosanthes palmata (maha_ka_la). The oil thus prepared is rubbed on the body in chronic fever with emaciation and anaemia (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp.201-202). kalmeg andrographis paniculata (Santali.lex.) Swertia chirayita: Synonyms: chiretta, bitter stick, chirayta; chirette (Fr.); chiretta, ostindischer enzian (Ger.); part used: the dried plant; habitat: mountainous regions of northern India; plant: an annual, smooth herb, attaining a height of 1 m.; the plants are gathered in the fruiting condition, carefully dried and tied in bundles with bamboo strips. These are packed into small bundles or bales and exported from Calcutta; use: simple bitter. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 675-676). Andrographis paniculata: bhunimba (Skt.); kirata (Skt.); kiryat, kirayat (H.); kalmegh (B.); nilavemu (Ta.Te.); nelavepu (Ma.); olikiryata (M.); plant: febrifuge, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, useful in debility, dysentery and dyspepsia; infusion of plant: in fever; roots and leaves: febrifuge, stomachic, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic; habitat: throughout the plains of India, sometimes cultivated (GIMP, p.18). Swertia chirata = gentiana chirayta: kairata (Skt.); chireta (H.B.); chiraita (M.); nilavembu (Ta.Te.); nelaveppa (Ma.); plant: bitter, tonic, stomachic, febrifuge, laxative; habitat: temperate Himalayas, 4,000 to 10,000 ft. from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasia Hills, 4,000 to 5,000 ft. Swertia angustifolia: pahari chiretta (H.); pahadi-kiraita (M.); used as a substitute for swertia chirata; habitat: sub-tropical Himalayas, 1,000 to 6,000 ft., from the Chenab to Bhutan . Swertia decussata: silajit (Deccan); kadu (Mahabaleshwar); Swertia paniculata: kadavi (M.); both plants: a good substitute for swertia chirata and gentiana kurroo; habitat: western ghats of Bombay State. (GIMP, p.237). cf. kira_tatikta the plant agathotes chirayta (Sus'r.); sirata_ gentiana chirayta (A.)(CDIAL 3174).

2454.Surround; giddiness: ghurn.i, gheora a whirlpool (Santali.lex.) girum whirlpool (Wg.); *ghe_r make go round, surround (Skt. < Drav.); giran again, back (Dm.); gir- to turn round (Pas'.); to go round (Wot..); to turn, walk about (Gaw.); to wander about (Bshk.); gir again (Pas'.); giri again (Gaw.); ghiran.u to feel sick, slide down (S.); ghirn.a_ to turn round, feel giddy, be surrounded (P.); ghiran. to move away (WPah.); ghira_ to surround (B.); ghirni_ rope-maker's twisting instrument (B.); pulley (H.); ghiral to be surrounded (Bhoj.); ghirna_ to be surrounded (H.); ghi~rt.i_ a whirl (M.); gere_ to make go round (Pas'.); gherem I turn round (Kal.); ge_run to surround (K.); ge_r circumference (K.); gheran.u to surround (S.); ghero siege (S.); gheri circumference (S.); ghern.a_ to surround, blockade (P.); gher, ghera_ circumference (P.); ghern.i_ dizziness (P.); ghe_ro circular movement (WPah.); ghern.o to surround (Ku.); ghernu, ghero circumference (N.); gher to surround (A.B.); ghera_ to surround (B.); gheriba_, ghera (Or.); gher, ghera_ (Bhoj.); circumference (M.); gherai surrounds, besieges (OAw.); gherna_ to surround (H.); gher, ghera_ circumference (H.); ghervu~ to surround (G.); gheran. sound sleep (G.)[cf. ku_runi to be drowsy, sleepy (Tu.)(DEDR 1902)]; ghero circumference (G.); gheri_ border or short hair (G.); ghern.e~ to surround (M.); gha~ver vortex, whirlpool, giddiness (L.)(CDIAL 4474). kir-ukir-u to be giddy (Ta.); kir-ukkam giddiness (Ma.); gir-i, gir-a, gir-u, gir-ake, gir-aki, gir-iki, gir-ike whirling, going round (Ka.); gir-a gut.t.u to go round (as the head from biliousness)(Ka.); gir-r-ane with a whirl (Ka.); giragira round and round, spinning (Te.); gir-r-una circularly, in a circle (Te.); giraka, gilaka, girra, gi_ra, gilla pulley over which to pull water from well; wheel of cart (Te.); ki_rkand a whirligig, water-beetle (Go.); girakn.e~ to whirl (M.)(DEDR 1595).

2455.Kingfisher: ciral kingfisher (Ta.); cira_l a kind of bird (?Go.)(DEDR 2551). Synonym: pon--va_y-p-pul., ciccili-k-kuruvi. (Ta.lex.)[cf. the imagery linking a bird and 'fish'.] kikir the king-fisher (Santali.lex.)

2456.Indian shrike: kirut.ige the keroula shrike, keroula indica; the great Indian shrike, lanius burra; the lahtora butcher bird, lanius lahtora; kirut.iga the bay-backed shrike (Ka.lex.)

2457.Fish-net: gira kind of fish-net (Bonda.Gutob.Parengi.Kharia.); a small round net for catching small fry (Munda.); fish-trap (Koraku.); ginir id. (Gutob.); ger- to catch fish (Sora.); gari cage (Ho.); gari, ganari a small round net for catching small fry (Munda.); to catch fish with a gira (Munda.); ger- to nibble (Munda.); generi a kind of fish-net (Santali.); giri a fish-net (Korku.); gad- to catch fish (Korku.); giri fish-hook (Korku.); gir-, gigir- to fish with hook (Korku.); geri fishing hook (Nahali.)[S.Bhattacharya, Some Munda Etymologies, 1966, pp. 28-41.] go_ra-bale large hand-net (Tu.); ko_ru-vala fishing-net (Ma.); go_rale small hand-net (Tu.); ko_r to cast net (Go.); ko_ral a fishing basket (Ma.)(DEDR 2231). jhali a net (Santali.lex.) Drag-net: karai-valai drag-net, having a cotton bag with fine meshes in the centre, sometimes 1/2 mile in length spread out from the shore in a semi-circle and after an hour or two withdrawn from the water while the boys beat it shouting so as to drive the fish into the bag as it nears the shore (Ta.); karavala id. (Ma.); karai-valai-t-to_n.i boat for fishing with the dragnet (Ta.lex.)

2458.A lunar race: kavuravar, kauravar Kaurava princes (Pa_rata. On-pata_m. 31)(Ta.lex.) kuru a prince of the lunar race after whom his family was called kuru-kulam (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 31); a certain continent; the country of the Kurus, one of 56 te_cam (Ta.lex.) kuru name of a country situated in the north of India about the site of the modern Delhi; the kings of this country; kuru-ks.e_tram name of an extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of the great war between the Kauravas and Pa_n.d.avas; kuru-ks.e_tra-yo_gah. a solar day in the course of which three lunar days, three asterims and three yogas occur (Skt.lex.)

2459.A division of the earth: kuruvarut.am < kuru-vars.a one of nine divisions of the earth situate between S'r.ngava_n- and the Northern Ocean (vat.a kat.al mutala_c cirun:kan:ka_r-um kuruvarut.am: Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36); cf. cirun:kava_n- < s'r.n:gava_n nom. sg. of sr.n:ga-vat a mythical mountain believed to be one of the boundaries of the earth; cf. s'r.n:gam a horn (also, lordship, sovereignty, supremacy, eminence; s'r.n:ga_t.akah. a mountain with three peaks; s'r.n:gavat peaked; a mountain; s'r.n:gam the top or summit of a mountain; s'r.n:ga_ntara space or interval between the horns (of a cow etc.)(Skt.lex.) cirun:kam horn of a quadruped (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 33); a mythical mountain believed to be one of the boundaries of the earth; peak (Ka_cippu. Can-ar-kuma_ra. 5) (Ta.lex.)

2460.Resinous tree: kurat.ike, kurat.ige, kurut.ike, kurut.ige, korat.ige, kurat.ike_ bi_ja the seeds of the odina wodier (Ka.lex.) d.oka odina wodier (Santali.lex.) cf. uti, oti Indian ash tree, odina wodier (Ta.)(DEDR 614). cf. ji_vala_ the tree odina wodier (AV.); jiul, jiuli the gum exuding tree odina wodier (B.); divul feronia elephantum (Si.)(CDIAL 5248). ji_va_l.a substance, pith, essence (Ka.lex.) Odina wodier = lannea grandis: jiol (B.); moja (M.); jingan (H.); kalmina (Garhwal); oti (Ma.); kimlu (P.); jingini (Skt.); odi (Ta.); gumpena (Te.); bark: astringent, used as a lotion in impetigenous eruptions, leprous ulcers and obstinate ulcers; leaves: boiled and applied for local swellings and pains of body; habitat: common in deciduous forests throughout India, in the sub-Himalayan tract extending to the Indus and ascending to 4,000 ft. in the outer hills (GIMP, p.149).

2461.Tuber: kurd.a root, tuber (Pa.); kure id. (Ga.); kurud. a kind of vegetable (Ga.)(DEDR 1799).

2462.Atlantia monophylla: kuruntu wild lime, atalantia; atalantia racemosa; atalantia missionis (Ta.); kurunnu trichilia spinosa = atalantia monophylla (Ma.)(DEDR 1789).

2463.Common delight of the woods: kuruntu common delight of the woods, hiptage madablota, kurukkatti (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. kunda (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kuruntam a species of wild lime, atlantia racemosa (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,4,7); kuntam < kunda wild lime (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) kurundu cinnamon; kurundu-gal cinnamon-stone (Si.) (CDIAL 3328). cf. kurunnu trichilia spinosa = atlantia monophylla (Ma.)(DEDR 1789). cf. dod.li a large shrub or small tree, atlantia monophylla (Ka.); dod.l wild orange (lime), atlantia monophylla (Tu.)(DEDR 3493). Atlantia monophylla = atlantia malabarica: atavi-jambira (Skt.); makad-limbu (M.); adavi-nimma (Te.); kattunarenga (Ma.); kattukkichili (Ta.); oil from berries: used externally in chronic rheumatism and paralysis; root: antiseptic, stimulant; leaves: in snake-bite; habitat: Konkan, S. Mahrata country, N. Kanara, Madras State, W. Coast, W. Ghats, Carnatic, Deccan, N. Circars, Assam (GIMP, p.30). cf. Trichilia nervosa = sandoricum koetjape = sandoricum indicum (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.486).

2464.Image: scorpion: so_r kupi scorpion (Kond.a); ho_ru kuppi crab (Kuwi)(DEDR 2888).

2465.Paddy: kur-uvai a dark species of paddy maturing in two months; an inferior reddish paddy maturing in three months (Ta.); kur-uva a sort of black paddy (Ma.)(DEDR 1858); kur-uvai paddy sown in vaika_ci and reaped in two months (Ta.lex.)

2466.Food: kho food (Tir.); kha_da (AV.); kha_d eat (Skt.)(CDIAL 3864). ko_ruvrau, ko_ruvau flaked rice (-p- > -v- in compound)(Kui); pra_ma a grain of boiled rice; pra_u rice, husked paddy (Kui)(DEDR 3982). cf. khen food after pyonu dat. penas to drink (K.)(CDIAL 3867). cf. kho_h what is removed after pounding rice or maize (Sh.); khost.o husk (of maize etc.)(N.)(CDIAL 3948). Livelihood: kor-r-u food, means of subsistene (Ta.); food, rice (Ma.); kottu cooked rice (Inscr.Ta.); kohpe pej of man.d.eya (?Kuwi)(DEDR 2171). cf. pe_nz to strain water from boiled rice (Kond.a); pe_nj id. (Pe.Mand..Kuwi); pe_nja to strain a liquid, pour off rice water (Kui)(DEDR 4433). panta_ boiled rice kept in water for use next day (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 8085).] hen.d.a vinous liquor or toddy extracted from the wild date tree (Ka.); toddy, palm-wine (Tu.); pend.om rice-beer (Ga.); pen.d.am kalu id., country liquor (Kond.a); pendomi ka_d.u beer (Kuwi)[cf. ka_t.i fermented gruel or rice water, vinegar, gruel (Ta.)(DEDR 1436)]; pendomka (pl.; nd!) rice-wine (Kuwi)(DEDR 4397). ju_li soup (Sh.); jhol (Ku.); jhol juice, soup (N.); zol soup (A.); jhol (B.); jhol.a (Or.); jhor (Mth.); jhol (H.)(CDIAL 5416). cf. co_s.a sucking (Skt.); cah (K.); cos (B.)(CDIAL 4934). Food: co_r-r-i pith of trees; co_cci, con-r-i boiled rice (Ta.)(DEDR 2897). For the first element, in the sense of 'food', ko_ru- cf. ko_ruka to eat greedily (Ma.); kol.l.u to drink (Ka.); kro_lu to drink, eat (Te.); gronj- to drink, guzzle (Kuwi)(DEDR 2233). cf. c- initial consonant in: co_ru boiled rice, pith (Ta.); boiled rice, food, livelihood, brain, marrow, pith (Ma.); con-r-i boiled rice (Ta.); twi.r- cooked food (To.)(DEDR 2897).

2467.Cinnabar: kuruvinda black salt, the stone cinnabar (Skt.); cinnabar (Pali); kurivindaka vermilion (Pali); kurundu cinnamon (Si.)(CDIAL 3328).

2468.Ruby: kuruvinda ruby (Skt.Pali); kuruvim.da ruby (Pkt.); kuruvilla ruby (Si.)(CDIAL 3328).

2470. Corundum stone: kuraji, kuran:ga, kuranda, kurunda (Tadbhava of kuruvinda) the corundum-stone, spatum adamanticum, used for cutting and polishing diamonds (Ka.); kuriji, kuruvinda, korivinda (Te.); kurunta (Ta.); kuranda (M.)(Ka.lex.) Flint: kuruvinta-k-kal grey flint, emery (M.M. 247); red ochre (I_t.u. 3,1,2); kuruvintam inferior kind of ruby (Cilap. 14,186, Urai); vermilion (Ta.lex.) kuruvinda ruby (Sus'r.); black salt, the stone cinnabar (Skt.); ruby, cinnabar (Pali); kuruvindaka vermilion (Pali); kuruvim.da ruby (Pkt.); kurin.d.ru pumice-stone, any preparation used in place of it for polishing (S.); kurun.d. corundum stone (P.); kurin a kind of stone for sharpening tools and making bullets (N.); kuran.d. corundum stone, whetstone (H.); kuru~d corundum (a reddish soft stone used for mills, whetstones, etc.), red speck on white of eye (M.); kurundu cinnamon; kurundu-gal cinnamon-stone; kuruvilla ruby (Si.)(CDIAL 3328).

2471.Image: red streak (by a goldsmith/lapidary on a touch-stone?): korru, korad.u rainbow (Te.); kur-veli id. (Kond.a); korad.u a red streak in the clouds, a gleam or stream of a rainbow in the clouds (Te.); korad.u, kod.d.a a kind of rainbow appearing in a straight form (Ka.)(DEDR 2124).

2472.Re-inforcing colour: red: kurdi, kurudi red liquid prepared by mixing turmeric and lime, used for auspicious purposes (Tu.); kurudi coloured red water (Ka.); blood, red colour (Ta.); kuruti blood (Ma.)(DEDR 1788).

2473.Image: to sit down: ku_r to sit down (Ka.); ku_risu to cause to sit (Ka.); ku_r(u)cun.d.u to sit, be seated (Te.); kuc to sit (Pe.); kuh id. (Mand..)(DEDR 1900). kukuyut to sit, doing nothing (Santali.lex.)

2474. Bee: kerga bee (Mand..); khuriya bee (Nk.); kirga a kind of bee (Pe.); kirga vihan:ga a kind of bee (Kui); kri~_ya viha bee; kri~_ya ni_yu honey; kiringya a bee; kriya honey (Kuwi)(DEDR 1567). gan pl. bees (WPah.); gan beehive (K.)(CDIAL 3988). gen.olli bee (WPah.)(CDIAL 3990). gan.ha_r beehive (WPah.)(CDIAL 3991). Cricket: girli, in: je_t.a girli cricket (Kond.a); girngel id. (Pe.Mand..); girngili, krin:geli id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1569). ghugri a species of cricket (Santali.lex.)

2475.Louse: si_r, i_r, si_ru a nit, an egg of a louse (Ka.); si_ri the louse called pediculus pubis; si_ru to clean from lice, to louse; si_ran.ige a comb for clearing the head of nits and lice (Ka.lex.) kirant.i flea (of bullocks)(Kon.lex.)

2476.Image: cloth-louse: ku_r-e a kind of cloth-louse (Ka.); ku_r-a_n, ku_r-a insect, moth, cockroach (Ma.)(DEDR 1926). kun.a an insect living in clothes (Skt.); ko~_w tick, louse (Ash.); ko~_ (Kt.Bashg.); ko_n., ku_nai tick, louse (Psht.)(CDIAL 3255).

2477.Image: to whirl; roar: kar-an:ku (kar-an:ki-) to whirl; n. whirling, gyration, kite (Ta.); kar-akku (kar-akki-) to spin (as yarn)(Ta.); kar-an.n.uka to turn around, whirl (Ma.); gar-a, gar-agar-a whirlingly, around and around (Ka.); kor-i, kor-e to whirl (Ka.); garu, gara, garagara, garrane a whirling noise (Tu.)(DEDR 1387). gargara whirlpool (AV.); musical instrument (RV.); gaggara crackling of geese (Pali); gaggaraka-, gaggalaka- whirlpool (Pali); gaggara- making an inarticulate noise (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4042). To whirl, roar: gaggara_yati whirls, roars (of waves) (Pali); gagara_y thunder (K.)(CDIAL 4045). Thunder: kar..ar-u (kar..ar-i-) to thunder (Ta.); karadil- (karadilt-) lightning strikes (subject abar sky)(Kol.); ij kar.alil- id. (Nk.)[ij lightning < bijli_ (H.)](DEDR 1354). ga~_garvu~ to bellow like a bull (G.); ga~_garn.e~ to be frightened (M.); ga~_gard.a_ outcry, brawl (M.)(CDIAL 3951). cf. gan:gi-reddu a bull (Te.lex.) To cause to whirl: gha_riba_ to cause to whirl, to reel, nod, doze (Or.)(CDIAL 4470). ghabiro deafish (S.); gha_bra_ confused (P.); ghabra_unu to confuse, be confused (N.); gha~_bra_na (B.); gha_bara_ confused (Or.); gha_bar, gha_bra_ startled (H.); gha_bhru_ confused (G.); gha_bra_ terrified (M.); ghabr.a_n.o to be puzzled (Ku.); gha_br.a_ to be confused (B.)(CDIAL 4427). To roar: ka.kl a.d.- (at.t.-) to abuse (Kol.); ka_kh'nai to growl, howl (Kuwi); kakh'nai to roar (Kuwi)(DEDR 1426). To roar, sound: aka_ris.am aor. calls (RV.); kara_unu to call out (N.); kara_hn.a_ to groan (P.); kara_hna_ (H.); kar-, kha_r- to call (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3060). ka_ra song (RV.); -ka_ra in cmpds. descriptive of sounds, e.g. hin:ka_ra, jhan:ka_ra, t.am.ka_ra, hakka_ra, hin:ka_ra (CDIAL 3053). karai to sound, roar, weep, lament, call, invite; to call, summon (Ta.); karayuka to cry, lament, neigh, caw, caterwaul; karaccil weeping, crying, lamentation; cry of certain animals or birds; karal.uka to mumble; karal.ca mumbling (Ta.); karv- (kard-) to bellow, caw; gagc- to make first tentative unmusical notes on clarinet when starting to play (Ko.); kar- (kar0-) to bellow; kark bellowing (To.); kare, kari to emit a sound, sound, call, invite; karasu, karisu, karesu, kareyisu to cause to call, have called, cause to sound, shout together; karaha, kareyuvike calling, etc. (Ka.); kareyuni, karevuni to crow; karmbuni to mutter; gaggelyuni to roar, cry (Tu.); kran:gu the sound of a bell; krandu to sound, ring, lament; n. sound, noise (Te.); karug-/karuk- to call, crow, invite; summon; karup- to cause to summon (a physician)(Nk.); kerip- (kerit-) to cackle (Pa.); karng- to call; karingi calling (Go.); kra_va the tongue of a bell (Kui); xarxna_ to ring, jingle, clink, give out a sound; xarxa'a_na_ to make ring, perform music (Kur.); qargre to cry out (Malt.)(DEDR 1291). Roar, thunder: garjita rumbling (Ya_j.); roaring (of elephant)(MBh.); a roaring elephant (Skt.); gajjia n. and adj. roaring (Pkt.); ga_ji cattle (Ku.)(CDIAL 4049). garja_ roaring, thunder (Skt.); gajji thunder (Pkt.); graz roaring (K.); ga_j thunderbolt, wrath (H.); ga_j-vi_j thunder and lightning (G.)(CDIAL 4048). garjana roaring, thundering (R.); gajjana roaring (Pali); gajjan.a thunder (Pkt.); ga_jan (H.); gajun (OSi.)(CDIAL 4047). garjati thunders, roars (MBh.); gajjati (Pali); gajjai (Pkt.); grazun (K.); gajan.u (S.); gajjan. (L.); gajj'na_ (P.); ga_jn.o to be rounded, be famous (Ku.); ga_jai_ thunders, roars (OAw.); thunders (OMarw.); ga_ziba to thunder (A.); ga_je (MB.); ga_jiba_ (Or.); ga_jai to be happy (Bhoj.); ga_jna_ to thunder, roar, revel, be pleased (H.); ga_jvu~ thunders (G.); ga_jn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4046).

2478.Growl: hun.d.rau, gondrao, garjao, khan.d. rok to growl; gujrau, hudur. growl of tiger (Santali.lex.) kur-ukur-uppu, kur-ukur-uppai snoring, stertorous breathing (Ta.); kur-ukur-ukka to breathe with difficulty, the sound in the throat of a dying person (Mfa.); kur-ut.t.uka to grunt (Ma.); kurkku a snore (Ma.); gur-u, gur-u gur-u a sound in imitation of snoring or purring (Ka.); gur-r-ugut.t.u to growl, snarl (as dogs, bears, tigers)(Ka.); gur-r-u gur-r-u sound of growling, snarling, etc.; gu_ru to snore (Ka.); gurane the snarling of a dog (Tu.); guragut.t.uni, gurkut.t.uni to grunt (Tu.); gurru-korepuni to bark, growl, snore (Tu.); gurku, gurkugurku roar of a tiger, grunting of a pig (Tu.); gur-aka snoring; gur-r-u snoring, growling, snarling, gruff speaking, anger (Kor.); gur-r-umanu to snore, growl, snarl (Te.); kur-r-u to cry, yell, groan (Te.); gurra_na_ to snore (Go.); go_r to snore (Kond.a); d.ro_ka snore, snoring (Kui); dr.eki-ki_ali id. (Kuwi); gurra_rna_ to roar (as a tiger), snarl or growl fiercely, utter angry words or shouts of anger (Kur.); ghurring to growl (Br.); gur to growl (Si.)(DEDR 1852). koRo- (-t-) to doze in sleep , sit and doze (Kond.a); kot.rongi a_va to be drowsy, sleepy (Kui); kot.t.oni, koto_ni dozing, sleepiness; kotori-ho_cali, kothoni-ho_nai to nod with sleep (Kuwi); kot.t.a_vi, kot.t.a_y, kot.t.a_yut. yawn (Ta.); kot.t.a_vi yawn, gaping (Ma.)(DEDR 2172). cf. kora asthma (Ma.); kora, gora sound produced in the throat by hoarsenesss (Ka.); korape one who snores (Tu.)(DEDR 2122). kurai to bark; noise, roar, shout (Ta.); disagreeable sound, barking (Ma.)(DEDR 1796). guran.u to growl (S.); gurkan.u to purr (S.); gurrinu to growl (N.); gurgurra purring (N.); guruguru rumbling (N.); gurra_na_ to growl (H.); gurvu~, gurgurvu~ to growl, rumble (G.); gurgarn.e~, gurakn.e~ to growl, snarl (M.)(CDIAL 4207). ghuraghura_yate_ gurgles, snorts (Car.); ghurghurika_ gargling (Sus'r.); ghurghura_yati snores (Pali); ghurughurai, ghurahurai cries out (Pkt.); ghuruhurai growls (Pkt.); ghurukkai thunders (Pkt.); ghurghur snarling (P.); ghurghurn.o to snore (Ku.); ghurghura_unu to snarl, grunt (N.); ghurghura_na_ (H.); ghurghurn.e~, ghura_vn.e~ to roar, snarl (M.)(CDIAL 4486). ghurati cries out frighteningly (Skt.); ghuran.u to call, ask for, desire (S.); ghuran.u to snore, coo (of doves)(N.); ghuriba_ to gargle (Or.); ghurna_ to make a noise, be played (of instruments)(H.); ghurkan.u to snarl (S.); ghurakna_, ghur.akna_ to growl (H.); ghurakvu~, gharakvu~ (G.); gho_rai snores (Pkt.); go_run to babble in delirium, lament (K.); ghorai thunders (OAw.); ghorvu~ to snore (G.); ghorn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4487). Anger: kor-ukor-u (-pp-, -tt-) to bubble with anger; kor-u-kor-uv-en-al onom. expr. signifying anger (Ta.); kor-akor-a angrily; anger, angry look; kor-akor-al-a_d.u to be angry, have an angry look; kor-alu to grow angry (Te.)(DEDR 2166). Thunder: ghurghura_ growling (Skt.); ghurghuraka gurgling (Sus'r.); ghughuri frog (Pkt.); guguranava_ to thunder (Si.); gigiriya thunder (Si.)(CDIAL 4489). ghus. call, shout (Skt.); ghus.t.a shouted in: ghus.t.a_nna- food given away by proclamation (Mn.); ghut.t.ha proclaimed in a loud voice (Pali.Pkt.); gut.ho obstinate (S.)(CDIAL 4490). guma sound, noise (Si.)(CDIAL 4491). ghor loud howling (G.)(CDIAL 4523). ur-umu (ur-umi-), ur-umpu (ur-umpi-) to growl, grunt, (thunder) rumbles, murmur angrily; ur-umi, ur-umai kind of drum played chiefly by tot.t.iya beggars; urumu (urumi-) to thunder, roar, grumble; urum thunder; ur-ukku (ur-ukki-) to menace, threaten, address with harshness, severity, or anger; n. threatening (Ta.); ur-umpuka to roar, grumble; ur-umpal roar of tiger (Ma.); or-al(u), or-al.u, orlu to cry out from pain, scream; n. outcry, scream, snarl; r-oppu to roar, grunt (like a hog)(Ka.); ur-umu to thunder, roar; n. roar, thunder; or-alu to lament, wail, cry; roppu, r-oppu to roar, yell, drive; rollu to prattle, bewail; r-o_lu, ro_lu to weep or cry aloud (Te.); urum puyil thunderbolt (puyil ploughshare)(Pa.); urum thunder (Ga.); uram id. (Go.); urum- to lighten (Go.); ur-mi- (-it-) to thunder, roar; or-li- (-t-) to groan (as in illness, fever) (Kond.a); ru_mba (ru_mbi-), ru_ma (ru_mi-) to roar; n. roar; r-unja (r-unji-) to thunder, reverberate; n. sound of thunder (Kui); or-hali to groan; o_rhinai to squeak (Kuwi); hu_rra thunder (Br.); ora_l to roar (Apabhram.s'a)(DEDR 718). To suffer: ur-u (ur-uv-, ur-r--) to suffer, gather experience; ur-ukan. suffering, affliction, distress; ur-uval suffering, affliction; u_r-u affliction; ur-uttu (ur-utti-) to cause smarting or irritation, press uncomfortably (as a rough or uneven surface on one lying or sitting down), cause pain of mind, rankle (Ta.); ur-uttuka to chafe, terrify by fierce look (Ma.); ur-isu to suffer, endure (Ka.); ju_ga (ju_gi-) to suffer, be afflicted; n. suffering, affliction; ju_pka (< ju_k-p; ju_kt-) to afflict, persecute; cause to suffer; n. act of afflicting, persecution, ill-treatment (Kui)(DEDR 715). Violence; to throw: ur-ubu violence (of wind), rapidity, fleetness, speed, force (Ka.); rumbu galloping, running with speed; rummuni to move hastily (Tu.); r-uvvu, ruvvu, r-uppu, r-u_vu to throw, fling, toss; n. sound of wind produced by the fluttering of wings; uravad.i speed, force, violence; uravad.incu, urad.incu to hasten (Te.); ruv- (ruvt-) to throw; rusi- (rusit-) id. (< ruv + si.- to give)(Kol.); ur-mi- (-t-) to be flung at high speed (as a stone); ur-mis- (-t-) to fling, as a stone (Kond.a)(DEDR 719).

2479.Image: to bark, to emit (as a sound); cough: gu_ru phlegmatic and asthmatic disease (Ka.); gu_ru asthma, cough (Tu.)(DEDR 1903). kuri hoots (Pa.); kur-kur call to a dog (Malt.); kora to bark (Kod..); kure kure a sound in calling a dog (Ka.); kerv to bark (Ko.); kura barking (Ma.); kurai (-pp-, -tt-) to bark; noise, roar, shout (Ta.); kuraippu noise; kukkal, kukkan- dog (Ta.); kura disagreeable sound, cough (Ma.); kurekka to bark, cough; ku_rkka, ku_rkkam, ku_rkku snoring, war-cry, roar (Ma.); korapuni, korepini, korepuni to bark, roar; korejuni to make a noise (Tu.); ku_r to groan (Pa.); kuri- (owl) hoots (Pa.); kuhasca_na_ to bark, growl, groan (as in lifting a heavy weight)(Go.); xurruka_v a snore (Br.)(DEDR 1796). kutru a dog; koya a wild dog; hakar call of a dog when chasing (Santali. lex.) Image: dog: ku_ra dog (Tu.); ku_ran- dog (Ta.)(DEDR 1901). kurai to bark; n. shout (Ta.); kora to bark (Kod..); kur-kur call to a dog (Malt.)(DEDR 1796). kukka, kukki_ dog (Pkt.); kukka_ (H.); puppy (Si.)(CDIAL 3206). kurkura dog (Skt.); kukkura, kukkuri_ (VarBr.S.); kukkura, kukkurini_ (Pa.); kukkura (Pkt.); kukeri puppy; kukyry dog (Gypsy); ku_kar, ku_kari_ dog (P.); kukur, ku_kri_ (WPah.); kukri puppy (Tir.); kukur (Sh.); kukur, kuku_r (Ku.); kukur, kukurni puppy (N.); kukur, kukuri_ (A.B.); kukura (Or.); kukur (Mth.Bhoj.); ku_kur (Aw.); ku_kar, ku_kri_, kukur, kukkur (H.); kukro, kukri_ (Marw.); kukar (G.M.); kukura_ dog, puppy (Si.); khukur puppy (Sh.); kun:gra_ puppy (L.)(CDIAL 3329). kucuru dog (Wg.); kucur, kicir (Bshk. Wot..); kuju_, kiji_ (Tor.); ku_sar, kucara (Mai.); kucuro, kusuro (Chil.); kusur (Gau.); kucuro_ (Sv.); kucuro (Phal.); kucuru puppy (K.)(CDIAL 3219). kutti_, kutta dog (Pkt.); kwt (Sog.); kut dog (Shgh.); kutu kutu sound made in calling a puppy (Sant.); kuto (S.); kutta_, kutti_ (L.P.WPah.B.H.); kuti (N.); kuta_, kuti_ (Or.); kutawa_ (Aw.); kutiya_ (H.); kuto (Marw.); kutto, kutti_ (G.); kutte- in cmpds. (M.)(CDIAL 3275). kuttira, kutar, kutri_, ko_tar, ko_ter, kuttar, kutri_ dog (WPah.); kutari (Or.); ku_tira (OG.); kutro, kutri_, kutru~ a wretched dog (G.); kutra_, kutri_, kutre~ (M.); kuti_r a pack of dogs (L.)(CDIAl 3277). kutu_ro puppy; kutu_ri pet name for a girl (Sh.)[cf. ku_turu daughter (Te.)]; kutu_ra_, kutu_ri_ puppy (L.); katu_ra_, katu_ri_ (P.)(CDIAL 3278). koti_ dog-keeper, game-keeper (L.)(CDIAL 3563). chuh call to a dog (Br.); chu_ sound uttered in setting on dogs (H.M.); cu_ id. (Ta.Ka.Tu.); cu id. (Tu.); cu. id. (Kol.)(DEDR 2718). cokkan- dog; cokki bitch (Ma.)(DEDR 2830). cokkan- monkey (Ta.); cokkan monkey (Ma.)(DEDR 2830). cf. semant. ko_ti monkey (Te.lex.) cf. ku_guvike crying aloud (Ka.)(DEDR 1868).

2480.Frown: ghu_ra staring fiercely (S.); ghu_r frown; ghu_rn.a_ to frown on, rebuke (P.); ghu_r frown, stare; ghu_rna_ frown at, stare at, ogle (H.); ghurkan.u to rebuff (S.); ghurakn.a_ to frown, scold (P.); ghurkanu to frown (N.); ghurakna_, ghur.akna_ to frown at (H.); ghurakvu~, gharakvu~ to frown (G.)(CDIAL 4496). ahirkuhir to stare; aril kuril id. (Santali.lex.)

2481.To covet: ghu_rn.a_ to look lustfully at (P.); ghu_ran.u to stare fiercely at (S.)(CDIAL 4496). ku_r (-v-, -nt-) to covet, hanker after (Ta.); kur-uka to love, mind; ku_r-, ku_r-u love; ku_r-r-a_n friend, lover, protector (Ma.); ku_r to mind, be attached to, love; ku_rpa, ku_pa loving, beloved; lover, husband; ku_rpu, ku_rme love (Ka.); ku_rimi, ku_rmi friendship, love, affection; ku_r(u)cu to be lovable, be coveted, be attached (Te.)(DEDR 1897).

2482.Hog: gut.i a hog (Te.); gu_ru to uproot the earth with tusk (Ka.)(DEDR 1922); ko.re tusk of elephant or boar (Kod..)(DEDR 2257). Image: boar: kor-r-an boar, ram, tomcat (Ma.)(DEDR 2170). To butt, gore; to crush: ud- to crush (nits, lice)(Pa.); ur-- (uRt-) to butt, gore (buffalo, etc. with horns), crush (nits)(Kond.a); uz-(ust-) to butt, gore; to crush (lice)(Pe.); uy- (cow) to gore; to crush (lice)(Mand..); ubga (< ug-b-; ugd-) to collide, strike against, butt; pl. action uska (uski-)(Kui); ur- (-h-) to butt, gore; u_rhali to butt (Kuwi)(DEDR 706). rok to gore (Santali.lex.)

2483.Image: tusk; sharpness, point of an arrow, spear: ku_r sharpness, pointed edge (Ta.Ka.); id., point of an arrow (Ma.); kru_ru sharp (Te.)(DEDR 1898). Image: tusk: ko.re tusk of elephant or boar (Kod..); ko_r-e a tusk, fang; cutting, sharpness, pointedness (Ka.); ko_r-u cutting, tearing (Ma.); ko_r-uka to tear the flesh by thorns (Ma.); ko_r-a tusk, fang, tooth (Te.); ko_ru tusk (Go.)(DEDR 2257). cf. ku_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be sharp (as the edge or point of an instrument) (Ta.) (DEDR 1898). Image: tusk: ko_r-a tusk, fang, tooth (Te.); ko_r-ai a scratch, as on the body (Ta.); go_r-u to scratch (Ka.); ko_runi, go_runi to dig out or up (?Tu.); ko_ru to scrape with a grater, cut, scratch; n. scrapings of coconut (Te.); tusk (Go.); gro_pa (gro_t-) to claw, scratch; n. act of clawing, scratching, a scratch (Kui)(DEDR 2257). gebar-u to scratch as the ground; gebbu id., loosen a stone by scratching or digging with the nails (Ka.); giv- (dog) to scratch up the earth; givv- to scratch (Go.)(DEDR 1976). cf. gre- (-t-) to scoop up with the hand (Pe.); grepa- to scoop up (Mand..); gra_pa (gra_t-), gre_pa (gret-) to soop up, shovel into with the hands, scrape together (Kui); grecali (gret-) to gather up, take handful (Kuwi); ker- (-t-) to take handfuls (Kond.a)(DEDR 1959). Image: to uproot, hog; tusk of elephant or boar: gu_r-u to turn or uproot the earth with horns or tusks (Ka.); gut.i a hog (Te.)(DEDR 1922). [cf. khad.ga rhinoceros.]

2288a. Pick-axe: khurpa, khurpi an instrument for digging up weeds or roots with, or shaving off grass just above the ground (Santali.lex.) kurappam currycomb (W.)(Ta.); korapamu (Te.); korapa (Ka.); kurappa (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

2161.Image: shell of tortoise: gorpa shell of tortoise (Ga.); gorpo id., shell of egg; gorpa shell of tortoise; skull (Kuwi)(DEDR 2129). kopparai < kho_pra_ (U.) dried coconut-kernel, copra (Ta.); kobbera (Te.); kopparige (Ka.); koppari (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kopiri_ skull (S.); ko_pri_ skull, crown of head (L.); ko_par top of head (Bshk.)(CDIAL 3519). khopr.i_ skull (Ku.); khopri (N.); khopr.i_ skull, shell (H.); skull (G.M.)(CDIAL 3936). kipri skull (Pe.); shell of snail, etc.(Pe.); kirpi shell (Mand..); kirpa_, girpa skull (Kuwi)(DEDR 1555). kil.icil bivalve, mussel, oyster-shell (Ta.); kil.ici a shellfish, kil.iil oyster shell (Ma.)(DEDR 1585). cf. cippi oyster shell (Ma.)(DEDR 2535). Image: turtle, tortoise: kamat.am < kamat.ha turtle, tortoise (Pa_kava. Ma_yavan-ami. 29); kamat.a_tan-am a raised wooden board, raised like a tortoise, used as a seat while meditating (Caivaca. Potu. 61)(Ta.lex.) kavve tortoise (Kol.Nk.Ga.); kavva id. (Pa.)(DEDR 1342). Coconut kernel: khu_para coconut shell, chestnut (K.); khopar, khopri_ skull (P.); khoppa_ coconut kernel (P.); khopa_ id. (P.H.); khupuli hard shell of coconut (Or.); khopr.i_ shell, skull (H.); khopra_ coconut kernel (H.); khopre~ (G.); khobre~ coconut kernel (M.)(CDIAL 3936). kopparai, koppari dried coconut kernel, copra (Ta.); koppara id. (Ma.); kobbari, kobari id. (Ka.); koppara, koppari, kobbari, kobari id. (Tu.); kobbari, kobbera kernel of the coconut; pertaining to the coconut (Te.); kobri id. (Kuwi); ku_rpasa the inner part of a coconut (Skt.)(DEDR 2105). ?cf. jhuna_ old, dried up coconut (B.); jhu_na_ ripe coconut (H.); jhun overripe (B.)(CDIAL 5410). Image: bottomless mud-vessel; husk: ko_mpai-k-kalayam a bottom-less mud-vessel; ko_mpai shell of a coconut or arecanut with the husk, young palmyra fruit after the edible kernel is removed; empty-headed person (Ta.); ko_mba id. (Ma.M.)(Ta.lex.) Husk: cf. sopa chaff of grain, rind of fruit (Kond.a); coppa_ skin of fruits, husk of grain, shell of pulses; copla_ skin or shell of fruits (Kur.); copr.a scabbard (Malt.)(DEDR 2846). kotumpu coconut fibre; kutampai roll of palmyra leaves or cloth worn in the ear-lobe to widen the perforation; katampai coconut husk or fibre that covers the nut, ends and bits of palmyra leaves cut for writing; ko_tu refuse, waste, empty kernels, etc.; covering, capsule, pod; fibrous structure of flowers (Ta.); kotumpu, kotumpil strong fibrous fruit-stalk of coconut, used for strings; husk of corn before the ears burst, covering of coconut blossoms; kotampa fibres used as a string; katampa husk of coconut (Ma.); kodumbu, kudumbu the cymbiform sheath of a bunch of coconuts (Tu.)(DEDR 2087).

2484.Malay dagger: kiricu < kirusu (Ta.) Malay dagger, small double-edged sword (W.); kiricu-kkatti id.; kir-icu < kri_s (Malay.) Malay dagger (Ta.lex.) kirtalagu a drawn blade of a knife or sword; kittalagu a small blade (Ka.lex.)

2485.Dagger: ko_ri dagger (Pas'.); kadara iron goad for guiding an elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 2711). ko~_gu, gor-ugu to shave (Te.); kori, korita_na_, korrita_na_, kor.ita_na_, kori_, korri_, kora_na_ to shave (Go.); ko_ri_ta_na_ to cut the hair, shave (Go.)(DEDR 2258).Sickle; razor: co_i, co_ sickle (Wg. < ks.auri_); ks.aura performed with a razor (VarBr.S.); n. shaving (Skt.); ks.auri_ knife (Skt.); c.ho_ra knife (Dm.); c.hor (Kal.)-- khaura razor (Pkt.influenced by Skt.)(CDIAL 3756). cf. ks.ura razor (RV.); sharp barb of arrow (R.); knife, dagger (Skt.)(CDIAL 3727). ko_n.am elephant-hook (Maturaik. 592)(Ta.lex.)  Image: arrow: keeri arrow (Kui); gi' erri arrow shaft (Kuwi)(DEDR 1932).  Scraper; to cut with a sickle: kere to shave, scrape, scratch (Ka.); kerakalu scrapings of burnt rice from a pot (Ka.); kE.ri to scratch (Ka.); kiri to shave (Ka.); keran.t.u to dig with the nails, scratch (Ka.); gere a scratch as with the fingernails (Ka.); kerepuni to scrape, polish (Tu.); kerecuni, keran.t.uni to scratch the ground (as a fowl)(Tu.); kirejuni to cut as straw, grass-stumps, etc.; to scrape or clear, as the ground (Tu.); kiresu, keresu to scrape (Tu.); kerk- (kerekt-) to shave; kerren to sharpen (Kol.); ker- to shave (Nk.); kir-, kirv-, kirc- to scratch (Pa.); kirp- (kirt-) (fowl) scratches (Pa.); xercna_ (xircyas) to rub off, scour (Kur.); qerce to scrape (Malt.); qere to shave (Malt.); qertre to be shaved; qeru barber (Malt.); karghing to shear, crop down, mow down (Br.); cirai to shave, cut with a sickle; ciraiyan- barber (Ta.); curan.t.u, cur-an.t.u to scratch, scrape with fingernail or instrument, erase; curan.t.i, cur-ant.i scraper, scrapings (Ta.); cira shaving; a grater, scraper for coco-nuts (also cirava)(Ma.); cirekka to shave, scrape (Ma.); cireppu shaving, scraping (Ma.); cirayan a shaved person (Ma.); cirampan the god of barbers (Ma.); cirakuka, curakuka to grate (Ma.); ciran.t.uka, curan.t.uka to grate (Ma.); ciran.t.uka, curan.t.uka to scratch, scrape (Ma.); cikkuka, cikayuka to scratch (as fowls)(Ma.); kekarv- (kekart-), kekrv- (kekrt-) to scratch lightly (to wake a person), (cattle) paw the ground before fighting, (animal) digs (Ko.); kerf- (kert-) to scratch, egg on; kok- (koky-) (buffalo) scratches itself against rock (To.)(DEDR 1564).

2561.Ox-antelope: kod.al (ma_v) a kind of deer; kod.a_ ma_v, khod.d.a ma_v blue bull; gur.iya ma_v nilgai (Go.); guri god. bison (Ga.); gura bison (Kond.a); gud.va nilgai (Pa.)(DEDR 1664). Image: antelope: kuri antelope (Pa.); kori id. (Kol.); kuruy deer (Ga.); kurs (pl. -k) deer, antelope (Go.); kruhu (pl. kruhka), krusu (pl. kruska) barking deer, jungle sheep (Kui); kluhu antelope; kruhu (pl. kruska), kurhu antelope (Kuwi); ku_ran hog-deer (?Ma.); kuran:ga a species of antelope, antelope or deer in general (Skt.)(DEDR 1785). ro_hit red deer (VS.); ro_hita a kind of deer (Skt.); ro_hia a kind of deer (Pkt.); roya the wild sheep (Dm.); ruya_-min, roya~_-min (Dm.); rohi_ the slate-coloured antelope or nilgai, antelopa picta (M.)(CDIAL 10865). ro_hicca a kind of deer (Pali)(CDIAL 10868). kr.s.n.amr.ga black antelope (MBh.); kelmuva deer (Si.)(CDIAL 3454). [Semantic radical: kr.s..] goria antelope (Kol.); kor.i sheep (Ta.)(DEDR 2165). karam.gi_ antelope (OG.); kuran:ga antelope (MBh.Pali); kulan:ga (Skt.); kulun:ga (TS.); kurun:ga (Pali); kuram.ga (Pkt.); kuran:g (P.); kura~g (G.); kura~gi_, kura~gn.i_ f. (G.); kurun:ga (Si.); kiran:gu the elk russa aristotelis (Si.)(CDIAL 3320). kuran:g light chestnut colour (Kho.)(CDIAL 3321). Image: antler: so_ markhor (Ash.); c.o_w male markhor (Wg.); ucu_ horn (Pr.); s.o_ (Tor.)(CDIAL 12715). srun:g horn (Kho.); s.ugo (Sh.)(CDIAL 12713). cf. s'r.n:ga horn (RV.)(CDIAL 12583). ?cf. jin:ke antelope (Ka.Tu.); jin:ka id. (Te.)(DEDR 2504). cin:ki stag's horn (Ta.lex. < s'r.n:ga (Skt.) Images: spotted deer; circle with dot in the centre: ur..ai deer (Ta.); ur..a-ma_n, ur..al-ma_n porcine deer (Ma.); duppi the spotted deer with branching horns, the axis (Ka.); ure, ule, ul.e deer (Tu.); ur.up (pl. ur.pul) spotted deer (Pa.); d.uppi id. (Ga.); lu_pi, luppi, duppi, d.uppal spotted deer (Go.); d.upi axis deer (Kond.a)(DEDR 694). Male ibex: us.un. young male ibex; female ibex (Kho.) ?< *ut-s'r.n:ga having upright horns (Skt.); ucchr.n:gita (Skt.)[horns of adult males curve back more and more as they grow, those of females and young males are shorter and straighter (cf. Lydekker, Great and Small Game of India, v.101)](CDIAL 1856). ?cf. jin:ke antelope (Ka.Tu.); jin:ka id. (Te.)(DEDR 2504). ko_ju (pl. ko_ska) antler (Kui)(DEDR 2200).

2525.Image: antelope: kurhu antelope; kruhu (pl. kruska); kluhu antelope (Kuwi); kruhu (pl. kruhka), krusu (pl. kruska) barking deer, jungle sheep (Kui)(DEDR 1785). Image: antelope: kuran:ga a deer in general (Skt.lex.)

2502.Image: short, woolly sheep with twisted horns: kur-umpa_t.u short, woolly sheep with twisted horns (Ar..akarkala. 41)(Ta.lex.)

2495.Image: antelope; ram: kur-i, kor-i a sheep; a ram (Ka.); kuri (Tu.); kor-i (Ta.Ma.); gor-r-e (Te.); kur-iga_va, kur-igo_va a watcher or tender of sheep, a shepherd; kur-idar-i to cut down or slaughter sheep or something as if it were a sheep; kur-imande a flock of sheep; kur-imar-i a lamb; kur-ihat.t.a a sheepfold; kur-ihin.d.u a flock of sheep (Ka.); kur-iho_ta a ram; kur-itana a sheepish, foolish disposition (Ka.lex.) cf. kl_vi < go_pi_ shepherdess (Tiv. Periyati. 2,1,4)(Ta.lex.) Images: boar, cat : kor-r-an ram, boar, tomcat; kor-r-i ewe, female cat, bandicoot; kur-ii, kur-ui she-cat (Ma.); kwat-y cat (To.); kotti male or female cat (Ka.); kuttiri a civet cat (Tu.)(DEDR 2170).

3995.Harrow; bearded dart or lance: cau coulter of plough (P.H.); cavr.u (G.); cav-ta_le~ a sort of harrow to draw off rubbish (consisting of a beam pierced with 14 pins)(M.)(CDIAL 4723). caval.am bearded dart or lance (Ta.Ma.); sabal.amu (Te.); sabal.a (Ka.); s'arva-la_ (Skt.); at.ucaval.a-t-tet.utta por..utu (Kalin.. 424)(Ta.lex.) s'alya arrow, javelin (RV.)(CDIAL 12352). Ferryman: caval.a-k-ka_rar a class of fishermen; ferryman; lancers; pikemen (Ta.lex.); caval.am lance, a bearded javelin (Ma.); sabal.a spear, lance, pike (one of the tatsamas)(Ka.); sabal.amu a kind of spear (Te.)(DBIA 153). caval.-tat.i flexible stick; a kind of oar; caval.ai-k-ka_rar a caste of weavers in Tinnevelly district (Ta.lex.) sarvala_, s'arvala_ an iron club or crowbar (Skt.); savvala, sabbala spear (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13279).

2491.Image: a mark, a sign: kur-upu, kur-ipu, kur-uvu, kur-uhu a mark, a sign, a token; a characteristic, acquaintance (Ka.); kur-upid.u to mark; to indicate; to define; to observe, to see; kur-upondu a mark or sign to be obtained; kur-upa one who has a mark (Ka.); kur-i, gur-i a mark, a sign; aim, an object of aim; a butt (Ka.); gur-i (Te.); kur-i (Ta.); kur-i to mark, mark out; kur-itu kol.l.u to mind (Ka.); kur-ittukkol. (Ta.); gur-icu (Te.); kur-itu is commonly looked upon as a particle: with a view to, etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kut. mark of punctuation (A.)(CDIAL 3236).

2509.Image: piece, section: kur-ai piece, section (Ce_tupu. Mutti_r. 18); deficiency, imperfection, want, default (Kantapu. Varaipun-ai. 20); kur-a id. (Ma.); kor-a (Te.); kor-e (Ka.); kur-ai piece of flesh, as prepared for table (Paripa_. 17,18); kur-aiccal deficiency; scarcity, as of an article; curtailment (Ta.); kur-accal (Ma.); kor-ate (Ka.); kur-ai-c-ca_l, kur-ai-ca_l balk in ploughing (Ta.lex.) kut.i, kut.ra, kita a piece; khudri very small piece (Santali.lex.) cf. kut.t.a powder (Pali); kut.a_ powder of dried fish (M.); kur.ko, kur.ki small piece (N.)(CDIAL 3237). kot.ini hammer, esp. a blacksmith's (Kho.)(CDIAL 3239).

2508.Image: currycomb: kurappam currycomb (Ta.Ma.); korapa, gorapa id. (Ka.); kurapamu, kor.apamu, gor.apamu id. (Te.)(DEDR 1771). khara_ramu id. (Te.lex.) currycomb a comb consisting of a series of upright serrated ridges, for grooming horses (English)(Doubleday lex.)[cf. curry rub down with a comb and brush XIII cent.; Sp. correar prepare (wool) for use; OF. correier arrange, equip, curry (a horse); curry favel rub down the fallow or chestnut horse, which, for some obscure reason, was taken as a type of perfidy or duplicity; hence curry-comb (ODEE).]

2532.Image: drill plough: go_ra a drill plough (Te.); go_ra-cekka a drag with which rivers are cleared (Te.); a hand instrument for levelling a ploughed field (Te.); go_ra-palaka id. (Te.); go_ri a kind of rake; go_re a shovel for cleaning a boat (Ka.); go_ru gather or sweep together, remove the impurities of a heap of grain by repeated piling, draw a plank to which a handle is attached with the hand over ploughed ground to level it (Ka.); go_ri a kind of rake; go_runi level a ploughed field with a plank (Tu.)(DEDR 2231). palu-gor.r.u a kind of harrow (Te.)(DEDR 3986). [pal tooth (Ta.)(DEDR 3986).] go_ri drawing, drawing in; drawing together; raking; go_ri-halli = go_ri a rake; go_risu to cause to sweep together or to heap; go_ru to draw; to gather, to sweep together; to wish with a net to whicha handle is attached; to draw a plank to which a handle is attached, with the hand over ploughed ground to level it; drawing etc. (Ka.); go_ra-cekke a drag with which rivers are cleared; go_ralu, go_rlu drill ploughs (Te.); go_ru-man.e a kind of rake; a piece of board used for removing the excess jaggery from the top of a mould (Ka.lex.)

2533.Image: seed drill: ku_r-ige a seed-drill, sowing machine drawn by oxen (Ka.cf. MIAI, p.29. kurgi is a distance that may be ploughed and sown in one day, with a pair of bullocks and drill plough (M.). ku_ru to fill or stuff anything, to load (Te.); ku_r-ige hod.e to work with the ku_r-ige (Ka.lex.)

2503.Image: a very short handle: kur-umpit.i a very short handle (Ta.Ma.); short scimitar (Maturaik. 637)(Ta.lex.)

2486.Sharpness, sword:ku_rahu sword (Ka.)(DEDR 1898). kur ploughshare (L.); kuredna_, kurodna_ to scrape (H.); kuracn.e~ to nip off with the nails (M.)(CDIAL 3319). kura_ to scrape, scratch out, gnaw (B.)(CDIAL 3530). korni_ dried portion of food stuck to a pot (Ku.)(CDIAL 3529). ko_rita scraped out of the ground (Bhpr.); pounded (Skt.); koroina to dig (D..)(CDIAL 3530). ku_r.e knife (Kui); ku_r.am knife (Kond.a); small knife (Kond.a)(DEDR 1912). ku_r sharpness (Ta.Ma.Ka.); pointed edge, pivot on which door swings (Ta.); point of an arrow (Ma.); to be sharp (as the edge or point of an instrument (Ta.); ku_rpu sharpness, valour, penetrating look (Ka.); ku_pi a barber's knife (Ka.); ku.t.- (ku.t.i-) to sharpen (Kod..); kurpu sharpness of cutting instrument (Tu.); kru_ru sharp (Te.); ku_ci sharp, pointed, tapering (Te.); ku_camu a peg (Te.)(DEDR 1898).   ku_rcci, ku_rppu, ku_rmai, ku_riyam sharpness, keenness, pointedness; ku_rccu id., pointed stick; ku_riyan- sharp, clever person; ku_ccu sharp point (Ta.); ku_ruka, ku_rikka, ku_rkka to be sharp; ku_rppikka to sharpen; ku_rppu, ku_rccam sharpness; ku_rmma id., edge of sword, wit (Ma.); ku_rike sharpness, pointedness; ku_ritu, ku_rittu that which is sharp (Ka.); ku_rida a sharp, brave, or acute man (Ka.); ku_t.uni to sharpen (Tu.)(DEDR 1898).

2416a.Battle-axe; sickle: kul.ir battle-axe; trident; sickle (kul.irpurai kot.un:ka_y : Malaipat.u. 110); knife for cutting the stems of leaves (Ta.lex.) cf. kulis'a or s'u_la (Skt.) kor..u awl (Tol. Pa_yi. Urai)(Ta.lex.)

2490.Ploughshare: kur..a, kur..u, gur..a, gur..u ploughshare, iron used in cauterizing (Ka.); kor..u bar of metal (Ta.); ploughshare (Ta.Ma.); ku. id. (To. < gu.- Badaga); koru a bar of metal (Tu.)(DEDR 2147). {kov- (Ko.) iron point of plough transforms the -r- to -r..-; for -u-: cf. ur..u to plough, dig up; ur..avan-, ur..avo_n-, ur..a_an- ploughman, agriculturist (Ta.); ur..a_l ploughing, scratching; ur..unar ploughmen; ur..akku to plough (Ta.); ur..uka, ur..utuka to plough (Ma.)(DEDR 688). cf. ugta_ a plough, ploughshare (Kur.)(DEDR 688). cf. kor..u 1. bar of metal, bullion; 2. ploughshare (kol.u (Ma.); 3. awl (kor..u-c-cen-r-a var..i-t-tun-n-u_ci yinitu celluma_r-u po_la : Tol. Pa_yi. Urai)(Ta.lex.) keran.t.u (Ka.); curan.t.u (Ta.Ma.) to scratch, scrape with finger-nail or instrument (Ta.lex.) kurelna_ to poke (P.); kuredna_, kurodna_ to scrape (H.); kuracn.e~, kurtud.n.e~ to nip off with the nails (M.)(CDIAL 3319). hur.ka bar of door (Santali.lex.) Ploughshare: ka_r-u ploughshare (Ta.Ka.); kar-r-u, ka_ru id. (Te.); kara plough (Go.); ploughshare (Kuwi); ka_rru plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 1505). Plough without a pole: kur ploughshare (L.); ku_t.a part of a plough (Pali); id., its share (Skt.); kut.aka plough without a pole (Skt.); kur. ploughshare, sole of plough (L.); ku_r., ku_r.ha_ (X ka_r.hna_ to plough) body of a plough (H.)(CDIAL 3393).

2508a.Scraper: ks.urapra sharp-edged like a razor (Skt.); sharp-edged arrow (MBh.); sharp-edged knife (Skt.); a sort of hoe (Skt.); khurappa arrow with a horseshoe's head (Pali); a kind of arrow, knife for cutting grass (Pkt.); khuruppa id. (Pkt.); khurpo a pot-scraper (S.); khurpa_, khurpi_ pot-scraper, grubber for gras (P.); khurpo sickle (N.); khurpi weeding-knife (N.); khurpa_ spud for grubbing up grass [B. X khanitra digging tool (RV.); khanta_ long-handled spade (B.)(CDIAL 3814)]; khurapaa, khurapa_, khurapi, khurupa_, khurupi id. (Or.); khurpa_ blade of hoe (Bi.); khurpi_ small hoe for weeding (Bi.); khurpa_ weeding knife (H.); scraper (Mth.); khurpi_ scraper (Mth.); small weeding knife (H.); kharpo scraper (G.); kharpi_ grubber (G. X ka_pvu~ in karpi_ weeding tool); khurpe~ curved grubbing hoe (M.); khurpi_ grub-axe (M.)--Deriv.khurapna_, khurupna_ to scrape up grass (H.); kharapvu~ to cut, dig, remove with a scraper (G.); khurapn.e~ to grub up (M.)(CDIAL 3730). ks.urati cuts, scratches, digs (Skt.); churati cuts off, incises (Skt.); khurati scrapes (Pali); churai breaks (Pkt.); chorvu~ to dig up with a sharp spade (G.)--Extension with -d.-: khurr.an.u to scrape (S.); khurr.i scrapings (S.); --with -kk-: khurka itching (S.); khurkan. to scratch (L.); khurkn.a_ (P.); khurkanu to scrape (N.); --with -cc-: khurcn.a_ to scrape (a pot)(P.); khurca_ scrapings (G.) --X tro_t.ayati : khurtud.n.e~ to nip off (M.)(CDIAL 3729). chorna_ to cut (H.); khorvu~ to stir up, chorvu~ to dig out (G.)(CDIAL 3753). Razor: kh- forms: khura razor (Pali); knife, razor (Pkt.); khu_ru razor (K.); khuryo grass-scraper, tip of silver at the bottom of a scabbard (S.)[cf. kuro silver (Drav.)]; khuro razor (WPah.); khuro-mun.d.o the shaving of heads (Ku.); khuro head of a spear, ferrule of a stick, pin at the top or bottom of a door (N.); khur razor (whence khura_iba to shave)(A.); khura (Or.); khu_r razor (Bi.)); khura_, khuri_ spiked part of the blade of a chopper which fits into the handle (Bi.); Iron nail to fix ploughshare: khura_ iron nail to fix ploughshare (H..); karaya razor (Si.)(CDIAL 3727). chura~_r.i_ razor-case (H.); ks.urabha_n.d.a razor-case (Skt.); ks.uradha_na (S'Br.)(CDIAL 3731). holat a razor (Santali.lex.) Knife,dagger; razor: ks.ura razor (RV.); sharp barb of arrow (R.); ks.uri_ knife, dagger (Skt.); ch- forms, esp. in sense 'knife' are wide-spread outside dialectical bounds:-- chu_ri_ knife, dagger (Skt.); churika_, chu_rika_ (Skt.); churika_ (Pali); ks.ura (NiDoc.); chura knife, razor, arrow (Pkt.); churi_, churia_ knife (Pkt.); ciri knife, razor (Gypsy); churi, curi, c.uri_, c.ui_ knife (Gypsy); c.huri dagger (Dm.); c.hu_ri knife (Kt.); c.hur dagger, knife (Bshk.); c.hu_, c.hu_r (Dardic); c.u_r small knife (Sh.); churi_ knife with a hooked blade (S.); churi_ knife (L.N.H.Or.); small knife (P.Ku.); chura_ razor (N.Bhoj.Aw.); dagger, razor (H.); dagger (Or.); large knife (P.); churo small knife (Ku.); suri knife (A.); churi (B.); chu_ra_ razor (Bi.); chu_r dagger, razor (Mth.); charo large knife (G.); chari_ small knife (G.); sura_, suri_ knife (M.); siriya dagger (Si.); cir dagger (Wg. < Psht. < IA.)(CDIAL 3727). Sword; peg; pivot; sharpness: ku_rahu sword (Ka.); ku_camu a peg (Te.) ku_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be sharp (as the edge or point of an instrument), be keen (as the intellect); n. sharpness, pointed edge, cutting or sarcastic speech, pivot on which door swings (Ta.); ku_rcci, ku_rppu, ku_rmai, ku_riyam sharpness, keenness, pointedness; ku_rccu id., pointed stick (Ta.); ku_ccu sharp point (Ta.); ku_r sharpness, point of an arrow (Ka.); sharpness, acuteness (Ka.); ku_ruka, ku_rikka, ku_rkka to be sharp; ku_rppikka to sharpen; ku_rppu, ku_rccam sharpness; ku_rmma id., edge of sword, wit (Ma.); ku_rike sharpness, pointedness; ku_ritu, ku_rittu that which is sharp (Ka.); ku_rida a sharp, acute, or brave man (Ka.); ku_riyan- sharp, clever person (Ta.); ku_rpu sharpness, valour, a keen, penetrating look (Ka.); ku.t.- (ku.t.i-) to sharpen (Kod..); ku_t.uni id. (Tu.); kurpu sharpness as of a cutting instrument (Tu.); kru_ru sharp; ku_ci sharp, pointed, tapering (Te.)(DEDR 1898). Bloody, cruel: kru_ra bloody, cruel (AV.); hard, solid (Sus'r.); bloody, raw, cruel (Pali); ku_ra, ku_ri, kurula, kurud.a cruel (Pkt.); ku_, f. ku hard (Tor.); ku_ro hard, severe (of things and people), strong, firm (Sh.); kura hard (D..); kru_ru, ku_ru cruel (K.); kura_r.a_ hard, stiff, callous (L.); kru_ra_ hard times (WPah.); ku_r pitiless, savage (H.); kuru (Si.); kuriru cruel (Si.)(CDIAL 3602). Cruel: ku_r..a a vulgar, rude, stupid, useless, mean, or vile man (Ka.); ku_r.., ku_ra fierce, cruel (Ka.); ku_l.a, khu_l.a bad, mean, cruel (Tu.); ku_l.a, ku_l.u~d.u a wicked man, a cruel man (Te.)(DEDR 1913). ku_l.an- worthless, useless person (Tiruppu. 109)(Ta.lex.) kura_is'un.i_ name of a popular village goddess (Or.)(CDIAL 3603). cf. kravis. raw flesh (RV.); kravya bloody, raw (TS.); raw flesh, carrion (Nir.); kavva flesh (Pkt.); krui red, bloodshot, reddish brown, auburn, crimson (Kho.)(CDIAL 3585).

2528.Image: bracelet: kuruku bracelet, armlet (Kalla_. 44,22(Ta.lex.)

2529.Image: ladle: ko_rikai, ko_rakai ladle (Ta.); ko_ruka to draw water; ko_rika iron ladle (Ma.)(DEDR 2231).

2566.Metallic plate: ko_ram, ko_rakam metallic dish or plate (Ta.); ko_rakai begging-bowl of the Buddhist ascetics (Ta.); ko_ra cup, tray (Te.)(DEDR 2228). khora almsbowl; khoraka pot (BHSk.); khoraya a kind of round pot (Pkt.Ardhama_gadhi).

2492.Image: tortoise: kurul.ai tortoise (?Ta.)(DEDR 1795). horo, kat. horo, kumd.hia horo tortoise (Santali.lex.) kurul.ai tortoise; young of certain animals (dog, pig, tiger, hare, jackal); young of a snake (Ta.lex.) ku_rma tortoise (VS.); kumma (Pali.Pkt.); ku_rmi_ (MBh.); krum, krumu, kurm (K.); kumi_ tortoise, turtle (S.); kar.-kumma_ tortoise (L.); kar-kumma_ turtle (L.); kumma~_, kummi~_ tortoise, turtle (P.); kumu tortoise (Si.)(CDIAL 3414). Roof: kaurma appertaining to a tortoise (Skt.); kum portion of a roof midway between ridge-pole and eaves (A.); klo_m roof (Ash.); krum (Kt.); krem back (Kho.); lu_nd roof; kundu_r, s.ond, tu_n, te_n, plen, obl. plende (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3415).

2487.Tools of an artisan: kora-mut.t.u tool, instrument (Ka.); kor-a-mut.t.u id. (Te.); kor-a use, profit; useful, profitable (Te.)(DEDR 2161). The radical for the second element is related to mon.d.e blunt, deficient (Ka.); mon.d.u blunt (Tu.)(DEDR 5114). mud.o, mun.d.ho blunt (S.)(CDIAL 10187). [cf. mut.t.u tool, instrument, sundry things (Ta.); implement, tool, thing, utensils, furniture, things belonging to a house as beams, etc. (Ka.); instrument, tool (Te.); mut.ga.rn Kota economic associate with Badaga or with Kurumba (he gives tool, etc.); Kota economic associate with Toda (less formal than kel. relationship (Ko.); mut. tools (To.)(DEDR 4937)]. The compound morphemes may be interpreted as: the sharp and the blunt instruments. The radical for the first element is related to ko_r.a tusk, fang, tooth (Te.); ko_runi, go_runi to dig out or up (?Tu.); ko_r.e cutting, sharpness, pointedness; a tusk, fang (Ka.); ko_r.u cutting, tearing (Ma.)(DEDR 2257). Image: nail: go_ru nail (Te.)(DEDR 561). hot.ak to rip with a tusk (Santali.lex.) kore, kor-e profit, use, good, avail, advantage (Te.); kro, krom. as prefix (Ka.) = su (Skt.); kor-e clothes, raiment, especially also that which is given on a wedding day (Ka.); ku_r-ai (Ta.); kor-ai (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kor-e to cut as wood with a saw, as the throat with a sword, as the stalks of millet, to break as a hole in a wall, to bore as a hole by a drill, to cut as letters with a knife, as a bow-string with the had, to excavate as running water the soil; to pierce as cold (Ka.); kure, kore to be excavated, bored etc. (Tu.); kor-i to nibble as a mouse; to nip off the husks of grain (Ta.); kur-ai to cut off as the splint of trees (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) For semant. piercing cold: korv- (kord-) to be cold; kor, korv coldness (Ko.); kwar-- (kwar-0-) to feel cold; kwar- cold; kwar- (kwar0-) to be cold (To.); kor-e, kor-i to pierce (as cold); kor-eta, kor-ata the piercing of cold (Ka.); koral.e cold (Tu.); karvun id. (Kol.); kharra_ frost (Go.); kari_ng, koring cold (Go.)(DEDR 2168).

2488.New, unused cloth: ku_r-ai cloth, clothes (Ta.); ku_r-a a set of cloths, thick cloth (Ma.); kor-e clothes (Ka.)(DEDR 1925). ko_r-a rough cloth (Ma.); kwi.r rag (To.); ko_r-i id., worn-out blanket (Ka.); ko_ro rough cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2255). ko_ra brand new, unused, unwashed (K.); koro new, unwashed, blank (S.); kora_ new (of a pot), unbleached, unwashed (P.); rough, uncleaned, unbleached (B.); new, unhandled, unwashed, simple, poor (H.); new, just made, unused (M.); new (of cloth), unbleached (Or.); kora_ luga_ unbleached calico (Or.); koro unused, dry, rough (Ku.); koru~ new, unwashed, unused (G.)(CDIAL 3526).

2489.Rough cloth; bag: ko_r-i worn-out blanket, rag (Ka.); kwi.r rag (To.); ko_ra rough cloth (Ma.); ko_ro rough cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2255). ko_ra_ unbleached cotton cloth (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) ko_r-eyan:gi a jacket made of a blanet, as worn by the Oggas (Ka.); ko_r-eset.t.i a Lin:ga_yta tradesman who walks about with a bagful of articles and a ko_r-i on his shoulder (Ka.); such a man may become a rich merchant and retain his name (M.)(Ka.lex.) ko_ru silken thread worn with gold or silver (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. jho_ra_ bag (Bhoj.); jhori_ (Mth.); jhorn.o, jhorn.i_, jhol.i_ (G.); jhol.i_ mendicant's bag (M.); jhollia_ bag (Pkt.); jho_lia_ bag (Pkt.); jhola_ (P.); feeding bag for cattle (Bi.)(CDIAL 5415).

2493.Image: lock of hair: kuri_ram a kind of head-dress of women (Skt.lex.) kurul., kurul.u, kurl.u, kurala a curl or lock of hair (Ka.); kurui., kur-ul. (Ma.); kural, kurul., koral, curul. (Ta.); kurulu (Te.); kurala, kurula (Skt.); kural.a (M.); surul. (Ka.); kural. hair; kurul.dumbi curls regarded as black bees; kurul.dongal a tassel or tuft of hair (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2499.King: kural king (Go.)(DEDR 1782).

2494.Image: pot with wide mouth: kurul.e an earthen vessel with a wide mouth, used for churning etc. (Ka.); ba_ne, ba_n, ba_ni a large earthen pot with a broad mouth (Ka.); ba_ne (Te.); gud.a_n.a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2496.Shine; silver: kure pure silver (Ka.M.); kuru-vista a pala of gold, a weight of gold equal to about 700 troy grains (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kuru brilliancy, lustre, effulgence; (-pp-, -tt-) to glisten; kuruku, kuruttu whiteness; kurumai lustre, brightness; kuricil illustrious person (Ta.); kurj beautiful or handsome person (Ko.); kuro silver (Kol.Nk.); khura id. (Nk.); kuro id.; kural king (Go.)(DEDR 1782). kuru (in alchemy) philosopher's powder, a compound of various metals; mercury; a mineral poison (Ta.lex.) kur-umut.ittal to make a preparation helpful for calcining minerals; to make a mercurial preparation for purposes of alchemy (Ta.lex.) kur-ukkam a prepared arsenic; kur-u-mat.al small receptacle for sacred ashes (S.I.I. ii,144)(Ta.lex.) cf. kuvai crucible, melting-pot, ponnurrukkum-kukai < guha_? [iruntai-k-kuvai yotteana : Tan.ikai-p-pu. Tiruna_t.t.u-p-pu. 63)] (Ta.lex.) ko_ve crucible, mould (Tu.); crucible (Ka.); kuva crucible (Ma.); kuvai, kukai crucible (Ta.)(DEDR 1816).

2497.A person who turns about: kor-e a person who turns about, a rambler; tir-i cutting, gathering; tir-i-kor-e a rambler (and collector of grain) at places where gathering has taken place, a rambling mendicant; kavvare, kauvare, kaval.i, kavval.e, ka_l.i, ko_vari a turning or whirling round, agitation, confusion (Ka.); kappare agitation, emotion (Te.); kapparegol. to be agitated or confused (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

2498.Capital of a pillar: kur-untar-i ornamental capital of a column or pillar; stake; blocks built in a wall to support timbers (Ta.lex.)

2500.Millet: kural Italian millet (Ta.); koyl., korly setaria italica (Ko.); kor-ale, korle a kind of millet, panicum italicum (Ka.); kor-r-alu pl. id. (Te.); kor-r-a the cereal yielding kor-r-alu (Te.); koyla panicum italicum (Pa.); ko_hala_, kohala_, kohala, ko'la panicum miliare (Go.); gorran (pl.), gora, korra mand.eya corn, eleusine coracana (Go.); kor.en a grain (= ka_ngu (Or.)(Kond.a); kueri millet (Kui.)[setaria italica = panicum italicum.](DEDR 2163). kukra setaria glauca; erba setaria italica (Santali.lex.) Image: corn-ear: koralu, koral.u an ear of corn (Tu.); kural corn-ear, spike (Maturaik. 272); flower-cluster, link, tie, band; stalk, sheath of millet or plantain (Pur-ana_. 168,6)(Ta.)(DEDR 1775). kor.le > co_l.am > la_w, rau millet (Dardic); la_u rice (Dardic)(CDIAL 11031). kuri_ a kind of grass or corn (Skt.lex.) dula_va twice-reaped (Skt.); dula_o land on which two crops are grown in one year, second of two crops in one year (Dardic); dula_o ba_n second sowing (Sh.(Lor.)(CDIAL 6454). [The particle co_- is coalesced with zo_ barley and new words are formed to connote the great millet family of grains.] cf. kuler gruel, pej (Kond.a.Pe.); kuleri porridge made of d.era (eleusine coracana)(Kond.a)(DEDR 1809). kode, lapra kode eleusine coracana (Santali.lex.) Millet: kor..ale, korle a kind of millet, panicum italicum which is proverbially small (Ka.); kor-r-alu pl. (Te.); kural (Ta.)(Ka.); kor..e a sort of grain; jal.l.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) gundli, layo gundli, kode, kokor jan:ga, janhe, ir.i, layo a cultivated millet (Santali.lex.) Panicum: cf. kor-r-alu setaria italica = panicum italicum (Te.); ayk a grain; kan:g panicum italicum (Pa.)(DEDR 195). cf. kampu Italian millet (Ta.); kambu_ = kuruvinda pennisetum typhoideum = panicum spicatum (Skt.)(DEDR 1242). dol panicum stagninum (Santali.lex.) kode cultivated millet (Santali.lex.) jon.d.ra Indian corn (Santali.lex.) gud.lu, gud.ulu, gud.rulu, gur.ulu a cultivated food grain of the millet kind. There are six varieties: (1) bica-gur.ulu black-seeded; (2); rend.oagur.ulu somewhat less black seeds; (3) saramcadlomgur.ulu with white seeds and panicles reseming the tuft on the tail of a sambur; (4) nindirbo_gur.ulu with larger seeds, the brown colour of white-ant heads; (5) pund.i gur.ulu white-seeded; (6) bur.iagur.ulu white-seeded; all are possibly forms of panicum miliare gundli millet type grain (H.); gur.lu (Oraon)(Mu.lex.) cf. kural Italian millet (Ta.)(DEDR 2163).

2501.Image: sedges and bulrushes: ko_rai sedges and bulrushes (Ta.); ko_ra sedges and bulrushes, cyperus juncifolius (Ma.); korana_ri-gad.d.e a kind of sedge, cyperus hexastachyus (Ka.)(DEDR 2235). Large ola bag: ko_rikai large ola bag for grain, set on a wooden horse; ko_rai-p-pa_y grass mat, bulrush mat (Ta.lex.) kuri_ a partic. kind of grass (Skt.); ku_ri_a_ a partic. kind of good grass (L.); kuro spear-grass (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 3324).

2504.Image: quail: kur-umpu_r.. quail (Ci_vaka. 1651)(Ta.lex.) ghura f. a quail (Santali.lex.)

2505.Image: hillock: kur-umpor-ai hillock (Patir-r-up. 74,7)(Ta.lex.) kur-umpor-ai the hilly tract; town in a hilly tract; forest, jungle (Nar-. 321)(Ta.); kur-um-por-ai-na_t.an- chief of the sylvan tract (Ir-ai. 1,18)(Ta.lex.)

2506.Granary: kurampai granary, storehouse for grain (Kantapu. Na_t.t.up. 26)(Ta.lex.)

2507.Causeway: kurampu artificial bank; dam of sand, brushwood, loose stones, etc. running out from the banks of a river diagonally for a distance, upstream, to turn the water into an irrigation channel (C.G.); causeway, bund; ridge in a ricefield or garden (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 2); boundary, limit (Na_lat.i, 153)(Ta.); kurimid.i, kurimid.i-gat.t.u a bank for retaining water in a field (Te.)(DEDR 1772).

2510.Image: sun rises: kur (sun) rises, to emerge (Nk.); kuy rise (sun), appear (star), to come out (Nk.); kuri (sun) rises; to come forth, to start, protrude from hole (Kol.); kuru_y to start (Kol.)(DEDR 1820). gurate_ raises (Skt.); gulia stirred, churned (Pkt.); gur- to take, buy (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4208). ur.a rise! (Santali.lex.) su_ra sun (RV.); su_rya, su_riya (RV.); su_ri_ a name of Kunti_ as wife of the sun (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); sauri_ (f. of saura relating to the sun (MaitrUp.) wife of the sun; a name of Tapati_ daughter of the sun (MBh.); su_ra sun (Pali.Pkt.); surya (Pali); su_ri (Tir.); suri_ (Nin..Shum.); su_ri_ (Gaw.); su_ri (Kal.Kand.); surya (Sv.); su_ri (Phal.); su_ri sun, sunshine (Sh.); su_re, siri_, siri sun (K.); (h)ira, (h)iri, (h)iru, (h)ira (Si.); iru (Md.); sur sun (Pas'.); si_r (Bshk.); si_ (Tor.); swi_r (Mai.); sir (Wot..); so_, suo sun (Ash.); so_i, so (Wg.); su_ (Kt.); ser (Dm.); sa_ (Gmb.); svar sun (Skt.)(CDIAL 13574). svarga heaven (RV.); suvarga (TS.); sagga (Pali.Pkt.); spagra, svaga (As'.); svarga (KharI.); saga (Si.)(CDIAL 13910).

2511.Amaranth: kurabaka a kind of red barleria, red amaranth (MBh.); kurava, kuruba id. (Skt.); ratta-kuravaka red amaranth tree (Pali); kuravaya amaranth (Pkt.); karavu phyllanthus indicus (Si.)(CDIAL 3322). Red is distinguished from the yellow variety amaranth: kurun..a yellow barleria, yellow amaranth (Skt.); kuran.d.aka (Pali); kuramt.aya (Pkt.); kurun.d. the herb chenopodium murale (P.)(CDIAL 3326). Henna: korin.t.a barleria (Pkt.); go_ran.t.e, go_rat.e barleria prionitis (Tu.Ka.); go_ran.t.a, go_ra~_t.a lawsonia alba (Te.); kurun.t.a(ka), gorat.e, go_rat.e, go_ran.t.a, go_ran.t.i barleria prionitis (Ka.); kurii various barleris and justicia species (Ma.); kuraci, kurici, kuran.t.am, kuran.t.akam, ko_ran.t.am henna, lawsonia alba (Ta.); common yellow nail dye, thorny nail dye, barleria prionitis (Ta.); kurici conehead, strobilanthes; various strobilanthes and barleria species (Ta.); kurige various strobilanthes species (Ka.)(DEDR 1849). kolinta, korinta, kulanta, kuranta (Tagalog.Philippines){Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 642, 885: Lawsonia alba: a perfume is prepared by distilling the flowers; the dye, henna obtained from its leaves is extensively used in shampoos, rinses, brilliantines and the like for giving the hair, a rich, auburn, tint. Henna is used in North Africa, Asia Minor, and India for dyeing the nail, the palms of the hand, and the soles of the feet to an orange-red colour. It is used in the near East for dyeing the hair of children and of men, and the tails and manes of horses. It is also used for dyeing skins and Morocco leather. Ehrmann states that henna has been used since time immemorial in Arabia as a cosmetic, Etude du henne, J. Pharm. et Chem. 39, 1894, p591.}

2512.Image: monkey: kuran:ku monkey, ape; kuran:kan- mischievous fellow, as a monkey; ko_nti ape (Ta.); kuran.n.u, (hon.) kuran.n.an monkey, chiefly macao (Ma.); korg black monkey (Ko.); kwarg monkey (To.); koran:gi, ko_ti id. (Ka.); kuran:ga, ko_ti (Tu.); k(r)o~_ti id. (Te.); ko.ti red-faced monkey (Kol.); ko_ti id. (Nk.); ko_nti monkey (Ga.Kond.a); ko_ti red-faced monkey (Ga.)(DEDR 1769).

2513.Corn: kuri_ a kind of grass or corn (Skt.lex.)

2514.Image: framework of bamboo: cf. kuruju framework of bamboo slats (Ka.)(DEDR 1786).

2515.Images: ox with curving horns; bend; bow: kuran:ku (kuran:ki-) to bend, incline, droop, wither, hang down, dangle, repose, diminish; n. bending, inclining; kun:ku (kun:ki-) to decrease, diminish, sink, be humbled; ku_r (-v-, -nt-) to bend, contract with cold (Ta.); kun:kuka to sink low; kucuka to stoop, bow (Ma.); ku.g im/ku.g et buffalo/bullock with horns curving under chin (Ko.); ku.x ir buffalo with horns curving under chin (To.) kuggu, kun:gu, kucu, kurgu to sink, become low, be bent down, be depressed, crouch, decrease, ceae or stop (as a voice or speech); kuggisu, kurgisu to cause to be depressed, etc.; kurgu state of being bent etc., a hump; kur..gu to contort, shrink (Ka.); k(r)un:gu, krun:gilu to sink, fall down, fall in a heap; kuncu to depress (Te.); gurcip- (gurcit-) to bend (Pa.); kun:g- to be wrinkled or contracted (of the skin)(Go.); gr.u_c- to bend (Mand..); gro_nga (gro_ngi-) to crouch over the fire; kro_su bending, bowed; kro_su inba to be bent, bowed, bending over, hanging over; kr.o_- to bend; kr.o_p- id. (Kui)(DEDR 1767). Image: bend: kuran:ku to bend (Ta.)(DEDR 1767).

2516.Pith of bamboo: kuruku pith as of a tree or elephant's tusk; kuruttu pith as of elephant's tusk, brain matter; kuruti brain (Ta.); kottemu the pulp of palmyra fruit (Te.); gurju pith (Kuwi); gudda_ the pulp of fruits or of coconut, kernel (Kur.)(DEDR 1783). kuru nut (Ta.); kernel, nut, esp. of jackfruit (Ma.); seed (esp. of jackfruit); nelli kuru rice with husk, paddy (Kod..)(DEDR 1781). cf. gudd, gudda_ pulp, kernel, marrow (P.); gudi_ marrow (Ku.); gudo pith, kernel, seed, grain (Ku.); gu_da_, gu_di_ pith, brain (H.); gidi brain; gidro pith of bamboo (N.)(CDIAL 4197). go_rda brain; go_rdha, go_da (Skt.); god brain (B.); goda (Or.); ko_d. kernel (K.); kd.i brain (K.)(CDIAL 4314).

2517.Darjeeling red cedar: kuran:kam shingle tree = Darjeeling red cedar, artocarpus fraxinifolius; kur-an:kan- id. (Ta.); kuran.n.am id. (Ma.)(DEDR 1768). cf. lakucha artocarpus lakoocha (GIMP, p. 27).

2518.Heliotrope gurugulu sunflower, heliotropium indicum (Ka.); gurugu, gurigi, guraga, gunugu, gunaka, gunuku id. (Te.)(DEDR 1784). hastis'un.d.a_ heliotropium indicum = heliphytum indicum (Skt.); hatisura (B.)(Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.300). Heliotropium europaeum (heliotrope, turnsole) Mere inhalation of the herb is said to soothe the nerves. (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p. 226). Heliotropium indicum: hastisunda (Skt.); hatisura (H.B.); burundi (M.); telkodukki (Ta.); leaves: applied to boils, ulcers, wounds and in stings of insects and reptiles; plant: diuretic; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.131). ce_r..ukon.d.i gid.a an annual herb, the Indian turnsole, heliotropium indicum (Ka.lex.)

2519.Announce marriage to house-gods and witnesses: kuri- to announce (marriage) to house-gods and witnesses (Kod..); gur to aim at (Kuwi)(DEDR 1847). Village council; definition, accurate description; secret appointment by lovers; tryst; mark, sign: kur-i (-pp-, -tt-) to design, intend, contemplate, consider (Akana_. 364); think; to draw as a line (I_t.u, 2,4,3); sketch outline in painting, aim at, narrate briefly, tell, foretell, predict; n. mark, sign, stamp, emblem, token, symbol, indication, designation; aim, mark to shoot at (Te_va_. 356,3); secret appointment by lovers, tryst, kur-i-y-it.am (Tol. Po. 130); village council (Co_r..avami. 55); goal, motive; definition, accurate description (Tol. Po. 47); omen, generative organ (Ta.); a mark, sign, aim (Ma.); to paint, decorate; announce (marriage) to house-gods and witnesses; drawing, spot on forehead or sectarian mark, embroidery, act of making formal contract of engagement of marriage (Kod..); gur.i an aim (Kod..); guri an aim, mark, butt, responsibility (Tu.); gottu knowledge, understanding, acquaintance (Tu.); gur.i an aim, object aimed at, design, purpose, sign, token, esteem (Te.); gur-utu a mark, sign, token (Te.); gurt(u) un.d.u to be remembered (Te.); kur-i, gur-i, kur-ipu id., object of aim (Ka.); kur-ippu intention, gesture, summary, mark, sign (Ta.); gor.pa (gor.t-) to aim at, hit the mark; n. an aim, hitting the mark (?Kui); gurri ki_nai to observe, point; gur- to aim at (Kuwi)(DEDR 1847). kur-ippe_t.u day-book, the items of which are transferred to ledger; memorandum book (Ta.lex.); kur.ippo_lai cadjan memorandum, accounts book; ola record of a child's birth, for casting its nativity; kur.i-y-i_t.u name given to a thing or concept (Ta.lex.)

2520.Formal contract: kurke to write (Malt.); guri esteem, token, sign, object aimed at (Te.); an aim, mark, responsibility (Tu.); an aim (Kod.); a mark, sign, aim, object of aim (Ka.); kuri id. (Ka.); to mark, take note of , regard (Ka.); kuruhu a mark, sign, token (Ka.); kury aim (To.); gurti a mark (Kod..); kuri act of making formal contract of engagement of marriage; drawing, spot on forehead or sectarian mark (Kod..); a mark, sign, aim (Ma.); mark, sign, symbol, aim, mark to shoot at, goal, motive, omen, generative organ (Ta.); to design, intend, draw, aim at, narrate briefly, tell, foretell, predict (Ta. cf. kuravan fortune-tellers, basket-makers, fowlers, snake-catchers (Ta.)(DEDR 1844); kurikka to mark, note, write, point at, refer to (Ma.); kurippu memorandum, abstract (Ma.); intention, gesture, summary, mark, sign (Ta.)(DEDR 1847). cf. kera_ clerk (B.)(CDIAL 3170).

2539.Image: small piece: kur.ko, kur.ki small piece (N.); kut.ka_ small stick, piece (M.)(CDIAL 3237). cf. kur-u short (Ta.)(DEDR 1851). kor-uku n. a bite; to bite, gnaw (Te.); kork- (korokt-) to bite, sting, nibble (Kol.); kork- to bite (Nk.); kork- to cut with the teeth o scissors, gnaw, nibble (Pa.); kork- (koruk-) to gnaw, nibble (Pa.); go gnaw (Ga.); kork-, ko_ka_na_ id.; koh-k- id., bite, nibble (Go.); koRk- (-t-) to crush with the teeth, bite (Kond.a); kor-i (-pp-, -tt-) to nip off the husks of grains, nibble grain, graze, pick up food here and there (as cattle)(Ta.); kor-ikka to nibble (as a mouse), eat grains, nipping off the husk (Ma.); kor-uku, kor-aku, kur-uku, kur-un:ku to bite, gnaw, nibble (Ka.); kurik- (kuriki-) to munch (Kod..); kori- (korip-, koric-) (snake) strikes, (rat) eats grain by cracking husk (Kod..); kur-ekka to cut off (Ma.); kwar-f- (kwar-t-) to cut (To.); kur-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to cut, reap; n. piece, section (Ce_tupu. Mutti_r. 18) (Ta.); kor-e, kor-i to break (as a hole in a wall), bore, excavate, pierce (Ka.); kor.e a cut-off piece (as of sugarcane)(Ka.); korcu to cut to pieces (Ka.); ko_r-a a cut-off portion (Te.); kra_pa act of sawing (Kui); kud.- (kut.t.-) to cut (Pa.) (DEDR 1859). kur-ai to reap, as a crop (katir-c-ca_li kur.aikkunar : Kacippu. Irupat. 60) (Ta.lex.) Image: fragment; half of a loaf of bread: kut.ke small fragment, crumb, etc. (Nk.); kut.ka a piece; kut.ka_ sa_ri half of a loaf of bread; kut.ki, kut.ke a piece, lump (Go.)(DEDR 1666). 24 or 48 kurgi = one pat.t.i of land. [one kurgi = 2 to 8 acres; cf. MIAI, p.44.]

2521.Mark, sign: kur-upu, kur-uvu, kur-uhu a mark, sign (Ka.); ku_nu, ku_n a mark, sign (Ka.)(DEDR 1847). Image: to butt: guri butt, an aim (Tu.)(DEDR 1847). kur-i (-pp-, -tt-) to design, intend, think, draw, sketch outline in painting, aim at, narrate briefly, tell, foretell, predict; n. mark, sign, symbol, aim, mark to shoot at, goal, motive, omen, generative organ (Ta.); a mark, sign, aim (Ma.); to paint, decorate; announce (marriage) to house-gods and witnesses; drawing, spot on forehead or sectarian mark, embroidery, act of making formal contract of engagement of marriage (Kod..); gur.i an aim (Kod..); guri an aim, mark, butt, responsibility (Tu.); gottu knowledge, understanding, acquaintance (Tu.); gur.i an aim, object aimed at, design, purpose, sign, token, esteem (Te.); gur.utu a mark, sign, token (Te.); gurt(u) un.d.u to be remembered (Te.); kur-i, gur-i, kur-ipu id., object of aim (Ka.); kur-ippu intention, gesture, summary, mark, sign (Ta.); gor.pa (gor.t-) to aim at, hit the mark; n. an aim, hitting the mark (?Kui); gurri ki_nai to observe, point; gur- to aim at (Kuwi); kurke to write (Malt.)(DEDR 1847). kur-ippe_t.u day-book, the items of which are transferred to ledger; memorandum book (Ta.lex.); kur-ippo_lai cadjan memorandum, accounts book; ola record of a child's birth, for casting its nativity; kur-i-y-i_t.u name given to a thing or concept (Ta.lex.)

2535.Share; partnership; share inherited from father; king's portion; share in cultivation: ku_r-u section, division, part, share (Ta.); part, share, party, partnership (Ma.); ku_r id. (Ma.); ku_r-r-a_n partner (Ma.); ku.r- (obl. ku.t--) share (Ko.); ku.r- share, share inherited from fatheer (To.); ko_r-u a part, portion, share in cultivation, etc. (Ka.); ko_ru a share, the king's or government's portion (Te.)(DEDR 1924).

2522.Embroidery strip: kur broad strip of embroidery (Ko.); kur-i to design; n. mark, sign, symbol (Ta.); kuri to decorate (Kod..); gur-i design, sign (Te.); kurke to write (Malt.)(DEDR 1847). To be engraved: kr..o_ce, kr..occe to be engraved (Te.inscr.); kur..i to excavate, inscribe, engrave (Kalit. 84, Urai.)(Ta.)(DEDR 1818). To scoop, carve, engrave: ko_rita scraped out of the ground (Bhpr.); pounded (Skt.); koroina to dig (D..); ku_r- to dig (Pas'.); koran.u to scrape, or scoop out (S.); korna_ to dig, excavate, cut (P.); to dig or scrape or scoop out (H.); kora_, kura_ to scrape, grate, scratch out, powder, gnaw (B.); koriba_, kuriba_ to scrape, rasp, comb (Or.); korna_ to dig or scrape or scoop out (H.); korvu~ to scoop, carve, bore a hole (G.); korn.e~ to scoop, engrave, cut gradually off (M.); kornu to scratch, tear, comb (N.); koriba to hoe (A.); korokiba to scoop out (A.); kakorna_ to scrape (H.)(CDIAL 3530). korni_ dried portion of food stuck to a pot (Ku.); kura_uni id., milk boiled till nearly solid (N.)(CDIAL 3529). prakut.ya having cut into small pieces (MBh.); a_ko_t.e_ti breaks, beats down, stamps (Pali); ko_t.ayate_ breaks (Skt.); ku_run to gouge out, extract (an eye, kernel of walnut, etc.)(K.); kornu to tear, scratch, comb (N.); koriba to hoe (A.); kor.a_ to dig, bore through, pierce (B.); kor.ab to dig, cut through (e.g. a field embankment to let out flood water)(Bi.); kor.na_, korna_ to dig up, scrape out, carve (H.); kol.avanava_ to beat down, stamp (Si.); kol.anava_ to press, flatten, smooth (Si.); korokiba to scoop out (A.)(CDIAL 3495). khurati scrapes (Pali); churai breaks (Pkt.); khurkak itching (S.); khurkan. to scratch (L.)(CDIAL 3729). ks.o_rayati scrapes (Skt.); chorna_ to cut (H.); khorvu~ to stir up (G.); chorvu~ to dig out (G.)(CDIAL 3753).

2538.Image: to graze: ko_ri to bite (Wg.)(CDIAL 3530). kor-i to nip off the husks of grains, nibble grain, graze (Ta.); kor-ikka to nibble, eat grains (Ma.); kor-uku, kur-un:ku to bite, gnaw, nibble (Ka.); kor-i (rat) eats grain by cracking husk (Kod..); kork- to bite, sting, nibble (Kol.); to bite (Nk.); to cut with the teeth or scissors, gnaw, nibble (Pa.); to gnaw (Ga.Go.); koRk to crush with the teeth, bite (Kond.a)(DEDR 2164).

2531.Image: shovel, instrument for levelling: go_ru to draw, gather oor sweep together; go_ri drawing, drawing in, raking, a kind of rake; go_re a shovel for cleaning a boat (Ka.); go_ra a drill plough; go_ra-cekka a drag with which rivers are cleared; go_ra-cekka, go_ra-palaka a hand instrument for levelling a ploughed field (Te.)(DEDR 2231). Image: to bore a hole: cf. koran.u to scrape or scooop out (S.); korna_ to dig, excavate (P.); kora_, kura_ to scrape, grate (B.); koriba_, kuriba_ to scrape, rasp, comb (Or); korna_ to dig or scrape or scoop out (H.); korvu~ to scoop, carve, bore a hole (G.); korn.e~ to scoop, engrave, cut gradually off (M.); kornu to scratch, tear, comb (N.); koriba to hoe; korokiba to scoop out (A.); kakorna_ to scrape [with expressive redup.] (H.)(CDIAL 3530).

2523.Vow: kur-ai vow requiring fulfilment; request (Perun.. Makata. 15,37); needs (Kur-al., 680); kur-ai-kol. to represent one's wants, needs (Perun.. Makata. 21,104) (Ta.lex.) kiria a vow (Santali.lex.) Image: obeisance: kur-ai-y-ar-u to bestow liberally and free one from wants, anxiety, etc. (Ta.lex.) er-agu a bow, an obeisance (Ka.lex.) Image: a vow: harike, parake, harake a vow (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kiria an oath, a vow, a solemn affirmation; to take an oath; kiria kasam, kiria kasat. an oath, to take an oath (Santali.lex.) Vow paid to god, wish, desire: ko.ryk vow paid to god (Ko.)[cf. kurik to munch (Kod..)(DEDR 2164)]; ko_rike wishing, desiring (Ka.); ko_rika, ko_riki desire, wish, longing, selection (Te.); ko_rike, ko_rige hope, desire, wish (Tu.); ko_rikkai request, wish (Ta.); ko_ru to request, wish (Ta.); a wish (Ma.);to purpose, think, wish, desire (Ka.); to desire, request, want, choose (Te.); ko_r to desire (Ga.)(DEDR 2164). Solicitation: ko_rikkai (Ta.); ko_rika (Te.); ko_rike (Ka.Tu.) request, solicitation; wish, desire (Ta.lex.) kosaru to ask for a little extra quantity after purchasing any article, be greedy, eager for; n. a little quantity of anything given by a trader over and above what has been paid for, eagerness, greediness, lust (Te.); ko_r to desire (Ga.); kosor anything demanded gratis after purchasing vegetables, etc. (Kond.a); ko_rinai to vote (Kuwi); ko_sori bonus (Kuwi)(DEDR 2232).

2530.To request, to desire; vow paid to god: ko_ru (ko_ri-) to request, wish; ko_rikkai request, wish; kocur-u, kucar anything extra obtained from a shopkeeper as a bargain (Ta.); ko_r-uka to wish, hope, purpose, think; ko_r-u a wish (Ma.); ko.ryk vow paid to god (Ko.); ko_r-u, ko_ru to purpose, think, wish, desire; ko_rike wishing, desiring; kosaru to demand an article gratis or into the bargain; be greedy, desire, hanker; n. anything asked for and given to boot; eagerness, cupidity; kosarike hankering after, desire (Ka.); ko_runi to desire, hope, expect; ko_rik, ko_rig hope, desire, wish; kusuri, kusri, kosaru anthing given to boot when a person buys commodities (Tu.); ko_ru to desire, request, want, choose; ko_rika, ko_riki desire, wish, longing, selection; kor-alu to desire, wish; kosaru to ask for a litte extra quantity after purchasing any article, be greedy, eager for; n. a little quantity of anything given by a trader over and above what has been paid for, eagerness, greediness, lust (Te.); ko_r- to desire (Ga.); kosor anything demanded gratis after purchasing vegetables etc. (Kond.a); ko_rinai to vote; ko_sori bonus (Kuwi)(DEDR 2332).

2527.Image: hole in the centre of the smith's forge for the bellows: kuruku hole in the centre of the smith's forge for the nozzle of the bellows (Cilap. 4,59)(Ta.lex.) khoerak small hole; khokro hole in tree (Santali.lex.)

2524.Chief: kuravan- < guravah nom. pl. of guru, elderly person qualified by age, family connection, respectability, knowledge or authority, to give advice and exercise control; any one of ain:kuravar (aracan-, upa_ttiya_yan- or kuru, ta_y, tantai, tamaiyan-: king, teacher, mother, father, brother)(A_ca_rak. 17); minister; brahma_, as the father of all (Ta.lex.) kuricil person of dignity, illustrious person; philanthropist, benefator (kuricin-i_ nalkaya_n. kol.l.um paricil: Pu. Ve. 9,5); lord, chief (po_rmiku poruna kuricilen-a: Tirumuru. 276); kurucil illustrious person (po_miku kurucil: Patir-r-up. 31,36)(Ta.lex.) kurj beautiful or handsome person (Ko.)(DEDR 1782). gorok respect, old person (Si.); gaurava venerableness (Skt.); go_rava dignity (Pkt.); gorava, gurava id. (OG.); ga_rava esteem (Pali.Pkt.); galove (As'.); ga_rava pride (OG.); ga_rvo (G.)(CDIAL 4346). cf. -ga_ru a suffix of respect in titles etc. (Te.lex.) kuricil lord, chief (Tirumuru. 276); philanthropist, benefactor (Pu. Ve. 9,5); person of dignity, illustrious person (Ta.lex.) guru, garu, gulu, galu important, venerable (As'.); guru, gurua teacher (Pkt.); garua_ heavy, venerable (H.); garu_u big (OG.); garavu~ grand; ger family priest (G.); garuva, garuya big, important (OM.)(CDIAL 4209). Rich: garvara haughty (Skt.); gavvira (Pkt.); gabbar proud, rich (P.H.)(CDIAL 4065). Pride: garva pride, arrogance (R.); gabba (Pali); gavva (Pkt.); ga_va (Ap.); ga_b boast (B.); ga_ba_na to vaunt (B.)(CDIAL 4064). Illustrious person: gurka_r, gurka_ra_ headman (of a part of town or of a village, appointed by ecclesiastical authority; whereas the Pat.el is nominated by civil authority) (Kon.lex.) kur-u-mun-i lit. dwarfish sage, Agastya (Kalla_. 62,20); kur-u-mun-ivan- id. (Ce_tupu. Na_t.t.up. 1); kur-umai shortness, brevity, conciseness (Ka_cika. O_n:ka_ravilin.. 22); kur-ucu id. (Ka.); kur-uppu id. (Ma.); kur-umai dwarfishness, low stature (Ta.lex.)  kuru family priest (Kampara_. Kaiyat.ai. 16); king; eminence, excellence, exaltedness; a prince of the lunar race after whom his family was called kuru-kulam (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 31); kuru-nilam (Pa_rata. Kirut.t.in.a. 7) the country of the Kurus, one of 56 te_cam; the Kuru dynasty (Ta.lex.) kurukkal. priests; officiating Brahman priests in S'iva temples; S'aiva Ve_l.a_l.a priests who minister to non-Brahmans; Kauravas, as descendants of Kuru (Tol. Po. 72, Urai, Pak.231)(Ta.lex.) -kol sprung from a noble family (OSi.); kaula relating to a family (R.)(CDIAL 3565). Family: kuru tribe, family (S.); kull (L.); kul (P.); sub-caste, family (WPah.); clan, caste, family (N.A.B.); herd, clan, caste, family (H.Marw.); kula herd, troop (RV.); race, family (Pa_n..); noble family (Mn.); house (MBh.); clan, household (Pali); family, house (Pkt.); kul house (Dm.); dada-kul grandfather's relations (Sh.); kol family, race (K.); kul.a clan, caste, family (Or.): kula (OMth.); kul. family, tribe (G.); ku_l., ku_l.i_ (M.); -kolat. family (OSi.); kulaya family, caste (Si.); kul.a_ of good family (Or.); akul.a_ illegitimate (of bith)(Or.)(CDIAL 3330). kuli_na of good family (S'Br.Pali); kuli_n.a (Pkt.); kolyunu (K.)(CDIAL 3345). kuladi_pa glory of a family (MW.); kuladi_va (Pkt.); kuliva_ (OM.)(CDIAL 3336). kulaji, kuluji, kulaci, kuluci genealogy (B.)(CDIAL 3337). gulgulia wandering tribe (Santali.lex.) kulam family, lineage (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,7,9); noble lineage, high birth (Kulamve_n.t.in- ve_n.t.uka ya_rkkum pan.ivu : Kur-al.., 960); caste, tribe, nation (Na_n.man. i.82); herd, flock, shoal, colletion, assemblage; kulavan- person of noble birth (Kalla_. 10); kulamutal first ancestor, founder of a family (ten-n-ar kulamutal : Cilap. 4,22); son; family god; (Ta.lex.) kaula relating to a family (R.); of noble family (Skt.); -kol sprung from a noble family (OSi.)(CDIAL 3565). kulaputra son of a noble family, respectable youth (MBh.); kulaputrakaka (Skt.); kulaputta (Pali.Pkt.); kulattur cousin (Wg.)(CDIAL 3338). kul.a_ra wife's family house (OG.)(CDIAL 3339). kulika of good family; kinsman (Ya_j.); agga-kulika of very good family (Pali); kuriya_ lady, mistress (H.); kal.iyo of noble birth (G.)(CDIAL 3342). kaveluka, ka_veluka title (LP.IEG.E.I.Vol.XXXIV, pp.144-45.); kaul (M.); cf. kivelu. kula-k-kot.i woman of noble birth (vaiyaiyen-r-a poyya_-k- kula-k-kot.i : Cilap. 13,170)(Ta.lex.) Venerable: guru teacher; kambru guru teacher of charms (Santali.lex.) guru, gurua teacher (Pkt. < Skt.); goru, guru dense, solid (K.); guru heavy (RV.Si.); gulu, galu important, venerable (As'.); garua_ heavy, venerable (H.); garu_u big (OG.); ger family priest (G.); garuva, garuya big, important (OM.)(CDIAL 4209).[Variety of phonetic forms and semantic expansion into adjectives, indicates Drav. origin.] kuru spiritual preceptor (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,2,8); family priest (Kampara_. Kaiyat.ai. 16); father (Ka_cippu. Ire_n.u. 11); heaviness, weight (Pur-ana_. 32); eminence, excellence, exaltedness (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

2526.Image: small shots: care small shots (Tu.lex.) cirakam water drop (Tiva_.) (Ta.lex.)

2534.Image: big cooking vessel: carige, cerige a big cooking vessel made of copper or brass; caramuri parched rice; caru an oblation of rice offered to god through sacrificial fire (Tu.lex.) cf. cirakam water-pot, ewer (Kalit. 51)(Ta.lex.) cf. karaka an ascetic's or student's waterpot (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a shallow vessel: karakam < karaka ewer, pitcher, water-vessel with a spout (Tol. Po. 625); the Ganges; decorated water-pot carried in procession in propitiation of certain gods or goddesses, either when an epidemic prevails, or when an auspicious ceremony is to take place in the family (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) karaka water vessel (MBh.Pali); karaya, karia_ pot for serving spirituous liquor (Pkt.); kara_ a well (Pas'.); karai_ spouted water vessel (Bi.); small earthen pipkin (H.); karua_ spouted water vessel (P.Ku.); karuwa_ small brass waterpot with a spout (N.); karua_ waterpot with a spout (H.); karwa_ pot for pouring water on plaster (Bi.); waterpot with a spout (Mth.); karna_ earthen vessel for milk or curds (Bi.Mth.); karha_ waterpot (esp. that used in the marriage ceremony)(M.)(CDIAL 2781). saraka a vessel, a drinking vessel (Pali.lex.) cf. s'ara_va a partic. measure (TS.); shallow cup or dish, its flat cover (Gr.S'r.)(CDIAL 12334). cf. karacai, karicai a measure of capacity = 400 marakka_l (Ta.); garase, gerase id. (Ka.); garise id. (Te.); kari_sa a square measure of land, being that space on which a kari_sa of seed can be sown (Pali)(DEDR 1261). ka~rwas t.hili a small earthenware vessel in which a little dhan is placed and sent with a bride to her new home. The pot is ornamented with figures drawn in white (Santali.lex.) Earthen vessel; pitcher; pot: kandal a small earthen water-vessel (Ka.); kandelu pitcher, large pot (Tu.); kan-n-al earthen vessel, waterpot (Ta.)(DEDR 1415). gad.d.uka waterpot, vessel for boiled rice (Skt.); gad.u, gad.uka (Skt.); gad.ubi_ iron vessel (Sh.); gud.d.u~_ inkpot (WPah.); gar.u, gar.ua_ waterpot with spout (Or.); gad.u~_, gad.uva_ drinking cup (M.)(CDIAL 3984). Image: pot: ghan.t.i_ small metal pot; small bell (H.); gan.d.i_ iron kettle (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4421). ghan.t.a_, ghan.t.i_ bell clock (Or.); ghan.t.a_ bell, clock, hour (H.)(CDIAL 4421). Measure: kat.an- measure, definite quantity; a dry measure (Ta.lex.) kat.am waterpot, vessel (kat.amun-i ce_r-alo_t.um)(Kantapu. Tirukkal. 65); sign of the aquarius in the zodiac; dry measure = 2 kur-un.i; kat.amai-k-ka_l authorized measure of capacity (Insc.)(Ta.lex.) kat.ava pot (Te.lex.); kat.am dry measure = 2 kur.un.i (one kur.un.i = 1 marakka_l or 8 measures (Ta.lex.); kut.am waterpot (Ta.Ma..); kut.uvai vessel with a small narrow mouth, pitcher of an ascetic (Ta.)[cf. ghat.ika_ small pot used for begging (Pali)(CDIAL 4406)]; kut.ukka small cooking vessel with narrow mouth (Ma.); kut.uva small vessel (Ma.); kur.ky small pot (To.)(DEDR 1651); ku_t.a waterpot (Skt.)(CDIAL 3227). kuri pot (Kui); kurri, kur'i pot (Kuwi); kurvi earthen cooking pot (Go.); kurvi_ earthen jar (Go.); kur.vi_ pitcher (black, for cooking)(Go.); gurigi a very small earthen pot (Te.)(DEDR 1797). guli:mi, gulu:mi a big vessel (Sora.). [Seven: cf. gul Proto-Munda: '7'. gul-ji seven (Sora.); gal (Santali); guli-gi (Pareng). -ji in Sora is a plural suffix (Sora.lex.)] ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lam.ba dish (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin:g.); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502).[cf. kol.l.u to drink (Ka.); kro_lu to drink, eat (Te.); gronj to drink, guzzle (Kuwi); ko_ruka to eat greedily (Ma.)(DEDR 2233).] ko_ram, ko_rakam metallic dish or plate (Ta.); ko_rakai begging-bowl of the Buddhist ascetics (Ta.); ko_ra cup, tray (Te.)(DEDR 2228). khora almsbowl; khoraka pot (BHSk.); khoraya a kind of round pot (Pkt. Ardha-ma_gadhi). ko_y vessel for taking out toddy (Ta.); kwa.y bamboo pot used at ti. dairy (To.); xo_ cooking-pot (Br.)(DEDR 2225). xo_yna_ (xojjas) to measure, ascertain the extent, height, quantity or capacity of (Kur.); xo_yta_rna_ to be measured (Kur.); qoye to weigh, measure (Malt.); qoytre to have anything weighed or measured (Malt.); ka_hta_na_ to measure, count, to number, to count (?Go.); kah- to count; ka' to measure; kahca_na_, kahta_na_ id. (?Go.)(DEDR 2227). karaka an ascetic's or student's waterpot; kaman.d.ala (Skt.Ka.); karaga (Tadbhava of karaka) a kind of water-jar; karkari, karaka; karambor.. to carry a karaga; karagalantike a small water-vessel; keyyad.ige (Ka.); geraseda_vi a basket-well, a well made with rings of wicker (Ka.Te.); kerase, garase, gerase, gerise, gerese a kind of flat bamboo basket in the form of a square (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Open basket: kha_ra a particular measure (Skt.); in cmpds. (Pa_n..); kha_ri_ a measure of grain (RV.); ks.a_raka net for catching birds (MBh.); cage or basket for fish or birds (Skt.); kha_ri_ a mesure of capacity (Pali.Pkt.); kha_r a dry measure, amount of land for which a kha_ri_ of rice is needed (about 4 acres); khru old worn basket round a portable stove (often used for carrying fish)(Ka.); [For semant. 'worn-out' cf.: ko_r-i worn-out blanket, rag (Ka.); kwi.r rag (To.); ko_ra rough cloth (Ma.); ko_ro rough cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2255); kho_ru a large basket of withies (K.); kha_ro, kha_ri_ large basket made of rushes (S.); kha_ra_, kha_ri_ large basket made of reeds (L.P.); kha_ru basket carried in the hand (WPah.); kha~_ra_, kha~_ri a kind of basket (A.); kha_ra a measure of grain (Or.); kha_ra_ net for holding straw or grass (H.); kha_ri_ a measure of 60 pounds (G.)(CDIAL 3875). kerc flat basket for drying grain, placed in rack over fireplace (Ko.); kerase, gerase, gerise, gerese a kind of flat bamboo basket square in form (Ka.)(DEDR 1966). Image: hiding: karappu concealing, screening; hiding as one's thoughts (Kur-al.. 1053)(Ta.lex.) karan.d.a wickerwork box (Pali); karam.d.a basket (Pkt.); kran.d.a large covered trunk (K.); kron.d.u basket of withies for grain (K.); kan.d.o basket (Ku.); kan.d.i_ long, deep basket (H.); kan.d.i basket-like conveyance (N.); kara~d.o wicker or metal box; ka~d.iyo cane or bamboo box (G.); kara~d. bamboo basket (M.); karand.uva small box or casket (Si.)(CDIAL 2792). Image: conical basket: karappu conical basket for catching fish; weel, hen-coop; karappu-k-kuttutal to catch fish a basket, dazzling them by a strong light and thrusting the wheel upon them (J.)(Ta.); karappor-i a kind of trap for catching monkeys (Ta.lex.) Grain basket: gampa large basket (Ga.); basket (Te.); kemparai basket, grain basket (Ta.); gampe basket (Ka.); gappal pl. a set of baskets (Kol.); gappa bamboo basket (Pa.); basket, bag (Go.); goppa id. (Go.); gapa basket in which to carry grain (Kond.a); gapati, gapend. a basketful (Kond.a); gapa a basket (Pe.)(DEDR 1243). kal.opi a vessel, basin, pot; a basket, crate (Pali.lex.) Measure of capacity: kha_ri a measure of capacity, equivalent to sixteen dro_n.as or about three bushels; kan.d.uga (Ka.Skt.); kha_ri_va_pa sown with a kha_ri of grain; kha_ri_ka (a land) holding or sown with one kha_ri of grain (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kari_s.a lit. the amount of manure required (Skt.); kari_sa a measure of seed, the amount of land requiring that seed (Pali); kiriya extent of ground for sowing eight bushels of rice (Si.)(CDIAL 2807). cf. ka_r manure (M.)(CDIAL 3054). cf. ks.a_ra flowing; juice, essence; treacle (Skt.); kha_ra flowing, dropping (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3675). Measures: 4 kars.a/ dharan.a = 1 pala = 1 S'ata-ma_na; 20 (ma_s.a) manjist.a (maca_t.i) = 1 kal.acu; (Synonym: kr.s.n.a-kaca [Pa_n.d.ya inscription of Ma_ranjad.aiyan; MAER, 181 of 1912, S.I.I., IV, no.5; MIAI,p.108.] (Ba_lambhat.a, Journal of Tanjore Saraswati Mahal Library, Vol.XXI, no.1, 84; cf. MIAI, p.108). kun-r-i-man.i a standard weight of gold = 4 paddy grains = 2 gr. troy = 1/2 maca_t.i = 1/32 pagoda. Image: wicker-basket: kacca_l wicker-basket for catching fish (Ta.); khacla (Kur.); kacan:ku-k-ku_t.ai wicker basket (Ta.lex.) Image: hen-coop: kha~_c basket for carrying birds (such as quails)(N.); kha~_ca_ hen-coop (B.H.P.); large basket of tamarisk twigs (Mth.)(CDIAL 3767). cf. pakke tamarisk tree, tamarix indica (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 3812). kujelu a kind of weel for catching fish (Tu.); kua small bamboo basket (Pa.); kunje small basket (Ga.); kucca, ku_ca large basket (Go.)(DEDR 1644). Image: cup; lid: cara_kai metal cup (Catu.)(Ta.); cara_vam anything long and thin, as a bar, a rib (Cu_t.a_.); cf. s'ala_ka_ (Skt.); caruku-c-cat.t.i shallow wide-mouthed vessel (Intupa_ka. 62); caruva-c-cat.t.i, caruvam shallow wide-mouthed vessel saraka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_ru a pitcher (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) saraka a drinking-vessel, wine-glass, goblet; drinking spirits; distribution of spirituous liquor (Skt.lex.) ca_ra_yap-pa_va_lai vessel for receiving distilled spirits; cf. sara_va a lid, cover; a shallow dish, saucer (Skt.); s'ara_va a shallow dish, platter, an earthenware vessel, tray; a cover; a measure equal to two kudavas (Skt.lex.) ca_ra_yam spirituous liquor, arrack (Pata_rtta. 1490); id. (Ma.); sa_ra_ya (Te.Ka.); sa_ra_yi (Tu.); ca_ra_ya-p-pa_va_lai vessel for receiving distilled spirits (Ta.lex.) Image: porous earthen pot; a strainer: jharjhara a strainer (Bhpr.); jhajhari a large kind of hookah bottom (S.); jhajjhar, jajjhari_ earthen pot with a narrow neck (P.); jha~_jra_ cullender, strainer (B.); jha~_jhar porous (Bhoj.); jhajjhar large porous water jug (H.); jhajhri_ full of holes, riddled (H.)(CDIAL 5349). Metal vessel with a long neck: jha_ri_ metal vessel with long neck (S.); jha_r.i_ drinking vessel with spout (Mth.); jha_ri (N.); drinking vessel with spout (B.Or.Bi.); id. (H.G.M.); za_ri drinking vessel with spout (A.); ca_t.i *jar, waterpot (Pkt.); earthen vessel or pitcher (H.)(CDIAL 5377). Possibly, the S. form jha_ri_ may be the radical which resulted in all the Indian forms with extension of meaning in H.M.group. ca_t.i vessel, jar, measure of capacity (Pali); saliya, haliya earthen pot (Si.)(CDIAL 4736). Image: wide-mouthed earthen vessel: caru a kind of vessel in which a particular oblation is prepared: a cauldron, a pan, a pot, a kettle (RV. vii.104.2) (Vedic.lex.) (Ka.lex.) carupu an oblation of rice, etc. for presentation to the gods or manes; havis (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cara_vam < s'ara_va shallow wide-mouthed earthen vessel (Patin-o. A_l.u. 16)(Ta.lex.) caru a kind of vessel in which an oblation is prepared; caru-ce_lin name of S'iva; caru-stha_li_ a vessel for boiling rice, etc. for presentation to the gods and the manes (Skt.lex.) s'ara_va a partic. measure (TS.); shallow cup or dish, its flat cover (Gr.S'r.); s'ara_vaka (Sus'r.); sara_va, sara_vaka cup, saucer (Pali); sa-s'arava having a lid (KharI.); sara_va a kind of dish (Pkt.); sara_ shallow earthen vessel used as a lid (B.Or.); sara_u, sara_, sara_wa_ earthen cover; sara_i_ small earthen cover (H.); sara_vlu~, sa_vlu~ an earthen dish (G.); ceri_ water-jar (Ash.); ceri_, cari_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 12334). caru pot, saucepan (RV.); caluka small pot (Skt.); caru a kind of dish (Pkt.); co_rki_ kettle (Nin:g.); caru_ large copper vessel used by dyers (S.); carvi_ brass vessel (L.); saru earthen cooking pot (A.); carua_, carui_ earthen pot for storing grain or cooking (Bi.); caru_ pot, cauldron (H.); carua_ large earthen pot (H.); carui_ smaller earthen pot (H.); caru large copper pot (G.); carvi_ small copper pot; carur.i_ metal jug (G.); carvi_ sort of bowl or pan (M.)(CDIAL 4692). Bowl: ca_ro bowl, pan (Gypsy.european); ca_t.t.a_, ca_t.t.i_ large earthen vessel (P.); ca_t. large pot for storing ghee (WPah.)(CDIAL 4738). cad.d.a oil vessel in a lamp (Pkt.); ca_d.i earthen vessel (S.); car.iya_ earthen griddle for baking bread or parching grain (Mth.); ca_d.u_ saucer-shaped vessel forming part of a lampstand (G.); ca_d.e~ id. (M.); ca~_r. earthen vessel for grain (Bi.) X bha~_r. < bha_n.d.a pot, dish, vessel, ornament, wares (Mn.)CDIAL 4739). Image: trough: cat.t.ha_ watering trough for cattle (P.)(CDIAL 4729). sat.t.uga, tat.t.uga a flat kind of trough for serving boiled rice (Tu.)(DEDR 2309). To lick, eat: cat.t.e_i licks (Pkt.); car, car, (Gypsy); cat.- (Pas.); c.at. (Wot..); cat.an.u (S.); cat.t.an (L.); cat.t.n.a_ (P.); ca_t.n.o (Ku.); ca_t.nu (N.); ca_t.vu~ (G.); ca_t.n.e~ (M.); ca_t.a_ (B.); ca_t.iba_ (Or.); ca_t.ab (Bi.Mth.Aw.); ca_t.na_ to lick, taste, eat (H.)(CDIAL 4573). cas.el to drink (Psht.); casa taste (S.)(CDIAL 4727). cat.akam cup, drinking vessel (Ta.lex. < cas.a) cet.t.i earthen pot or pan (Ka.); cat.ige, cat.t.ige small earthen pot with a broad mouth (Ka.); cat.t.i earthen vessel, pan (Ta.)(Perumpa_n.. 377, Urai); pot, pan (Ma.Ka.); broad-mouthed spittoon, chamber pot (Tu.); earthen pot with a wide mouth (Te); sat.i cooking pot (Kond.a)(DEDR 2306). t.and.i small pot, cup (Pa.); earthen pot of medium size (Go.); t.a_ndi pot (Pe.); ta_nd.i id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2946). tat.a_ big pot, pot (Ta.); tat. big clay pot into which milk is collected at milking (Ko.); churning vessel (To.)(DEDR 3027). ca_t.i jar, a measure of capacity (Ta.); jar (Ma.); ca.r.y big basket with wide mouth (Ko.); to.r.y, tod.y broad storage basket (To.); ja_d.i jar (Ka.); large earthen vessel (Tu.); large bottle or jar (Te.) The forms with j- may result from contamination with forms of the H.M. group jha_ri_ water-pot with spout. (DBIA 158). ca_t.i jar (ca_t.imat.t.ayin-r-u : Ci_vaka. 1614)(Ta.lex.) tond., tond.a_ mouth, spout (of a vessel)(Kon.lex.)

2536.Large division of land: karai large division of co-parcenary land in a village consisting of dry and wet lands and garden fields (S.I.I. ii,114; G.S.A.D. i,288); karaiya_l.an- owner of karai land in a village (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Village officer: karaikka_ran- village officer (Ta.); karakka_r (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: street: kara parish (Ma.); kar parish, a social or caste jurisdictional division (Tu.)(DEDR 1294). ke.ry, ke.r street, exogamous division in Kota village (Ko.); ke.ry street of Badaga village (To.); ke_r street (Ka.); ke.ri hamlet (Kod..); ke_ri street, lane (Tu.); ge_ri stret, passage (Te.); se_ri_ street, quarter (Pkt.)(DEDR 2007). ce_ri town, village, hamlet; street, quarters of the Pariahs (Ta.); assemblage, village street (Ma.)(DEDR 2007). ke_rigol. to take a street (Ka.lex.)

2537.Abundance: qre to be enough, be much, be in excess (Malt.); qortre to supply or provide for abundantly (Malt.); ku_r exuberance, abudandance; intense, excessive (Ta.); ku_ru to be abundant, excessive, occur, obtain, be filled with (Te.); xo_rna_ (xu_rya_) to thrive, be prosperous, increase in honour (Kur.)(DEDR 1899).

2540.Plantation: kurukku plantation thick with young palm trees (Ta.lex.)

2541.Measure: kol. a small measure of weight in ancient times (Tol. Er..ut. 164, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kur-un.i a grain measure = 1 marakka_l or 8 measures; kur-un.i-p-pa_t.u land requiring one kur-un.i of paddy to sow it; kur-ukkam measure of dry land varying in different parts of Tamil country from 3/4 acre to 7 acres (R.F.); shortness, abridgement; kur-ukku transverseness, breadth. (Ta.lex.) Tribute, revenue: kur-ai tribute, revenue (Ta.lex.) Isle: kur-ai small isle, ait in a river (Kampara_. Pu_kkoy. 2)(Ta.lex.) Island: kur-uva, kur-ava, kurva island (Ka.); koorta an island (Go.)(DEDR 1860). t.ikuria belonging to an island (Santali.lex.) kur-ai small isle, ait in a river (Ta.lex.) kur-uva an island (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2542.Image: palanquin-bearer: ku_r-iya_n- headman of the civiya_r or palanquin bearers proclaiming the titles of the person seated in it (J.)(Ta.lex.)

2543.Village revenue: ku_r-r-aris'i obligation of husking paddy belonging to the temple into rice and the charges to be met for the same: kur-r-u-nel, ku_r-r-u-nellu tax for husking paddy payable to king (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) cf. ku_r-u section, division, classification (Man.i. 30,236)(Ta.); id. (Ka.Ma.); ku_r-u-ceyva_n- lit., one who apportions; village revenue officer (Ta.lex.)

2544.Promulgate: kr. call (Skt.); akari_s.am aor. calls (RV.); kara_unu to call out (N.); kar to call (Gypsy); kara_hn.a_ to groan (P.)(CDIAL 3060). ka_ra song (RV.)(CDIAL 3053). ku_r-u-tal to speak, say, declare, assert (Tol. Col. 70); to cry aloud, promulgate, proclaim (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: voice; throat: guhur sound of voices; ghogo loud voice (Santali.lex.) kural voice, word, throat, windpipe (Ta.Ma.); kurelu nape of the neck (Tu.); koral sound, voice, throat, neck (Ka.); kora gullet, windpipe (Kod..); kuralu, koral.u humming a tune, responding to a call (Tu.)(DEDR 1774). Image: adam's apple: kural-val.ai adam's apple; projection of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx (Perun.. Makata. 14,55); kural-val.ai-t-ta_pan-am laryngitis (In.. Vai. 231)(Ta.lex.) gulti-n, goltin hollow at the back of the neck (Sora. lex.) kor.okla the Adam's apple (Kond.a); go_r.enji id. (Kui); gr.okla_ id. (Kuwi); gr.okla throat (Kuwi)(DEDR 2150). Image: neck: kulla, ko_la neck (Pkt.); kullha_ that part of a bullock's hump on which yoke rests (L.); kola_ having an inflated throat (B.); kulala neck (Si.)(CDIAL 3353). kori neck (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3607). gola neck; kan.t.a the throat; gola kan.t.a swollen throat of cattle; d.hokoc, hor. okot Adam's apple (Santali.lex.)

2545.Share: ku_r-u section, division, classification (Man.i. 30,236); id. (Ka.Ma.); part, portion, lot, share (Pata_rtta. 78); ku_r-u-ka_cu share-money; ku_r-u-c-ci_t.t.u deed of partition; ku_r-u-ceyva_n- lit., one who apportions; village revenue officer (I_t.u, 5,2,8); ku_r-u-pat.u-tal to be divided; ku_r-u-pat.uttu-tal to divide, analyse, classify; ku_r-u-pa_t.u division, sub-division, classification; portion, section (Ta.lex.)

2546.Image: crooked: ku_ra crooked (Khot.); ko_ra movable joint (Sus'r.); ko_le curved, crooked (Ash.); ko_la crooked (Dm.); ko_la_ curved, crooked (Pas'.); ko_l crooked (Bshk.); ku_ulo (Phal.); ko_u curved, crooked (Sh.)(CDIAL 3538). cf. kho_ra lame (Ka_tyS'r.); kora lame (Si.); kera lame woman (Si.); khoran.d.o (N.); khora_iba to limp (A.); khora_ lame (OAw.H.)(CDIAL 3941).

2547.To receive and supply what is necessary: goras to receive and supply what is necessary to one in want or in distress; goras sa~oha~hom receive and care for them; goraset.koae she thinks of and provides for them; do goras aguyepe go and coax her to come; goroj need, want, necessity, interest; garaj id. (Santali.lex.) cf. kharcu expenditure (Te.lex.) cf. carakku goods (Ta.lex.)

2548.Whip: korat.a_ < corda (Port. = cord, rope) whip (Ta.Ma.); korad.a_ horse-whip, scourge (Te.); kor-at.a_ (Ta.); kor-ad.e_ (Ka.); kor-at.a_ (Ma.); kord.e (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) korar.a_, kor.a_ whip (P.); korra_ (N.); korar.a_ (H.Or.); kor.a_ (B.Or.); kur.a_ (Or.); kolr.a_, kor.r.a_, kor.a_ (H.); korr.o, koyr.o, kod.d.o (G.); kord.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 3528).

2549.Image: rainbow: korad.u, kod.d.a a kind of rainbow appearing in a straight form (Ka.); korad.u a red streak in the clouds, a gleam or streak of a rainbow in the clouds; korad.u, korru rainbow (Ka.); kur-veli id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2124).

2550.Image: myna: kurakam myna, starling, acridotheres tristis (Ta.); goravan:ka, goravan:ke the common maina, acridotheres tristis or the pastor (Ka.); goruvan:ka, go_ra, go_ran:ka, go_rin:ka, go_ruvan:ka myna (Te.); go_ro_d. id. (Go.)(DEDR 1766). kuran:kara, kurun:kara the Indian crane; kururi_ a kind of bird (having a plaintive tone); kurari_ a female osprey; kurara, kurala an osprey (Skt.lex.) gero, gorr.a the common Indian sparrow, passer indicus (Mu.); gauriya_ (H.); gerwa (Sadani) (Mu.lex.)

2551.Image: small bird: kuruvi, kuri_i small bird (Ta.); kuruvi, kurikil, ku_ri sparrow (Ma.); kibbi id. (Kurub.); gubbi, gubbil, gubbacci a small bird, esp. a sparrow (Ka.); gurubi, gurbi, gubbi sparrow (Tu.)(DEDR 1793). ghardidi a small tailor bird, orthotumos sutorius (Santali.lex.) gr.ha-bali-bhuj a sparrow (Skt.Ka.); kalavin:ka id. (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bird: gharwa the sparrow, passer indicus (Santali.lex.) ca_rikai myna (Kalla_. 7); < sa_rika_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) sa_rike, s'a_rike, sa_rake the bird called maina (either the gracula religiosa or the turdus salica (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: pigeon: kar-por-ukki a kind of pigeon, tringa variegata (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cuckoo: ka~r.i_ ce_r.e_ the Indian cuckoo, cuculus micropterus microp (Santali.lex.) kar-a_ chirp of a quail (W.)(Ta.lex.) ko_rakai Indian cuckoo; ko_racam a kind of partridge (Ta.); ko_kila (Skt.)(Ta.lex.); kurakam myna, starling, acridotheres tristis (Ta.); goravanka, goravanke the common maina, acridotheres tristis or the pastor (Ka.); goravanka, go_ra, go_ranka, go_rinka, go_ruvanka myna (Te.); go_ro_d. id. (Go.)(DEDR 1766). kulinga fork-tailed shrike (MBh.); kulinkaka sparrow (Skt.); kulika_ a kind of bird (VS.) <Prob. Austro-as. kulinka a particular bird (Pali); kulang forktailed shrike (P.)(CDIAL 3343). kuyil koel, Indian cuckoo (Ta.); (kuyilv-, kuyin-r--) to call, whoop, halloo; utter, tell (Ta.); kuyir-r-u (kuyir-r-i-) to telll, utter (Ta.); kuyil, kur..il Indian cuckoo (Ma.); kukil cuckoo; v.t. to cry as a cuckoo; ku_gula cuckoo (Ka.); ko_gile, ko_jile, kuyilu id. (Tu.); kuhu pat.a id. (Kuwi); kokila Indian cuckoo (Skt.); kuhila id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 1764). ko_kila_ the Indian cuckoo cuculus indicus (MBh.). [Among NIA.forms those of S.Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.G. apparently, unless borrowed are <-illa-: all others, except M., may be <-illa] ko_kila (Pali); ko_ila (Pkt.S.OAw.); koil (P.WPah.Mth.H.); koili (N.Or.); koili (Bhoj.); kuli (A.); kuila (MB.); ko_il (H.M.); koyal (H.G.); koyalr.i_ (G.); koi_l. (M.); koya_l. (M.); kovula_, kevili_ (Si.)(CDIAL 3483). kun.a_la the Indian cuckoo (Pali); kun.al (Si.)(CDIAL 3258). kuyil koel, Indian cuckoo, eudynamis honorata (Ta.); kuyil, kur..il Indian cuckoo, cuculus or eudynamis orientalis (Ma.)(DEDR 1764).

2552.Image: crab: kuru-cilla a crab (Skt.lex.) kat.kom a crab (Santali.lex.) d.at.o, d.it.om pincers of a crab (Santali.lex.) Image: crab; pincers: kur-at.u crab, forceps, pincers (Ta.); kor-ad.u a kind of pincers (Te.)(DEDR 1843). Image: pincers: ka_ru pincers, tongs (Ka.Te.Ga.)(DEDR 1473). pat.aka_ru tongs, pincers (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 3864).

2553.Image: fish with sharp bones: kur-icci a kind of fish with many sharp bones (Ma.); kurci a kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 1848).

2554.Hilly tract: kur-ike village (Ka.); kur-icci village; village in the hilly tract (Ir-ai. 1, Urai.); id. (Ma.); kur-i-ca_r-r-al convening a meeting of the village assembly by blowing a horn (Ta.lex.) kor-aca a thievish wandering hill-tribe that sell wooden combs etc. (Ka.); kur-icci (Ma.); kur-icciyan a hill man (Ma.); koraca-va_d.u, korice_-va_d.u a hill man; a gypsy (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kur-i ke_l. to consult a fortune-teller; kur-i-col to divine (Ka.); kor-a-ca_d.u to use words that revealsecrets, vulnerable points or touchy quarters (Ka.lex.) kur-ici hilly tract, one of five kinds of nilam (Ci_vaka. 1563)[the five kinds are: kur-ici, pa_lai, mullai, marutam, neytal (cf. aintin.ai (Nampiyakap. 4, Urai.); kur-ici-k-kir..avan- Murukan, as the god of the hilly tract; kur-ukkaiyar members of the family in the Ve_l.a_l.a caste to which Tiruna_vukkaracar belonged (Periyapu. Tiruna_. 15); kur-ukkai a shrine in Tanjore district where S'iva burnt Ka_man to ashes, one of at.t.av-vi_rat.t.am (Te_va_. 191,1)(Ta.lex.). Image: drum: kuravai-p-par-ai a drum of the hilly tracts (Ir-ai. 1,17, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Village, hilly tract: kur-ici hilly tract, one of five kinds of nilam (Ta.); kur-ici-k-kir..avan, kur-ici-kir-aivan-, kur-ici-ve_ntan- Murukan- (Skandha), as the god of the hilly tracts (Ta.lex.) kun-r-a-va_n.ar, kun-r-avar moutaineers, inhabitants of the hilly tract, kur.ici nila ma_kkal. (Ta.lex.) kur-u-m-por-ai hilly tract, kur-ici nilam; town in a hilly tract; forest, jungle (Ta.lex.) kur-am Kur.ava tribe (Ta.)(DEDR 1844). kur-umba a caste of mountaineers (Ka.); kor-ava name of a tribe of mountaineers (Te.); fem. koravanji, kor-avata a gypsy (Te.)(DEDR 1844). kur-iccai an additional appellation of villages or towns (Ta.); pa_lkur-ike name of a village in southern Maha_ra_s.t.ra (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ku_lyo along the bank of (sina ku_lyo along the bank of the river)(Sh.)(CDIAL 3417). Mountaineer: kur-am Kur.ava tribe, palmistry as practised by Kur.ava women (Ta.); kur-avan- man of a caste of fowlers, snake-catchers, basket-makers, and fortune-tellers; fem. kur-atti, kur-avi, kur-avaci; kur-avan.a_r the Kur.ava tribe of the mountain (Ta.); kur-avan wandering tribe of basket-makers, snake-catchers, and gypsies; kur-icci hill country; kur-icciyan a hill tribe (Ma.); kor-ava, kor-ama man of a now settled tribe who make blankets, mats, etc., are musicians, etc.; fem. kor-avaji, kor-avati, kor-aviti (commonly fortune tellers); kor-aca a thievish wandering hill tribe that sell wooden combs, etc. (Ka.); korage man of a tribe that feeds on carrion and whose women wear leaves; fem. korapal.u; koraji, koraju a serpent charmer (Tu.); kor-ava name of a tribe of mountaineers (Te.); fem. kor-avata; koravanji a gypsy (Te.)(DEDR 1844). kur-avan- inhabitant of the hilly tract; inhabitant of the desert tract; pretender, cringing hypocrite; mercury, quicksilver (Ta.lex.); kur-a-va_n.ar the Kur-ava tribe of the mountain (Ta.lex.) Shepherd: kur-umpu petty chieftains; a class of savages supposed to form a part of the aborigines of south India; village (Ta.); a sub-division of the Pal.l.a caste; kur-uba man of the shepherd caste; kur-umba a caste of mountaineers (Ka.); kur-umpar petty chieftains; an aboriginal tribe; hunters; a caste of shepherds who weave blankets (Ta.lex.); kur-umban shepherd; caste of mountaineers in Wayana_d.u (Ma.); kur-uppu a chief (Ma.); kurb man of Kurumba tribe living in the Nilgiri jungles (To.); kur-ube shepherd (Kod..); fem. kurubati (Kod..); kur-ube shepherd (Tu.); kur-upa, kur-uma a caste of shepherds who weave blankets (Te.); kurmal shepherd (Go.)(DEDR 1844). Hillman: kul.uvan- fowler's attendant, hillman (Ta.); kul.ivai fowler's attendant (Ta.); kul.uvan hillman (Ma.)(DEDR 1836). kulu_ta, kulu_taka name of a people (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 3348).

2555.An ancient, submerged province: kur-umpu < kur-u-mai village in a desert tract; village; stronghold, fort (Pur-ana_. 177); strength, power (Malaipat.u. 504); a class of savages supposed to form a part of the aborigines of South India, divided into: ka_t.t.u-k-kur-umpu, na_t.t.u-k-kur-umpu; wickedness, mischief (Ta.); kur-umbu id. (Ka.Ma.); kur-umpan-ai-na_t.u an ancient province of the Tamil land believed to have been submerged (Cilap. 8,1, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kur-umba, kur-uba a man belonging to a fort (Ka.); kor-r-avan-, ko_ a headman, king; kur-umpu a fort (Ta.); kur-u a hill (Ta.Ma.); kur-uppu a chief (Ta.Ma.); kur-umba a caste of mountaineers; kur-ubatana the profession of a shepherd (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Petty chieftains: kur-umpar petty chieftains (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,55); an ancient aboriginal tribe; cf. kulambhara; hunters, those who live by chase (Ci_vaka. 1079); kur-umban id. (Ma.); kur-umpar a caste of shepherds who weave coarse blankets (Ta.); kur-umban id. (Ma.); kurupa id. (Te.); kur-uba id. (Ka.); kurubi id. (Tu.); kur-umpar a sub-division of the Pal.l.a caste (G.Tj.D. i,90); kur-umpar-ko_t.t.am stronghold of the Kurumbas; kur-umpat.ai fort (Akana_. 35); kur-u-mut.i-kut.i family of petty chiefs (Tol. Po. 30, Urai.); kur-u-vaci theme of a petty king securing the welfare of his kingdom by paying tribute to an invading monarch (Pu. Ve. 3,17)(Ta.lex.)

2556.Mischief: kur-umpu wickedness, mischief, battle, war (Ta.); haughtiness, insolence (Ma.); kur-umpan- mischief-maker (Ta.); indolent, stubborn (Ma.); kur-umbu, kur-umbi stubbornness, foolishness; kur-uba a stubborn, foolish man (Ka.)(DEDR 1856).

2557.Fort: kur-umpu stronghold, fort (Ta.); Man belonging to a fort: kur-umba a man belonging to a fort (Ka.)(DEDR 1857).

2558.Image: tiger: kur-ukka tiger (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 18,18, Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

2559.Image: leopard, hyaena: kur-uva, gur-uva, kur-uba hyaena (Ka.); kirbn leopard (Ko.)(DEDR 1599). Image: tiger: kuyavari tiger, as having sickle-shaped stripes; ve_r..an. kuyavari ko_t.pir..aittu (Tin.aima_lai.25)(Ta.lex.)

2560.Log, stump: kur-at.u small block or clump of wood, plank (Ta.); kur-at.u, kurat.u piece of wood; kuran.a log, stump, gnarled wood; kuran.t.i board used as seat, stump; kuran.t.u log (Ma.); kud. club, bar of door, log (Ko.); kud. large stick, club (To.); kor-ad.u trunk of a lopped tree, stump, piece of wood; kodan.t.i log of wood (Ka.); kut.t.i small piece of wood (Kod..); korad.u log, stump; kodad.u chopping-block (Tu.); kudan.t.i, kodan.t.i a small log of wood (Tu.); kor-ad.u the trunk of a tree of which the branches are lopped off, a stump (Te.)(DEDR 1842). hurut, khun.t.ut, gun.d.ra a stump of tree (Santali.lex.)

2562.Cardamom: ko_ran:gi small cardamoms (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2563.Performer: ko_ra, kho_ra one who does, performs, is occupied with (anything bad) etc. (Ka.); kho_ru (H.)(Ka.lex.)

2564.To dazzle: ko_rayisu to be dazzled (Ka.); ko_ragincu to dazzle the eyes (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2565.Crookedness: ko_re crookedness (Ka.); ko_repat.a a small flag with which a lance is adorned, and any similar one (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2567.Image: sprout: kurukka to sprout, shoot (Ma.); kuruttu sprout, shoots of grain (Ta.); sprout, shoot (ma.); kurunnu id. (Ma.); kurul.e plantain sprout (Ka.); kurumbo 'n:kurah..(Skt.)(DEDR 1791). Image: leaf: cf. kur..ai tender leaf, sprout, shoot (Pur-ana_. 50); kur..ai-tal to fade, languish, become spoilt, as flowers or twigs (Kur-al., 90); kur..ai-kar-i vegetable curry softened by boiling (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: new shoot, sprout: ko_r-a a shoot; sprout, first sprout (of paddy after planting); ko_r-u new shoot, fresh stalk, stem, or bud; new, green, immature (Kui); kor.ung new shoot, sprout (Pa.); kor.un young shoot (Ga.); kor.i leaf-shoot (Go.); kor.ta month of Bhadra_ (Aug.-Sept.) when new paddy is worshipped (Go.); kr.ogi fresh, new (of leaves)(Pe.); kor.gi newly sprouted, green, immature, unripe (Kui); kor.gari (pl. kor.gai) new shoot, fresh stalk, something green, immature, unripe (Kui); ko_r.a kod.a to sprout (of paddy)(Kui); ko_na bud (Kui); go_n.i sprout, offshoot (Kui); khrogi ko_ma a soft twig (i.e.soft, young, tender)(Kuwi.) [cf. ko_ma branch (DEDR 2115)]; kr.o_gi immature, young (Kuwi); xo_r leaf-bud, new leaves, fresh and tender leaves of vegetables (Kur.); xo_rna_ (xu_rya_) to shoot out new leaves (Kur.); qoro Indian corn when green (Malt.); qoroce to sprout (Malt.); xarring to sprout (Br.); xarrun green, blue, black and blue; fruitful (Br.); xarruni_ greenness, wife (Br.)(DEDR 2149). kora- (Skt.); ko_raka- bud (R.); bud, sheath (Pali); ko_raya, ko_rava bud (Pkt.); kuru bud, tender leaves (Si.)(CDIAL 3527).

2568.Bastard sago: gorba the salphi tree, caryota urens (Pa.); gorga, gorge, gor.ga, hurga id. (Go.)(DEDR 2131).

2569.A fragrant plant: ko_rinde a kind of fragrant plant; jani, jatu_ke, janani, cakravartini, kal.avige (Ka.); ko_rinde, go_rinte (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. jatu_ke a kind of fragrant tree (Skt.Ka.); jatuke a kind of fragrant substance of perfume; pa_pad.i, pa_pat.e (Tadbhava of parpat.e) a shrub or small tree, pavetta indica (ixora pavetta; ixora tomentosa)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Pavetta indica: papata (Skt.); papari (H.); kukura-chura (B.); papat (M.); pavattai (Ta.); papatakkommi (Te.); pavatta (Ma.); root: bitter, aperient, prescribed in visceral obstructions; pulverized and mixed with ginger and rice-water given in dropsy; leaves: boiled in water and a fomentation made which is used in haemorrhoidal pains; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.187). Pavetta indica: According to Dymock, Warden, and Hooper, the roots contain a green resin... Dymock quotes Ainslie, who says that this plant has a bitter but not unpleasant-tasting root, possessing aperient qualities... Nadkarni reports that a local fomentation with the leaves is useful in relieving the pain of piles. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.925).

2570.Image: buffalo: ka_ra_ [karu-mai + a_] buffalo (Tacaiva_. 380); ka_ra_vu id. (Te.); ka_ra_ id. (U.)(Ta.lex.) ko_r-i buffalo (Kond.a); ko_d.ru, ko_dru_, go_d.ru buffalo (Kuwi); ko_ru, pl. ko_rka buffalo (Kui.); kud.ru id.(Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 2256). kun.d.hi_ crooked-horned (of buffalo)(P.)(CDIAL 3261). kun.d.i_ crooked (of buffalo's horns)(L.)(CDIAL 3260). kud.d.ha_ having horns pointing inwards (L.)(CDIAL 3248). kan.t.i buffalo bull (Tol. Po. 623); ko_t.t.uma_ he-buffalo (Cilap. 15,98); lit. animal with tusks or horns: elephant: ko_t.t.uma_ var..an:kun. ka_t.t.aka ner-iye_ : Ain:kur-u. 282); boar (Cilap. 15,99, Arum.); ko_t.t.umalai lit. tusked mountain, elephant; ko_t.t.uman.-kol. to break up earth with horns or tusks; ko_t.t.in-am herd of buffaloes, as having horns (Ta.) (ko_t.t.in-at ta_yar makan-an-r-e_ : Kalit. 103,33)(Ta.lex.) Image: male buffalo: ko.n.e male buffalo (Ir.); ko_n.a id. (Ka.); go_n.e id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2212).

2571.Milk-hedge: kalla dillenia aurea (Pa.); kalla_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 1316). kal.l.i spurge, euphorbia; milk-hedge, euphorbia tirucalli; prickly pear, opuntia dillenii (Ta.); milk-hedge plant (Ma.); id., euphorbia tirucalli (Ka.); sp. tree (Kod..); milk-hedge; prickly pear, opuntia dillenii (Tu.); milk-hedge, euphorbia tirucalli (Te.)(DEDR 1383).

2572.A plant: kal.l.a name of a plant (Ka.); kal.l. a kind of grass (Tu.)(DEDR 1384).

2573.Image: long hook: kal.l.i a long hook employed to pluck fruits from tall trees and having a small bag at the end so that the fruit might be caught in it without letting it fall to the ground (Tu.lex.)

2574.Declare: kal. be known; kal.ai declare, warn, inform; kal.it known, or perhaps knowledge (Kon.lex.) kalike dissimulation, dissembling (Tu.lex.)

2575.Coffer: kalembi a chest, coffer (Tu.lex.)

2576.Betel-nut: kal.iy-at.aykka the quite ripe areca nut (Ma.); kal.i to ripen well; n. state of being quite ripe; kal.iy-ad.ike a superior kind of betel-nut (Ka.); kal.i-ad.ake the quite ripe areca-nut (Kod..)(DEDR 1380).

2577.Acanthus ilicifolius: kar..utai-mul.l.i holly-leaved bear's breech, acanthus ilicifolius (Ta.); kar..u-mul., kau-mul. a tree whose fibres serve as string (Ma.)(DEDR 1365).

2578.Image: overflow; abundance: kar..i much, great, excessive; (-v-, -nt-) to be great in quantity or quality, be abundant, extensive; kar..iya exceedingly; kar..ivu excess, abundance, surplus (Ta.); kar..i to be excessive; kar..iha exceeding (Ka.)(DEDR 1358). kar..umu (kar..umi-) to be full, complete, abundant, copious, overflow; n. denseness as a tuft of hair (Ta.); krammu to spread, extend, overspread, overflow; kraccu to surround, overspread (Te.); garja (garji-) to spread out, increase, multiply, grow thick and outspreading (Kui)(DEDR 1368). cf. ca_l (ca_lv-, ca_n-r--) to be abundant (Ta.)(DEDR 2470). kar..al to throw away; kar..alu to remove (Ka.lex.)

2579.To send; to subtract: kal.asu, kal.isu, kal.ahu, kal.upu, kal.ipu, kal.uhu to send; kal.e, kal.i to send forth; to throw away; to let go, abandon, leave; to subtract or deduct; to spend as time and money; to go beyond, to cross (Ka.Tu.Ma.); kal.ai (Ta.); kal.uhisuvike sending (Ka.lex.) kolkedean. I sent him; koladean. I sent to him; kol to send (Santali.lex.) ghalln. to send, to remit, to transmit, to forward, to despatch (P.lex.) ka_lna_ act of sending or causing to move (B.)(CDIAL 3091). cf. hallai moves (Pkt.); hallhn.u~ id. (WPah.)(CDIAL 14018). kal.vi subtract, e.g. an account (Kon.lex.) kal.asu, kal.isu to make subtract; kal.aha lessening (Ka.lex.) kar..i-ttal to subtract (Ta.lex.) ghallai, pp. ghallia throws (Pkt.); galu_m I send (Phal.); ghallan. to send (L.); ghalln.a_ (P.); ghaluwa_ something thrown in as extra to a purchase (N.); gha_liba to shake violently, abuse by raking up unpleasant secrets (A.); gha_lai throws (OB.); pours in, puts, places (OAw.); gha_lna_ to throw (H.); gha_lai puts, places, gives (OMarw.); gha_lai places (OG.); gha_lvu~ to thrust in (G.); gha_lan.em. to pour, throw, put (OM.); gha_ln.e~ to pour (M.); gha_lu_ka to put, place (Konkan.i); ghitta poured, thrown; ghattai, pp. ghattiya pours, throws, sends; ghattan.a (Pkt.); ghattan. to pour, drop, spread out (L.); ghattn.a_ to pour, throw, put in or on, wear (P.); gha_tala_ pp. of gha_lan.em. (OM.)(CDIAL 4457). kar..i (-v-, -nt-) to pass (as time, season), slip away (as prosperity, adversity), elapse, become spent, be ruined, expire, die, finish, come to an end, be discharged (as excreta); (-pp-, -tt-) to reject, discard, separate, abandon, deduct, cut off (hair, nails), prune, spend or waste (as time), void (excreta); kar..iccal diarrhoea; kar..ical that which is rejected; kar..inta_r deceased persons, poor or destitute persons; kar..ippu (kar..ippi-) to spend, pass (as time), complete; n. expulsion, rejection, that which is cast aside; kar..iyal departing, that which is cast away; kar..ivu passing (as time), leaving (as a place), discharging (as from the bowels), waste, refuse, deduction, death, destruction; kar..al (kar..alv-, kar..an-r--) to pass away, disappear, be expended (Ta.); kar..iyuka to pass, be spent, be over, live; kar..ikka to make to pass, pass time, live, die, kill; kar..iccal diarrhoea; kar..ippu what is rejected (Ma.); kana.r. (obl. kana.t.-) distant place where no one lives (i.e. ka- + na.r.); kavc- (period of time) passes, disappear from sight, pass successfully over all the difficulties of life; (kod.c-) to disappear from sight, die; kod.c- to make disappear, chase out of sight, drive (buffalo) over hill, finish funeral (To.); kar..i to go or be removed very far, pass away, end, die; make to pass, purge; n. going far, a great distance; kar..ipu to cause to go away, remove; pass or move over, cross; kar..ivu ending, etc.; kar..alisu, kar..alcu to put aside, lose; kal.e, kal.i to send forth, abandon, reject, spend (as time and money), leave behind (Ka.); kayy- (kayyuv-, kayj-) (time) passes; kay- (kayp-, kayc-) to pass (time); perform (ceremony)(Kod..); kariyuni to elapse, expire, pass (as time); karipuni to deduct, subtract, spend, remove; karip, karipelu deduction; kal.eyuni, kal.evuni to lapse, pass (as time), be spent (as money); kalevuni to be deducted; kalepini, kalepuni to subtract, deduct (Tu.); kal.e, kale to remove (Kor.); kay- (ka-) to defecate (Pa.); kar.s- (-t-) to evacuate the bowels (Kond.a); kr.ac- (-c-) id. (Pe.); gr.ah- id. (Mand..); kr.ahpa (kr.aht-) id.; n. evacuation of the bowels (Kui); gr.ah- (gr.ast-) to excrete; gra_ssali (gra_st-) to void dung (Kuwi); xarring to proceed on foot, make one's way (Br.)(DEDR 1356). cf. kat.a (-pp-, -nt-) to pass through; go, proceed, pass (as time, water, clouds etc.)(Ta.); kat.tre to pass, spend time (Malt.)(DEDR 1109).

2580.Corn; threshing floor: khalva (? kharva) a kind of corn, ?ko_raku_ (TS. iv.7.4.2); khalvaka (Kaus'. lxxxii.18) (Vedic.lex.) khalya being in the threshing-floor (TS. iv.5.6.1); threshing floor; khala uncultivated part of land serving as threshing floor, khara; threshing floor (RV. x.48.7); khala-kula kulattha, dolichos biflorus (S'Br. xiv. 9.3.23); khalaja produced in a threshing floor (AV. viii.6.15); kha_ri_ a particular measure (RV. iv.32.17) (Vedic.lex.) khalini, khalye a multitude of threshing floors; khaladha_nya a threshing floor; khala a threshing floor (Ka.lex.) karb tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet (P.); kar.bi_, karbi_ kad.ba_ id. (H.); karb the culm of millet (M.); kad.amba stalk of a potherb (Skt.); kar.amba stalk of greens (B.); kar.amba_, kar.ama_ stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field (Or.)(CDIAL 2653). kastambhi_ prop for supporting carriage-pole (S'Br.); ka_tha~ba_ plantain offshoot, sucker, stole (M.)(CDIAL 2983).

2581.Sugar-cane: karvu, karbu sugar-cane; karvu-vil, karvu-bil a bow of sugar-cane; karvu-villa Ka_ma (Ka.lex.) kabbu the common sugarcane, saccharum officinarum (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2582.Grain-dealer: ka_r..uga, ka_l.uga a grain-dealer; ka_r.. a corn, a single grain; grain, corn (Ka.); ka_l. (Tu.); ka_r.. (Ta.); to have a hard grain as a tree; to be strong in mind, to be resolute, to be pungent = ka_r (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Great millet: ca_t.u unripe grain of great millet (Ta.); ca_t.a id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Agricultural tract: kal.amar inhabitants of an agricultural tract, husbandsmen (Cilap. 10,125)(Ta.); kal.an- agricultural tract (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Bundle: kala_pa bundle, quiver of arrows (MBh.); kalamba crowd (Skt.); kala_pa bundle, sheaf, quiver; kala_paka bundle, string (of pearls)(Pali); kala_va collection, quiver, peacock's tail; kala_vaga a neck ornament (Pkt.); kala_va_, kala_vr.a_ armful, bundle (P.); kala_u group, cluster (OG.); kalamba bunch, cluster, bundle (Si.)(CDIAL 2931). kad.appa collection, bundle (Pkt.); kad.ap bundle of gram etc. picked for drying before stacking (M.)(CDIAL 2652).

2583.Image: attaching: kalana attaching, affixing, joining; kalapu a joined or mixed state; a miscellaneous mass or collection as of materials for a house, for a plough etc. (Ka.); kalape (Te.); kalappai (Ta.); kalappe (Ma.); kalappu mixture etc. (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) kalasu, kalisu to mix, mingle; kalasu mixed or mingled state; kalasanna tamarind or lime juice, gingillie-seed meal, chillies, salt etc. mixed with boiled rice, fried in ghee and eaten as a savory dish; it is often put up for a journey; kalasume_lo_gara a mixture of boiled vegetables to which pepper, salt etc. are added (Ka.lex.) Image: joint of the body: kalavu joint of the body (kalavukkar..i kat.umut.ai : Akana_. 3)(Ta.lex.) Image: joint: kalakku joint (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 6)(Ta.lex.) kala (-pp-, -nt-) to mix, unite in friendship, form friendly or matrimonial alliance with, copulate; kalakku joint; kalacu (kalaci-) to mingle; kalappu cordiality, fraternity, friendship, copulation; kalampakam mixture, combination; kalavu (kalavi-) to mix; n. joint of the body; kalaval mixing, combing; kalavan. mixture of various things, medley; kalavi union, combination, sexual union; kalavin-a_r friends, relations; kalavai mixture, compound; kala_vu (kala_vi-) to mix, join together, unite (Ta.); kalaruka to be mixed, united; mix, mingle (esp. what is dry); kalarcca mixture; kalarppu act of mixing, mixture, adulteration; kalaval mixing, interminging; kalappu the whole, sum (Ma.); kalv- (kald-) to knead, mix (solid in water)(Ko.); kalv- pair-word with elv bone (i.e. joint); gal gu.r. (gu.c-) to join in dense mass (Ko.); kas-f- (kas-t-) to mix (rice and milk, rice and curry), feed (solid food to child)(To.); kali, kale to join, be mixed, come together, meet; kala state of being joined or mixed, of being promiscuous or various; kalaka, kalka mixture; kalapu a joined or mixed state, a miscellaneous mass; kalasu to mix, mingle; n. mixed or mingled state; kalpisu to join, mix (Ka.); kala- (kalap-, kaland-) to knead; kalap kneading (Kod..); kalad.uni to be mixed, kneaded; kalad.a_vuni to mix, knead; kalapuni to mingle, knead; kalappu mixed, kneaded; kalaberak admixture, compound; kalamu grafting; kalka decoction, infusion of any drug (Tu.); kalayu, kaliyu to join, unite, meet, mix, mingle, copulate; kalayika joining, uniting, meeting, union, copulation; kalapu to mix, join, unite, bring together, reconcile; n. mixing, mingling; kalapamu mixing; kalagal(a)vu familiarity, intimacy; kalavan.t.akamu boiled rice mixed with several ingredients; kalavud.u to mix, mingle (Te.); kalay- (kalayt-) to be mixed (liquids, grains); kalp- (kalapt-) to mix (Kol.) kalay- to mix; kalap- id. (Nk.); kali_ta_na_ to meet and embrace, greet; ka_liya_na_ to meet; kali- to meet, be obtained, to meet, join; kalli- to get; kalp- to mix (Go.); kali- (-t-) to meet, come together, be mingled; kalp- to mix (Kond.a); kalhali, kalhinai to be mixed, mingle; kalpali, kalpinai to mix; kal- (-h-) to mix together; kalp- (-it-) to mix; kalvi a_ to be united together; kalh- (-it-) to copulate (Kuwi); khalna_ to dilute, mix with water or other liquid (Kur.); avakalkana mixing (Skt.)(DEDR 1299). Combination: kalampakam mixture; compound; combination; miscellany; perfumed ointment containing several ingredients (Tiv. Tiruppal.l.i. 5); kalacutal to mingle (Ta.); kalasu id. (Ka.); kalan-ai parts, as of a sacrifice (Ta.); kalavai mixture, compound; mixture of different kinds of food, scraps, leavings; perfumed paste (Kampara_. Kat.iman.ap. 51); kalan-irukkai, kalavirukkai store-house (Cilap. 5,7)(Ta.lex.) Image: perturbation: kalan:kal turbidity, muddiness (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 37); muddy water; perturbation; toddy (Pur-ana_. 298,1)(Ta.); kalan:kutal to be stirred up, agitated, ruffled, as water (Tiv. Periyati. 6,5,1)(Ta.); kalagu (Te.); kalan:ku (Ka.Tu.); kalan.n.u (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Paste: cf. khali paste (Pali)(CDIAL 3845). cf. khalva_r.a_ threshing floor (L.)(CDIAL 3843). kal.i pulpiness, state of being mashed (Akana_.86); thick pulp, liquid paste (Kampara_. Mitilaik. 80); clay (Cilap. 3,96, Urai.); kal.ippa_kku boiled areca-nut covered with thick paste; areca-nut boiled and dried (Pata_rtta. 1441); id. (Ma.); kal.impu ointment (Pais.aja.)(Ta.lex.) Incense; a mixture in medicine: cf. kalka viscous sediment (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 2939). cf. kalan:kal turbidity (Ta.)(DEDR 1303). kal.i thick pulp, liquid paste (Ta.); thick pap or paste (Ma.)(DEDR 1378). kal.l.am morbid matter in a boil or in the system (Ta.); kal.l.a, kal.l.e thick phlegm (Te.)(DEDR 1382). kalaka, kalka mixture; a mixture in medicine (of unboiled ingredients) (Ka.); kalaku the state of being turbid, turbidness; kalaka ni_ru turbid water; the o_kal.i (Ka.lex.) kalka the viscous sediment deposited by oily substances when ground; a kind of tenacious paste; incense; levigated powder: ta_m lo_dhra kalke_na hr.ta_n:ga taila_m (Skt.lex.) Sediment: khala sediment, dregs, the deposit of oil etc. (Ka.lex.) kalka viscous sediment (Ya_j.); impurity, sin (MBh.); ka_kab decoction of bassia latifolia flowers boiled thick (mahua)(G.)[cf. kal. toddy (Ta.)(DEDR 1374)]; ka_kam sugarcane juice boiled to paste (G.); ka_kvi_ molasses (G.); ka_ki_, ka~_ki_, ka_kvi_, ka~_kvi_, ka_khvi_ molasses (M.); kakka oily sediment deposited by oily substances when ground, paste (Pali); paste to smear on the body for removing dirt (Pkt.); sin (Pkt.); kakku paste as foundation for face-powder (Pali); kakkaba a partic. state of sugarcane juice during boiling (Pkt.); kakar.u sugarcane juice (S.); kakko_, kakyo_ heated sugarcane juice (L.)(CDIAL 2939). kalkin having sediment, turbid, foul, wicked (W.); kakkiya meat (Pkt.); kaki wearied, vexed (?S.)(CDIAL 2940). Perfumed paste: cf. kalavai perfumed paste (Kampara_. Kat.iman.ap. 51)(Ta.lex.) kalavai-c-cantan-am sandal paste prepared with the addition of many aromatic substances (Parata. Pa_va. 23, Urai.); kalavai-c-ce_r-u id. (Tiva_.); kalavai-ni_r fragrant solution for ladies' baths (Man.i. 28,6)(Ta.lex.) kalayan-a_r a canonized S'aiva saint; cf. kun:kiliyakkalaiyar (tan:kan.avan-a_r kalayan-a_r : Periyapu. Kun:kiliyak. 9)(Ta.lex.) cf. kalkam < kalka medicinal pill prepared by mixing dried drugs with milk or water (Pais.aja.)(Ta.lex.) kala-ttal to mix, unite, join; to commingle, combine; to be absorbed (Tiruva_ca. 32,1); kalayu (Te.); kalasu (Ka.); kala (Tu.); kalan:ku-tal to be stirred up, agitated (Tiv. Periyati. 6,5,1); kalagu (Te.); kalan:ku (Ka.Tu.); kalan.n.u (Ma.); kalakku id. (Pur-ana_. 41,16); kalakuva (Te.); kalaku (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

2584.Image: copulation: kalavi sexual union (Cilap. 7,24, Kat.t.urai); kalayika union, combination (Te.); kala-ttal to copulate (Kur-al., 1276)(Ta.lex.) kalappu copulation (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2585.Image: arrow: kal.amba, kalamba an arrow (Ka.lex.) Image: trident: ka_l.am trident; impaling stake, kar..u (Ta.lex.) kar..u stake for impaling criminals, sharp-pointed pieces of wood strung around cow's neck; trident (Ta.); stake for impaling malefactors (Ma.); kar..uku id. (Ma.); ko.w point, pointed stick, wooden skewer used by Kotas, peg (To.); kar.., kar..u an instrument for perforating an elephant's ear (Ka.)(DEDR 1361). Image: perpendicular lines: kal.aga any one of the pieces of wood which are perpendicularly inserted in the pieces of timber at either side of the platform of a cart or car (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

2586.Image: crab: kal.avan- crab (Kalit. 88,10); kal.van- crab (Ain:kur-u. 21); cancer of the zodiac (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) ka_l.va_ shackle (M.); kala_va_ embrace (H.P.); kala_va (Pkt.); kala_pa (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 313). Image: crab: kul.ir crab, lobster; cancer, a sign of the zodiac; the month of a_t.i; kul.iram crab; kuli_ra crab (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kupi crab (Kond.a.Pe.Kuwi); kuppi id.(Kuwi)(DEDR 1734). Pierce: kul.i (-pp-, -tt-) to pierce (as an arrow)(Ta.); kul.ipuni to sting (as an ant); xulling to pierce, stab (Br.)(DEDR 1833). cf. kuli_ra crab in: kuli_ra-pa_daka a crab-footer, i.e. a (sort of) bedstead; a bedstead with curved or carved legs; esp. when carved to represent animal's feet (Pali.lex.) Image: crab; pincers: cf. kur-at.u crab; pincers, forceps; korad.u a kind of pincers (Te.)(DEDR 1843). Tightening: karla the pin fixing the two shafts of a bullock cart together in front; kar.kar.ao to tighten; karkas tight; kar.kar.i a lever with which a rope is tightened by twisting (Santali.lex.) karv- (kard-) (rope) becomes tight; (kart-) to tighten (knot)(Ko.); kar-- (kar-0-) to become tight; kar-f- (kar-t-) to tighten (To.)(DEDR 1399). Image: pincers: kar-por-i clamp-iron, iron brace, iron pincers, par-r-irumpu (Pin..); machine mounted on a fort (Ci_vaka. 102)(Ta.lex.) ka_ru pincers, tongs; pat.a-ka_ru id. (Ka.lex.) graha seizure (TUp.); gra_ha holding (AV. xi.8.12); gra_hya to be grasped (RV. x.109.3); gra_huka seizing (TS. vi.41.1)(Vedic.lex.)

2587.Leather: khalla leather, leathern garment (Skt.); little case of rolled paper, etc. (Sus'r.); khalla, khallaka some sort of stuff for shoes (Pali); khalla_ leather (Pkt.); khallaya shoe or sandal of leather, bag (Pkt.); kal, k.al skin (Gypsy); xal sack (Gypsy); khal leather, skin of a living being (K.); khala skin, bark, rind, leather (S.); khalo shoe (esp. in connexion with beating)(S.); khall, khal untanned hide (L.); khalla_ beating with a shoe (L.); khall skin, hide (P.); khalla_ shoe (P.H.); khalla_, khalli bellows (WPah.); kha_l skin (Ku.); hide (Bi.Mth.); skin, bark (G.); skin, hide (usu. in connexion with beating)(M.); skin, leather, bellows (H.); kha_lo skin (opp. to leather)(N.); kha_lla_ skin, leather, bellows (H.); kha_lu~ leather (G.)--Extension with -d.-: khalar skin bag (Bshk.); khalir small skin bag (Bshk.); khala_r.u skin bag for grain (Phal.); khaluru a dried skin (K.); khaluru small piece of dried cumpled skin (K.);; khalar.i_ skin (S.); khallar. leather bag (L.); a dry hide (P.); khalr.i_ untanned hide (L.); skin, foreskin (H.); sheepskin (Bi.); khallar.i_ a dry hide (P.); khalr.a_ hide (H.); kha_lr.i_ skin, bark (G.)--Deriv. khalan.u to flay (S.); khaliya_na_ (H.); khalvan:g bellows (L.); khulln.a_ to flay (P.)(CDIAL 3848). kale_vara the body (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kal.e_param < kale_bara body (Te_va_. 1194,2); corpse (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Barge; leather: kha_l barge, leather (M.G.H.); khal (S.K.); khall (P.); xar sack (Romany. Armenian Romany); khalla_ carma (OM.)(Bloch, p. 322).

2588.Bridle: khali_na bridle; khali_nan yojeti to bridle (Pali.lex.) ki_r.. bridle, rein, bit (Ta.); bit of a bridle (Ka.)(DEDR 1620). Girdle: kal.a_vam girdle (S.I.I. ii,180)(Ta.lex.) kala_pa rope round an elephant's neck (Skt.); kala_wa_ band round an elephant's neck in which the driver places his feet (H.); kila_vo id. (G.); kala_va_ (M.); kal.a_va_, kal.va_ hobble (consisting of a rope tying two legs of the animal together)(M.); kala_paka string (of pearls)(Pali); kala_vaga a neck ornament (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2931). kal.ar neck; blackness (Ta.lex.) Tie-rope: ka_l any of the tie-ropes (used in tethering cattle), any string of the rope network in which pots, etc. are suspended from a beam or from a carrier's pole (Ta.)(DEDR 1482). Image; harness: kappana_ fixing a horse's harness (Pali)(CDIAL 2943).

2589.Image: pommel of a saddle: kalan.ai-k-karat.u pommel of a saddle (Ta.); kalan.ai-va_r girth of a saddle; kalan.ai saddle (Tiruppu. 405); kalan-ai horse-saddle (Ka_cippu. Nakara. 17); cf. khali_na (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

2590.Image: foetus: kalalam < kalala thin membrane covering the foetus (Cu_ta. Ja_n-a. 10,9)(Ta.lex.)

2591.Ornaments; encumbrance: kalan- encumbrance (S.I.I. i,104); kalan--aracu (kalam +) the paramount of all ornaments, ta_li, the marriage badge; kalan--kar..i-mat.antai lit. woman who has given up wearing ornaments; cf. kalam jewel, ornament (Pur-ana_. 6,15)(Ta.lex.)

2592.Image: strand of hairs of tail: kala_vam < kala_va (Pkt.) < kala_pa peacock's tail (Pur-ana_. 146,8); kala_pam id. (Cir-upa_n.. 15)(Ta.lex.) kalapam peacock's tail-covert (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Tirupperun. 13)(Ta.lex.) ka_l a strand of hairs of the tail of the bos grunniens; a strand or lock of hair (in plaiting) (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

2593.Perfumery: kal.apam perfumery, kalavai-c-ca_ntu (Iraku. Irakuvur-. 26); mixture (Cu_t.a_.); mortar, cement, kal.akam = lime mortar (Te_va_. 112,3); cf. kala-ttal to mix, blend (Kur-al., 1276)(Ta.lex.) cf. kal.l.an. gad.ale, kallan. gad.ale = e_lava_luka, aile_ya perfume from bael (Ka.lex.) cf. kalampakam perfumed ointment containing several ingredients (Tiv. Tiruppal.l.i. 5)(Ta.lex.) kala_vutal to mix, join together, unite (Kur-icip. 48)(Ta.lex.)

2594. Image: mortar: khalva, khalla stone for grinding drugs on (Skt.); khal mortar for pounding drugs (N.A.B.); khala (Or.); khal (G.M.); kharal (N.H.G.)(CDIAL 3851). kalvam, kaluvam < khalla small stone slab for grinding drugs, apothecary's mortar for macerating with a pestle (Tailava. Taila. 33); cf. khala (Pkt.) (Ta.lex.) kallural stone mortar (Ta.); kalloral (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) khalabata_, khalabatta_ a metal or stone mortar and pestle or mullar (M.) kalabatta, kalpattu, kalbattu (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kal.apam mortar, cement (Ta.lex.) Boat: kelek a raft floated on a large number of inflated skins for floating cargo used in Mesopotamia. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 180). To calk a boat: kala-p-par-r-u calking of a boat (J.); kala-p-par-r-u-k-ka_ran- one whose occupation is the calking of ships, boats etc., calker (Ta.); kala-p-par-r-u-t-to_n.i calked boat, surf-boat, the seams of which are formed by joining planks without lapping (W.); kala-p-par-r-u-p-pa_rttal to calk a boat; kalappar-r-ul.i calking-iron; kala_yi < galai_ (U.) tin used for tinning vessels (Ta.lex.) Sacred ashes: kar-pam sacred ashes prepared according to A_gamas from cowdung received directly from the cow, by hand; yellow wood-sorrel, pul.iya_rai; medicine to promote longevity (Ta_yu. Paripu_. 13); cf. kalpa (Skt.); kar-pa-ca_tan-ai strengthening the body by the use of medicinal drugs etc., to promote longevity (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Indra's grove: kar-paka-c-co_lai < kalpaka + Indra's grove (Pin..); kar-paka-na_t.u Svarga, as the country where the kalpaka grows, the word of celestials (Tirukko_. 40); kar-pam the world of gods (Pin..); abode of peace, as chosen by gods or men (Ci_vaka. 600, Urai.); kar-pa-cu_ttiram treatise in the form of aphorisms dealing with details of sacrifices, rituals and general rules of conduct, one of six ve_ta_n:kam (Ka_cippu. Can-r-. 41)(Ta.lex.) Medicinal pill: kar-kam residuum or sediment of decoctions, oil or ghee; medicinal drug; kalkam medicinal pill prepared by mixing dried drugs with milk or water (Ta.lex.) kalaka, kalka mixture; a mixture in medicine (of unboiled ingredients)(Ka.lex.) kalikkam pungent eye-salve used as a stimulant to revive a person who is in an unconscious condition, or to cure a person of chronic headache (Ta.); kalikamu (Te.); kalikam id. (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 68); kalin:kam id. kalikkampana_yan-a_r a canonized S'aiva saint, one of 63 (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Paste to smear on the body: kalka viscous sediment (Ya_j.); impurity, sin (MBh.); ka_kab decoction of bassia latifolia flowers boiled thick (mahua)(G.)[cf. kal. toddy (Ta.)(DEDR 1374)]; ka_kam sugarcane juice boiled to paste (G.); ka_kvi_ molasses (G.); ka_ki_, ka~_ki_, ka_kvi_, ka~_kvi_, ka_khvi_ molasses (M.); kakka oily sediment deposited by oily substances when ground, paste (Pali); paste to smear on the body for removing dirt (Pkt.); sin (Pkt.); kakku paste as foundation for face-powder (Pali); kakkaba a partic. state of sugarcane juice during boiling (Pkt.); kakar.u sugarcane juice (S.); kakko_, kakyo_ heated sugarcane juice (L.)(CDIAL 2939). kalkin having sediment, turbid, foul, wicked (W.); kakkiya meat (Pkt.); kaki wearied, vexed (?S.)(CDIAL 2940).

2595.Medley: kalavan- medley, hotch-potch, mixture of various things (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kala_pa a collection; a multitude; an assemblage; an ornament (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To mix: kalavu-tal to mix (Cu_l.a_. Ci_ya. 230); kalattal to mix, unite, join; to commingle, combine (Tiruva_ca. 32,1); kalayu (Te.); kalasu (Ka.); kala (Tu.); kala-ttal to mix, blend, compound, amalgamate (Kur-al., 1276); to appear, to come into being (Te_va_. 473,1); to get close together (Kantapu. Karan-. 68); kalavin-a_r friends, loving associates, relations (Tan.ikaippu. Tiruna_t.t.u. 142)(Ta.lex.)

2596.To smear: gel, geli, gelu to bring into contact with, to apply to (the body, as a fragrant substance)(Ka.lex.) kalhat to daub on the person as oil; kalhatadinae he daubed me (with oil)(Santali.lex.) kalampuka to anoint the body with perfumes (Ma.)(DEDR 1303). galvanava_ to apply one thing to another, smear on the body, daub, dye, cause to sink (Si.)(CDIAL 4457). kalka viscous sediment (Ya_j.); dirt (Skt.); impurity, sin (MBh.); kakka oily sediment deposited by oily substances when ground, paste; kakku paste as foundation for face-powder (Pali); kakka paste to smear on the body for removing dirt; n. sin (Pkt.); kakko_, kakyo_ heated sugarcane juice (S.); kakkaba a partic. state of sugarcane juice during boiling (Pkt.); kakar.u sugarcane juice (S.); ka_kab decoction of bassia latifolia flowers boiled thick; ka_kam sugarcane juice boiled to a paste; ka_kvi_ molasses (G.); ka_ki_, ka~_ki_, ka_kvi_, ka~_kvi_ molasses (M.)(CDIAL 2939). Sediment: ga_l. sediment (G.); ga_l., ga_l.a_ dregs after straining (M.); galutu state of being expended (K.)(CDIAL 4142). Oil-cake: khali, khal oil cake; khar.i half-cooked (P.lex.) cf. khali_ oilcake (Car.); khala (Sus'r.); khala oilcake (Pali); khali paste (Pali); khali_, khaliya_ refuse after pressing oil seeds, oilcake (Pkt.); khal, khuju (K.); kharu, khar.u (S.); khal. (L.P.); khali oil sediment (N.); khalihai oil-cake (A.); khal, khail (B.); khal.i oilcake, oil sediment, flour paste, starch (Or.); khari_ oilcake (Bi.); khali_, khalli_ (H.); khal.i_ (Marw.); khol. (G.); khal. starch prepared from wheat; khali_, khalli_ oilcake (M.)(CDIAL 3845).

2597.Image: dog: ka_le_yaka a dog, hound; ka_le_yaru a dog (Skt.lex.)

2598.Image: swan: kal.akam Hamsa, swan (Tiv. Periyati. 6,9,10, Vya_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kalaham.sa a kind of goose or swan with greyish wings (Skt.Ka.lex.)

2599.Image: lower part of thigh: kala_ the lower part of thigh (TMB. xix.5.6)(Vedic.lex.) kalatra, kal.atra the hips and loins (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2600.Image: trap: kallat.a_r trap for tigers and other animals (Nar-. 119)(Ta.lex.)

2601.Image: frog: ka_lu_ram frog (Catu.)(Ta.); s'a_lu_ra (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

2602.Image: tortoise: kalli, kalla_mai starred tortoise, testudo geometrica (Ta.lex.)

2603.Image: to bite off: kalge to break off a part with the teeth (Malt.); kalke to bite off (Malt.); kalagna_ (kalgas/kalgyas), kalakna_ (kalkyas) to bite so as to disable, open or unhusk with the teeth (Kur.)(DEDR 1315).

2604.Image: die with one dot: kali the losing die with one dot (AV.); the iron age (AitBr.); the unlucky die, bad luck (Pali)(CDIAL 2933). Image: flow: kali-ttal to trickle, flow gently (Vaira_k. Cata. 43)(Ta.); skhal (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: knob: kallai knob in wooden sandals (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

2605.Image: sluice; calingula: kalan:kal calingula of a tank (Ta.lex.) kalun:ku, kalicu, kalun:ku sluice or water-weirs for surplus vents; kalinkilu sluice-weirs (Ta.); kalun:ku culvert (Ma.); kalu~ju sluice, flood-gate (Ta.)(DEDR 1309). kal.in:kam sluice or water weirs for surplus vents; waterway constructed in the bund of a tank to permit the escape of surplus water so as to prevent the bursting of the tank from overfulness of water, now usually set with upright stones to admit of partial binding up of water (Ci_vaka. 2476); kalicu id. (S.I.I. i,95)(Ta.lex.). kur..imi sluice; calingula (English)(Ta.lex.) Image: rivulet: ka_l, ka_live, ka_luve, ka_lve, ka_vale a water-course, a channel; a brook (Ka.); ka_lava_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) ka_la_r-u rivulet, stream (Te_va_. 1227,3); ka_la_l. one who attends to the supply of water from channels for irrigation purposes; ka_lva_y a channel branching from a river or tank, for irrigation (Pa_rata. Mutar-po_. 72); ka_luva id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Jamuna river: kal.intai < kalinda-ja_ the river Jamuna (Iraku. Ma_lai. 100); ka_l.inti Jamuna (Ta.); ka_lindi (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

2606.Estuary: kaya-va_y estuary (Malaipat.u. 528); kayam sea (Upate_caka_. Vipu_ti. 201); depth (Ta.Ma.); kayam tank, lake (Man.i. 24,84); kaya-k-ka_l channel issuing from a spring; river channel (S.I.I. i,87); kaiyam water; sea (Ta.lex.) Lagoon; marsh: ka_yal backwater, lagoon, mouth of an ebbing stream, salt-pans (Ta.); backwater, lagoon (Ma.)(DEDR 1463). ka_yal stretch of salt water close to the coast and separated from the sea by sand spits (Ta.); id. (Ma.); mouth of an ebbing stream; a village in Tinnevelly district once a famous port at the mouth of the Ta_mraparn.i, where Marco Polo landed (Tan-ippa_. i,238,9)(Ta.lex.) ka_n-al seashore, salt marsh, salt-pan, saline soil, gravelly soil (Ta.); ka_nal sandy barren land (Ma.)(DEDR 1508). kar..i sea-arm, ebbing brook, salt marsh (Ma.); backwater, shallow sea-waters, salt river, marsh, saltpan (Ta.); kal.appu shallow part of the sea (Ta.); kal.ar saline soil, alkaline earth (Ma.); saline soil, bog; kal.ari saline soil (Ta.); kayl.- (kal.c-), kal.c- to taste salty; kayl.kc-, kal.cgc- to oversalt (Ko.); k(r)ayya canal (Te.); kallar saline soil (Br.)(DEDR 1359). kalaru salt soil (S.); kalara_t.hu impregnated with salt (S.); kallur salt barren soil (L.); kallar (P.)(CDIAL 2954). kha_la_r.i salt factory (B.)(CDIAL 3674).

2607.Image: black monkey: cf. kalai male black monkey (Ta.)(DEDR 1312). kalai male black monkey (Tol. Po. 601, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2608.Image: male elephant: kal.apam < kalabha young elephant (Cilap. 25,49)(Ta.lex.) cf. kal.ir-u male elephant (Man.i. 18,140); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

2609.Farmer: kalam.bi_ farmer (OG.) [kalapa materials for a plough, timber for buildings (Te.); kalappai plough, ploughshare (Ta.)[cf. hala (Skt.)]; kalappa plough and what belongs to it (Ma.); kalapu materials for a house, for a plough, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 1304)]; kan.bi_, kal.mi_, kalmi_ m., kan.ban., kal.man. f. (G.); kul.a~bi_, kun.bi_ peasant (M.); kul.a~bi_n., kun.bi_n. his wife, female domestic slave (M.)(CDIAL 3235). sek to plough (Nk.)(DEDR 2748). ce_r plough (Ta.Kol.); se_r, he_r (Go.); he_r set of plough and bullocks (Pe.); he_ru plough (Kuwi); cereyakul pair of bullocks (Pa.); e_r plough with draught oxen (Ma.); a_r, e_ru pair of oxen yoked to a plough (Ka.)(DEDR 2815). araka a plough with bullocks, etc. complete (Ta.); are a plough (Malt.)(DEDR 198). Plough: karu plough (Ma.); kari, karivi, karuvi id., tool, weapon (Ma.); karuvi instrument, tool (Ta.)(DEDR 1290). { -r- softens to -l-; and -p- is added to connote a collection:} Plough and materials for plough: kalappai plough, ploughshare (Ta.); kalappa plough and what belongs to it (Ma.); kalapu materials for a house, for a plough (Ka.); kalapa materials for a plough, timber for buildings (Te.)(DEDR 1304).[The semantics of group, cluster: kalamba bunch, cluster, bundle (Si.); kala_pa bundle, sheaf, quiver (Pali); kala_paka bundle, string (of pearls)(Pali); kala_va collection (Pkt.); armful, bundle (P.); kala_u group, cluster (OG.)(CDIAL 2931). cf. alaka roll, bundle (Pali); curl (Pali.Skt.)(CDIAL 694).] kalam plough; a measure of capacity. kala-vittu-p-pa_t.u land sufficient in extent for sowing one kalam of paddy (Ta.lex.) kalan-ai plough (Tiva_.); cf. hala (Skt.); kalam plough; weapon (Pat.t.in-ap. 70)(Ta.lex.) Tail: ku_lam tail of a quadruped; cf. la_n:gula (Ta.lex.)

2610.Place of work: kal.ari barren uncultivated ground; jungle, battle-field (Ta.lex.) kal.am level place for spreading grains for drying (Ma.); kava.l ground in front of house (Ko.); xall piece of land suitable for tillage (Kur.); qalu field on the hills (Malt.)(DEDR 1376). kal.ari place of work or business (Tiva_.); arena (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Threshing floor; granary: khala threshing floor (Skt.Pali. Pkt.); khalade (NiDoc.); ko_l (Wg.); khal (Dm.Wot..Gaw.K.B.); khal. (M.); ka_l (Pas'.); khol (Kho.); kha_l (Phal.); kharo (S.); khalo (N.); khal.a threshing floor (Or.); khal.u~ (G.); kala (Si.); khari_ uncovered enclosure for storage of grain (S.); khalo threshing floor (Ku.N.); khala_ place cleared for cooking, etc. (A.); khal.i_ threshing floor, granary (G.); khal., khal.e_ threshing floor (M.)(CDIAL 3834). khall threshing floor (WPah.); khalla_ (H.); khalya being on the threshing floor (VS.); fit for a threshing floor; khalya_ a number of threshing floors (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 3847). khaliha_n granary, farmyard (N.); khariha_n threshing floor (Bi.Mth.); khariha_na id. (OAw.); khaliha_n, khaliya_n id. (H.); khaladha_na threshing floor (Skt.); khulha_n (P.)(CDIAL 3839)[whence, kalya_n.a welfare (Skt.)] kalavit.a threshing floor (Si.)(CDIAL 3841). khalapu_ one who cleans the threshing floor (Pa_n..Pkt.); xalau mouse (Kho.)(CDIAL 3840). khalva_r.a_ threshing floor (L.P.); khalver.a_ id. (P.); khal.va_d.i_ enclosed space containing several threshing floors (M.); khala_r.a_ barn (L.); khal.eva_d.i_ enclosed space containing several threshing floors (M.)(CDIAL 3843). khalya being on the threshing floor (VS.); fit for a threshing floor (Pa_n..); khalya_ a number of threshing floors (Pa_n..); khall threshing floor (WPah.); khalla_ (H.)(CDIAL 3847). Threshing floor; sacred enclosure: kal.am open space, threshing floor (Ta.Ma.); kal.amar husbandsmen, su_dras, slaves; warriors; kal.m place for threshing, dancing (Ko.); kal.a threshing floor (Kod..); kala a square, bed of flowers,etc.; place where pariahs assemble (Tu.); kal.l.amu, (Inscr.) kad.la_mu threshing floor (Te.); kalanu id., war, combat (Te.); kalave workshed in field, threshing floor (Kol.); kal.ave threshing floor (Nk.); kalay id. (Nk.); kali id. (Pa.); kalin id. (Ga.); kar.a_ id., sacred enclosure (Go.); kalam threshing floor (Go.); kar.an, kalam id. (Kond.a); ka_r.a id. (Mand..); klai id. (Kui); kr.anu_, kalo_mi, kr.a_nu, ka_r.nu id. (Kuwi); xall field, piece of land suitable for tillage (Kur.); khali_ threshing floor (Kur.); qalu field on the hills (Malt.)(DEDR 1376). kal.am hall of sacrifice; shallow shelf of rocks at sea, sand-bank (Ta.lex.) kal.ari assembly, court of justice (Ta.lex.) Treasury; granary: kal.ańciyam granary, barn; storeroom, repository, treasury, magazine (Arut.pa_. i, Vin.n.ap. 255)(Ta.lex.); granary, barn, godown, storeroom, repository (Ma.); kal.aji, kalaji, gal.age, gal.ige corn-bin, large basket in which corn is stored; kan.aja id., granary (Ka.); granary, barn (Tu.); kan.ajamu, kan.anjamu id. (Te.); kan:gi receptacle for storing grain (Pe.); kan:ga_ corn-bin (M.)(DEDR 1375). One measure in every 12: kal.ava_cam [kal.am (threshing floor) + va_ram (lease of land for a share of the produce)] wages paid to labourers or inferior village servants at the threshing floor before the division of the produce; grain given at the threshing floor to the workmen, usually 1 measure in every 12. (Ta.lex.) kan. place, site (Ta.); kan.i a place (Ka.)(DEDR 1165).

2611.Granary: cf. kal.aciyam granary, barn (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. khal.u~, khal.i_ threshing floor, granary (G.); khala granary (Skt.)(CDIAL 3834). cf. kal.aciyam granary, storeroom, repository, godown, barn (Ma.); kal.aji, kalaji, gal.age, gal.ige corn-bin, large basket in which corn is stored; kan.aja id., granary (Ka.); kan.aja granary, barn (Tu.); kan.a~jamu, kan.anjamu id. (Te.); kan:gi receptacle for storing grain (Pe.); kan:ga_ corn-bin (M.)(DEDR 1375).

2612.Rice: kalama, kal.ama, kar..ame, kar..ave rice which is sown in May and June, and ripens in December or January; a white rice growing in deep water; vraihe_yas'a_le_ya; kal.ama-stri_ a rice-crop regarded as a woman; kar..ama_-vana a kar..ame field (Ka.lex.) kol.ake, kol.ke the third crop of rice (Ka.); kolake, kol.ake (Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

2613.Land: cf. kar..ani field, paddy field, mud (Ta.); mire, ricefield (Ma.); gad paddyfield (Ko.); gan.n.a a division of paddy-land, a paddy-field; gar..de (inscr.), garde, gadde field, esp. paddy field; gedde field (Ka.); kan.d.o, gan.n.a id. (Tu.); gal.de id. (Bel.); gedda id. (Kor.); gad.d.uva-mad.i wet or paddy land (Te.inscr.); gan.d.u-mad.i id.; gan.d.amu a paddy-field (Te.); gado muddy, slushy, slimy (Kui); gadda_ sediment, alluvium (Kur.)(DEDR 1355). cf. kardama, karda, kardat.a mud (Skt.)(CDIAL 2867-70). khalsa land held immediately from government, lands under the management of government (P.lex.) xall field, piece of land suitable for tillage (Kur.); qalu field on the hills (Malt.); kalave workshed in field, threshing floor (Kol.); kal.am open space, place, threshing floor (Ta.); threshing floor (Ma.); kal.l.i square space, garden bed (Ma.); kava.l. ground in front of house (Ko.); kal.a threshing floor (Kod..); kala a square, bed of flowers etc., place where pariahs assemble (Te.)(DEDR 1376). khala- threshing floor, granary; plate, site (Skt.); khala threshing floor (Pali.Pkt.); khalade (NiDoc.); ko_l (Wg.); khal (Dm.); ka_l, xo_l (Pas'.); khal (Wot..Gaw.); khol (Kho.); kha_l (Phal.); khal (Sh.K.); kharo threshing floor (S.); khari_ uncovered enclosure for storage of grain (S.); khalo, khaw threshing floor; khai wrestling place (Ku.); khalo threshing floor; khaliyo place to stack wood (N.); khala_ place cleared for cooking etc. (A.); khal threshing floor (B.); khal.a, khal.a_ (Or.); khal.u~, khal.i_ threshing floor, granary (G.); khal., khal.e~ threshing floor (M.); kala (Si.)(CDIAL 3834). Fields: ke_li_-vana a pleasure-park, a pleasure-garden (Ka.lex.) ce_lu pl. fields (Te.); kaili field (Te.)(DEDR 1958). xe_xel ground, earth we tread on, soil, floor (Kur.); qqlu the earth, the world, land (Malt.)(DEDR 1993). cf. key crop, paddy plant (Ka.); keyi the crop of paddy (Tu.); keja paddy (Go.)(DEDR 1936). ke_ta place, site (Ka.lex.) khet a rice-field; buhi khet always moist rice-field; sokr.a a valley of rice-field; khetko terraced land; kele, koeyah, koya hor.o, hor.o rice plant (Santali.lex.) cf. ke_da_ra a field under water; meadow (Skt.lex.) cf. gar..de, gardde, gadde_ paddy field (Ka.)(CDIAL 2851). khet, khetar a field under cultivation, a field, ground, land; khetar bhum land fit for cultivation, arable soil; kheti agriculture, cultivation, a cultivated field, a crop; kheti patti, kheti war.i cultivation, agriculture, husbandry, a crop; khetru a small field (P.lex.) khila unploughed land (AV.); khilya (RV.); khila (Pali); khila unploughed or salt land (Pkt.); khili uncultivated land (P.); khil (B.); khil.a (Or.); khil.a_ cairn of stones (M.); khillu fallow; khilli_ land left fallow for a year (WPah.); khi_l waste land broken up for the first time (Bi.)(CDIAL 3885).

2614.Lustre: kal.e, kal.a_, kale shine, lustre; a ray; beauty; a mark or sign; kal.e-gal.e to lose one's lustre; kal.egundisu to make lustre to fade; kal.e-ye_r-u lustre etc. to increase; to increase in lustre; kal.ever-u to attain lustre (Ka.lex.) kalakala brightly (Tu.); kar..kar..isu to shine, to glitter, to be bright; kar..akar..isu, kal.akal.isu to glitter (Ka.lex.) Image: flame: kal.ike a flame (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2615.Image: spear: kal.eya, kan.aya, kan.apa a kind of spear or lance (Ka.lex.)

2616.Image: stick: kol, ko_l a stick; a pole (Ka.lex.) cf. ko_la stick (OM.)(DEDR 2237).

2617.Image: horn: ka_l.e, ka_hale (Tadbhava of kahal.e) a horn; kahal.e, kahal.a_ a metal horn (trumpet) of a long tapering shape, or of a horn-like shape (Ka.lex.) cf. ko_r.., ko_d.u, ko_r..ke, ko_r..kal., ko_r..kil.im, ko_r..ge a horn; ko_r..-kut.t.u = ko_d.u kut.t.u to strike or gore with the horn or with the tusk (Ka.lex.)

2618.Image: ear of corn: galha_ corn (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ko_li stubble of jo_l.a (Ka.); ko_le a stub or stump of corn (Te.)(DEDR 2242). gele an ear of corn as of rice, wheat etc.; to form as ear of grain; to flower, applied only to Indian corn and the matkom tree; gele belek to ripen; hor.o gele an ear of rice; guhum gele an ear of wheat; bar gele gidra en:gat mother of two children; nes do matkom ban. gelelene the matkom did not flower this year; hor.o gele liwefena the ears of rice are bent; gele bale ripe grain, children; nukin do gele bale banukkotakina these two have no children; gele bale tiokena, ohon senlena I cannot go as the grain is ripe (Santali.lex.) galla grain (P.lex.)

2619.Numeral ten: gaXl ten: "the highest monomorphemic number word we can reconstruct for Proto-Munda--is gaXl '10', although it does seem likely that there was a monomorphemic word or a morpheme in Proto-Munda for '20'." Norman H. Zide, Studies in the Munda numerals, Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1978, p.6.] gel ten; gel mit eleven; gel barea twelve; pe gel thirty; pon gel forty; gel khon pea thirteen (Santali.lex.) gal, gad.u, galu, gal., gal.u term, period (Ka.lex.) kala_ a small part (RV.Pali.Pkt.); kala small amount, digit, division of time (Si.)(CDIAL 2926). sakala with parts, divided (MaitrUp.); whole (Ka_tyS'r.); all, complete (Pali); all, every (As'.); sayala all, whole (Pkt.); xayhala (A.); saala (OB.); sayala, sayalau (OG.); siyalu (Si.)(CDIAL 13066). an:gavikala mutilated (Pali); an:gaval maimed, deformed (Si.)(CDIAL 122). nis.kala without parts (Skt.); nikkala id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7477). vikala deprived of a part, mutilated, deficient in (Skt.); vikali_ (Pa_n.. gan.a.); vikala, vikalaka defective, lacking (Pali); viala incomplete (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11623). The whole: kull altogether, entirely; kulkulan. altogether, all in all (P.lex.) kalappu the whole, sum (Ma.)(DEDR 1299). Aggregate: kal.a_sa set of all the parts; the aggregarte, the whole (Ka.); = kad.a_sa a bag (Ka.lex.) cf. kala_- in: kala_hi_na one digit less than full (the moon); kala_nidhi storehouse of digits: the moon (Ka.lex.) cf. kalli a kind of coarse net-work; a bag made of it (Ka.); a bag of net-work, a wicker-work (Tu.)(DEDR 1317). Bag; royal letter: khalita < kharitah (Arabic) a purse, a bag, a packet, a royal letter; kharita a purse, a packet, a bag, a mail; khallar a bag of sheep or goat's skin used for keeping grain, flour, clothes; khalr.u a small skin or hide; a bag made of the dried hide of an animal; khall skin, hide; a dressed goat skin (P.lex.) cf. khalla leather, leathern garment (Skt.); khalar skin bag (Bshm.); khala_ru skin bag for grain (Phal.)(CDIAL 3848). Product of multiplication: sale, salike that is come by: the number resulting from the multiplication of two or more numbers, product (Ka.); sale-gaja a square yard; sale-ma_d.u to find the area by multiplication; to find the number of cubic feet by multiplication; sale-yad.i a square foot; a cubic foot (Ka.lex.)

2620.A grain: kal.ike, kalike a kind of millet; yavana_la, jo_l.a (Ka.lex.) kan.ike, kan.uku the stalk of the great millet when deprived of its ear, either green or dry (Ka.); id., a stick (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ka_r.. seed, stone, nut, kernel, gravel (Ta.); small pebble, gravel, a corn, a single grain, grain, seed (Ka.); ka_l. id. (Ka.); ka.l.i grain (Kod..); ka_l.u a grain as of rice, etc. (Tu.); ka_r. kind of grain called in Halbi ko_don (?Pa.)(DEDR 1493). ka_r..u kad.i corn (Ka.); ka_r..inava a man who possesses corn or sells; ka_r.. to have a hard grain, as a tree; to be strong in mind, to be resolute, determinate; to be sharp, pungent (Ta.); kad.u firmness, strength; hardness (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Grain-dealer: ka_r..uga, ka_l.uga a grain-dealer (?) (Ka.lex.) Drug: kal.acam < kalaja intoxicating drugs like kaca_ (Pirapo_ta. 39,16)(Ta.lex.)

2621.Gruel: ka_lda_, ka_ld gravy, broth (Kon.lex.) ka_d.e a decoction (Ka.); ka_t.a (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ka_t.e, ka_t.i, ka_d.e a kind of fermented pap of jo_l.a or ra_gi, to which butter-milk is added (Ka.); rice gruel (Te.); ka_d.i water in which rice has been washed, kept till it ferments; sour gruel (Ma.); ka_t.i (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kar..i sour gruel (Ka.); kali the water in which rice has been washed, kept until it ferments (Te.); e_r-u kali water and gruel (Kond.a)[eri eleusine coracana (Kod..); ira_ki (Ta.); ra_gi (Ka.Tu.Ma.Te.Skt.)(DEDR 812); ir-at.i Italian millet setaria italica (Ta.)(DEDR 525)]; kali sour rice-gruel (Skt. Yas'astilaka); khali boiled ground rice gruel (Vaijayanti)(DEDR 1379). kuler gruel, pej (Kond.a.Pe.); kuleri porridge made of d.era (eleusine coracana) (Kond.a)(DEDR 1809).

2622.Spirituous liquor: kalal a distiller, a seller of ardent spirits (P.)(P.lex.) kal. toddy, honey (Ta.); toddy (Ma.Ko.Ka.); kal.i intoxication (Ta.); kal.l.u toddy (Ma.Ka.); kallu id. (Ka.); kal.l.i alcoholic liquor (Kod..); kali, kari, kal.i toddy, liquor (Tu.); kallu toddy, palm wine (Te.); liquor (Go.); kal liquor (Kol.); fermented liquor, esp. of mahuas (Go.); kal. id. (Nk.); kar.u, kalu country liquor (Kond .a); kalin liquor (Pe.Mand..); kalu spirituous or fermented liquor, toddy, beer, grog, wine (Kui); ka_ru_ country spirit; mar.a ka_ru_ toddy (Kuwi); ka_d.u toddy (Kuwi); ma_ra ka_d.u sago toddy (Kuwi); ka_r.u liquor (Kuwi)(DEDR 1374). kala_la a distiller or vendor of spirituous liquors (Ka.lex.) kalla_ spirituous liquor (Pkt.); kalya, kalya_ spirituous liquor (Skt.); kad.an:ga id. (Skt.); kalukka_ tavern (Skt.); kal beestings (WPah.)(CDIAL 2950). kad.ati is intoxicated (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 2684). kalyapa_la distiller of spirituous liquor (Ra_jat.); kallava_la, kalla_la distiller (Pkt.); kalawa_l seller of spirits (K.); kala_l distiller and seller of spirits (L.P.); kala_lu (S.); kala_li_ man who boils kodra_-meal for a partic. religious ceremony (WPah.); kalwa_r Hindu seller of country wine (Bi.); distiller (N.); kala_r, kala_l distiller (H.); kala_l (Mth.); Moslem seller of spirits (Bi.); seller of spirits (G.); kala_ri_, kala_li_ seller of spirits (H.); kala_lan. f. (G.); ka_l.an. caste of distillers (M.)(CDIAL 2951). kad.ati is intoxicated (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 2684).

2623.Artful: ga_l.aka a good, proper man (Ka.); ga_l.aku~d.u a clever, ingenious man (Te.)(DEDR 1496). khal artful (H.N.)(CDIAL 3835). Able: kar..i (-v-, -nt-) to be able (Ta.); kar..iyuka to be possible, able, must; kayivu ability (Ma.); kayy- (kayyuv-, kayj-) to be possible (Kod..); kariyuni to be able or possible (Tu.)(DEDR 1357). kalya clever, well, vigorous (MBh.); kalya, kalla (Pali); kalla well, clever; n. health (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2948). kale any practical art, any mechanical or fine art: sixty-four are enumerated, as carpenting, architecture, jewellery, farriery, acting, dancing, music, medicine, poetry etc. (Ka.lex.) kir.an.u to learn a trade (S.); kal.ta_ knows (Konkan.i); kal.at knowingly (M.); kali_am 1 sg. to consider (Sh.); kal.na_ to know, perceive (P.); kal.vu~, kalvu~ to understand, guess (G.); kal.n.e~ to feel, be sensible of (pain), be clear to, be understood (M.)(CDIAL 2918). kalna to know, to understand, to learn, to perceive (P.lex.) kal a machine, any mechanical contrivance, a trap, the spring of a pigeon trap; kal jet.ha, kol jet.ha the part of a pigeon trap on which the decoy bird sits; kol a machine, any mechanical contrivance (Santali.lex.) Count; learn; art, skill, machine: kalayati counts, thinks (S'is'.); ka_layati counts, tells over (MBh.); kale_i, kalai counts (Pkt.); kalyoiki, kali_am to count, consider (Sh.); kal.na_ to know, perceive (P.); kal.iba_ to count (Or.); kal.vu~, kalvu~ to understand, guess (G.); kal.n.e~ to feel, be sensible of (pain), be clear, to be understood (M.); kal.at knowingly (M.); kal.ta_ knows (Konkan.i); kir.an.u to learn a trade (S.)(CDIAL 2918). Consider: ko_lu (ko_li) to commence, effect, accomplish, consider, deliberate, ponder (Ta.); ko_luka to have to do with, use, care for (Ma.)(DEDR 2243). [?cf. kal pebble, stone (Ta.)(DEDR 1298).] Image: small part; digit: kala_ a small part (RV.Pali.Pkt.); kala small amount, digit, division of time (Si.)(CDIAL 2926). kala_ a small part (RV. viii.97.17); kel to split (Slav.)(Vedic.lex.) kal (kar-p-, kar-r--) to learn, study, practise (as arts), acquire skill in the use of arms (Ta.); learning (Ka.); kali a learned man (Ka.); kalike learning, skill (Ka.); kalpuni to learn, study (Tu.); kalvi studying, learning, erudition (Ta.); kal- to learn (Ko.To.Ka.); kalc to teach (Ko.); kalyv education (Ko.Ka.); kalfy education (To.); kalisu to teach (Ka.); kalkka to learn; kala art, science (Ma.); kar-acu to learn, study (Te.); kala an art, a science (Te.); karp to learn, teach (Kol.); karap to learn (Nk.); kari to learn (Go.); kariva_l student (Go.); jap to teach (Pe.Mand..); japa to learn (Mand..); gra_mba to learn, study; n. act of learning, study (Kui); ja_p to learn, to teach (Kuwi)(ja_p- < *gja_p- < *gr-a_p- = Kui gra_p-; likewise in Pe. and Mand..)(DEDR 1297). Art: kala_ any practical art (R.); mechanical or elegant art, skill (Pali.Pkt.); kal skill, machine (K.); kal, kali machine (S.); kal knowledge, news (L.); kal. string attaching warp to ceiling, machine, art, trick (P.); machine, plan (Ku.); kal (N.); machine (B.); kal.a any kind of machinery, trick (Or.); kal machine (B.); kal.a any kind of machinery, trick (Or.); kal European sugarmill (Bi.); kal machine, instrument (H.); kal. scheme, gadget, door-handle, stopcock (G.); any little contrivance to open or shut with, trick, plan (M.); kala dexterity (Si.)(CDIAL 2927). Skill; guess: at.t.a_-sat.t.a_ rough guess (L.); cf. cmpds. containing -kal: at.kal, at.kar guess (H.); at.kal, at.hkal (K.); at.kala (S.); at.kal knowledge, skill, guess (L.); guess (P.); at.gal, at.gaw (Ku.); ar.kal (P.); a~_t.ka_l conjecture (A.); a_t.ka_l (B.); at.akal.a (Or.); at.kal. (G.M.)(CDIAL 183). cf. a~_t.n.o to guess (Ku.); a~_t. guess (Ku.); a~_t.nu to dare, be about to; a~_t. presumption, decision, courage (N.); a_n.t.a pride (Or.); a~_t.vu~ to aim at (G.)(CDIAL 197). cf. anda_z estimate (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_n.avam pride, arrogance, egotism (Ta_yu. Cin-. 3)Ta.lex.) kal. be known; kal.ai declare, warn, inform; kal.ita known, or perhaps knowledge (Kon.lex.)

2624.Image: splinter: kella, kelle a shiver, a little piece of thread or a fibre; kellayisu to splinter; to be troubled; kelle a shiver, a splinter, sigur- (Ka.); celle (Te.); cilli (Ta.); calli a chip (Ta.Ma.); kelleged.e to go into splinters (Ka.lex.)

2625.Readiness; to trim; to decorate: kaidu weapon; keydu-ka_r-a soldier (Ka.)(DEDR 2027). keydi the state of being dressed, accoutred, or decorated (Ka.); ceyti behaviour, demeanour (Ta.); key trim, decoration etc. (Ka.); kai (Ta.Te.); gai (Te.); tai to adorn (Ta.); cey redness, straightness, rectitude, regularity, properness; ceppam straightness etc.; cir-appu an ornament, elegance; cir-a to be choice etc.; cevai, cevvai = cey straightness etc.; cer..umai beauteousness; cet.i splendour (Ta.); keygay, keygey to make ready; to trim, to adorn (one's self etc.)(Ka.); kaice_y, kaise_y (Te.); kai pun-ai (Ta.); keygeyyu, keygeysu to cause to trim or adorn (Ka.); keygeyha, -keyha, -geyha preparing; getting ready etc.; keynir-i to be nicely arranged (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Decoration: kai (-pp-, -tt-) to decorate, adorn; n. decoration, dressing (Ta.); kai, kay, key trim, decoration; keydi state of being dressed or decorated (Ka.); kai-se_yu to adorn, ornament (Te.); kai-se~_ta adornment, ornamentation (Te.); ki_va (ki_t-) to put on (clothes, shoes, ring); pl. action ki_pka (ki_pki-) (Kui)(DEDR 2024). Fragrant substance for decorating the body: keygat.t.i a fragrant substance for decorating the body; keygat.t.igol. to take that fragrant substance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2626.Image: elephant's trunk: kai elephant's trunk (Ta.); kai, kayyi id. (Ma.); kay, kayi, kayyi, key id. (Ka.); ceyi, ceyyi, ce_yi id. (Te.); kaju, kagu (pl. kaka) id. (Kui)(DEDR 2023).

2627.Image: hand: kai hand, arm (Ta.Ma.); kaju, kagu id. (pl. kaka)(Kui) kay id. (Ko.Kod..Ka.); ke_yu_, ke_yu, keyyu, keyu (pl.keska), kayyu id. (Kuwi); xekkha_ id. (Kur.); koy id. (To.); kayyi id. (Ma.Ka.); key, kayi id., forearm (Ka.); kayyu the hand (Ma.); kai id. (Tu.Te.Go.); kaju, kagu (pl. -ku) hand, arm; elephant's trunk (Kui); kay hand (Go.); ke_lu, kai id. (Te.); kiy id. (Mand..) key id. (Pa.Pe.); qeqe id. (Malt.) ki_, kiy, kiyyu_ id. (Ga.); kiyu, kivu id. (Kond.a); ce_yi, ceyyi, ceyi hand, arm (Te.); ki, key, ki_y, kiyu hand, arm (Kol.); ki_ (pl. ki_lku, ki_kul) hand (Nk.); kagu (pl. kaka), kaju hand, arm; elephant's trunk (Kui); kaju (pl. kaska) hand (Kui);(DEDR 2023). kis.ku forearm (R.); handle of axe (Ta_n.d.yaBr.); kukku a measure of length (?cubit)(Pali); kus'k single armful (Kho.)(CDIAL 3191). Groin: kis'k groin (Kho.)[cf. Lith. kirks'nis flank, groin](CDIAL 3191).

2628.Image: hand: kay hand (OKa.); s'aya the hand (Skt.); kayi, key, kai, kayyi the hand (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2629.Decoration: kay, key decoration (Ka.lex.)

2630.Field: kay, key a field (Ka.lex.)

2631.Image: ladle: kayyil ladle, spoon (Ma.); ki_li ladle (Kurub.); kailu id., spoon (Tu.)(DEDR 1257). kala_cika spoon, ladle (Skt.); kale_c spoon (Bshk.)(CDIAL 2929). Small ladle: kai-t-tut.uppu small ladle used in stirring liquid food (Ta.lex.) Image: churning: kay, kai churning; kayko_l a churning stick; kayyal.e buttermilk (Ka.lex.) kad.ecalu turning with a wheel or lathe (Ka.); kad.a, kad.e, kay, kad.eta churning (Ka.); kad.ago_lu a churning stick; kad.ago_lumara the cross at the bottom of a churning stick; kad.ago_lu-hagga the churning string; kad.aha churning; kad.e to churn (Ka.Ma.Tu.); kat.ai (Ta.); ciluku (Te.); kava, kavva churning stick; kavar to churn (Ta.); kavva churning stick (Te.) (Ka.lex.) kat.aka a circle or wheel (Skt.lex.) khaj to churn, agitate; khajaka a churning-stick; khajika_ a ladle or spoon; khajapam clarified butter, ghee; khaja a churning-stick; agitating, churning; khaja_ a churning-stick, ladle; churning, agitating, stirring (Skt.lex.) Image: ladle: khajike, khajikha, kajika a ladle, a spoon; kaja_ka, khaja_kha, kacika id.; khajikham, kajikam (Ka.lex.) kacitam small ladle (Pin..)(Ta.); khaja_ka_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) khaja a ladle; stirring, churning; a churning stick (Ka.lex.) cf. kat.ai to churn (Ta.lex.)

2632.Image: fish (carp): ken.t.ai a freshwater fish, barbus (Ta.); ken.t.a a carp, cyprinus (Ma.); gen.d.e-mi_n a sort of fish (Ka.); gen.d.e a fish (Te.); gan.d.e a fish (Te.); gen.d.i, gen.d.iya, gen.d.e the carp, cyprinus fimbriatus (Te.); kin.d.o_ a species of fish (Kur.); kindo_ injo_ carp fish (Kur.)(DEDR 1947). ka~_t.i_ a kind of fish (G.)(CDIAL 2679). {gan.d.e, gen.d.iya, ken.t.ai carp (DEDR 1947) > kayal carp (DEDR 1252). This concordance (and possible phonetic change) finds a remarkable parallel in the homonymous etyma: 'ladle, spoon'. gen.t.e spoon, ladle (Te.)(DEDR 1267) > kailu ladle, spoon (Tu.); kayyil id.(Ma.); ki_li ladle (Kurub.)(DEDR 1257)}. kayal carp, a tank fish, cyprinus fimbriatus (Ain:kur-u. 36); kayar--ken.t.ai a kind of ken.t.ai fish (Ta.lex.) Image: fish, boatload of fishes: kai, kayi_, koi the climbing fish (B.); kavayi_ , kavika_ the fish cojus cobojus (Skt.); kai, kau the fish anabus scandens (Or.); ka_wai the fish anabus (A.)(CDIAL 2959). campa a fish, boat-load of fishes (Ma.); campai fish (Ta.)(DEDR 2348). ?> ce~_pa fish (Te.)(DEDR 1252). kayal, ce_l carp (Ta.); a fish, cyprinus (Ma.); kayyan a river fish (Ma.); kakka fish (Te.); ce_pa fish (Te.); kaye fish (Kol.); kayye (pl. kayl) fish (Nk.); key sp.fish (Pa.); ki_ke small fish (Go.); cf. kai-, ke- in Skt. kaivarta, kevarta fisherman; Pali.Pkt. kevat.t.a fisherman (CDIAL 3469)(DEDR 1252). koro piece of fish (S.)(CDIAL 2960). Fisherman; trading trip: ke_ve_t.an = ?ke_varta fisherman (Ta.)(ke_ve_t.an-a_ki-k-kel.ir-atu pat.uttum : Tiruva_ca. 2,17)(Ta.lex.) ke_vu (Ta.Te.Tu.) charge for transporting goods by sea; freight (Ta.lex. < Urdu). cf. kai-, ke- in kaivarta (Mn.); ke_varta fisherman (VS.); kaivartaka (R.); ke_vat.t.a, kevat.a (Pali.Pkt.); keot. a class of S'u_dras in Assam (A.); keot., keat. the fisherman caste (B.); keut.a a class of fishermen and boatmen (Or.); kyot. man of the fisherman caste (Mth.); khewat., khewat.iya_ boatman (H.); ke~wat. boatman (Bhoj.); kewat. fisherman, boatman (H.); khevat., khevat.iyo helmsman (G.)(CDIAL 3469). kaivarti_ya pertaining to a fisherman (Skt.); keut.e pertaining to the caste of fishermen (B.); keut.ia_ (Or.)(CDIAL 3479). kabbiliga, kabbeya boatman, fisherman (Ka.); kabbili toddy-drawer (Te.)(DEDR 1227). {cf. Pali lexicon which compares the ke- prefix in keda_ra: the prefix ke- suggests an obsolete noun of the meaning 'water' as also in kebuka (water, river), ke-vat.t.a; perhaps ks.vid, ks.vedate (Skt.) to be wet, ooze? ke would the be k(k)ed, and kedara = ked + dr., bursing forth of water, inundation; kevat.t.a = ked + vr. moving on the water, fisherman. There is a Dravidian noun which may explain the prefix ke- water:} kaya swamp, deep, depth (as of water)(Tu.); kasa, kassa pool, tank (Go.); kayam sea, water, tank, depth (Ta.); depth (Ma.); kar..am depth, body of water, tank (Ma.); kaya deep place in a river (Ka.)(DEDR 1251). ka_yal backwater, lagoon, mouth of an ebbing stream (Ta.); backwater, lagoon (Ma.)(DEDR 1463). ka_sa_ra pond, tank (Skt.Pkt.); kaha_r lake (L.)(CDIAL 3139). ka_nal seashore, salt marsh, saltpan, saline soil, gravelly soil (Ta.); sandy barren land (Ma.)(DEDR 1508). kevat.t.a-ga_ma in which to be reborn, is punishment, fishermen being considered outcast; name of a brahmin minister (Pali lex.) kauda_lika a fisherman, a man of a mixed caste (Skt.lex.)

2633.Rope, string: kayal string (Ma.); kayir-u rope, cord, string (Ta.); kayar-u rope, cord, coir (Ma.); cakari, cekari, ce_ri coconut husk and fibres (Ma.); ki.r-na.n. rope (Ko.); ke.ri rope (Kod..); ce.ri coconut fibre, coir (Kod..); ce_ri fibre (Tu.); ce_ru sting, cord (Te.); ce_r-u, in: ce_r-u-ko_la whip (Te.)(DEDR 1254). selli rope (Pkt.); selhi_ hair rope (S.); id., rope for tying calf when milking cow (L.); sehli_ id. (L.); selhi_ necklace of thread or hair (P.); seli_ id. (P.); hair cord tied from neck to feet of calf when milking cow (Bi.); thread necklace (H.); string of tinde (G.); seli pendant, chain (N.); sel hair cord (Bi.); selo rope to tie hind legs of cow when being milked (G.)(CDIAL 13591). ki.r.na.n. rope (Ko. cf. kiran.a ray of the sun (Skt.); in a number of etyma the parallel between the rope and the ray of the sun is vivid and definitive. e.g., ras'mi (Pali.RV.)]

2634.Freight: ke_l.vu charge for transporting goods by sea; freight (Ta.); ke_vu id. (Te.Ma.Tu.); ke_vu < khewa_ (U.); khewa a boatman; the cargo of a boat (P.lex.) Certificate of despatch: se_l, s'e_l to go, move (Skt.lex.) cela_n- < cala_n (H.) certificate of despatch (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) cf. cel (celv-, cen-r--) to go (Ta.)(DEDR 2781). celavu separation, departure (Akana_. 191); celavu journey (Kalit. 10); expedition of an army (Pu. Ve. 9,37, Urai.); provisions needed for consumption; celavet.uttal to purchase provisions from a store (Ta.lex.)

2635.Image: eagle: kelur..an- < garud.a Garud.a (Ci_vaka. 1926)(Ta.lex.) garud.a_ eagle (Kon.Skt.lex.)

2636.Image: to investigate: ke_l.-tal to investigate (Ta.Insc. Co_r..ava. 66); to hear, hearken, listen to (Tol. Po. 513)(Ta.); ke_l. to hear (Ka.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

2637.Certainly: khalu certainly (RV.); khalu, kho_ (Pali); kho (As'.); khalu, khu (in cmpd. -kkhu), hu (Pkt.); khu emph. particle with pron. e.g. okhu, te_khu (WPah.); eku_ even one (OG.)(CDIAL 3846). na khalu by no means (R.); nakhu, n.ahu (Pkt.); nohla emph. no (Kho.); nayal (Sh.)(CDIAL 6922). ma_ khalu not at all (Skt.); makhu nay, but, moreover (P.)(CDIAL 9992). kharents, kharots certainly; kharo certain (Kon.lex.) ekacca certain; ekantan. certainly (Pali.lex.)

2638.Genealogy: kalian., kalyan. the enumeration aloud of the names of one's ancestors by a family mirasi (P.lex.) kulaji, kuluji, kulaci, kuluci genealogy (B.)(CDIAL 3337). cf. kalya_n.a beautiful, lucky (RV.)(CDIAL 2952). kalya_n.a a festival (marriage); gold (Ka.lex.)

2639.Meat: kalia, kalya < qalyah (Arabic) meat, flesh; a curry (P.lex.) kakkiya meat (Pkt.); kalkin having sediment, turbid, foul, wicked (Skt.)(CDIAL 2940). kaul.ika, kaulika (Tadbhava of kaut.aka) a butcher (Ka.lex.)

2640.Wealth; private treasury; prosperity: ke_r..pu blessing (Tikruvirut. 45, Arum.); ker..pavar blessed persons (Tiruvirut. 45); ker..tta abundant (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,1,7)(Ta.lex.) kallian., kallyan. welfare, happiness, salvation (P.lex.) celavu marriage presents (Ta.lex.) celvam, celvu wealth, prosperity, beauty, happiness; celvan- wealthy man, lord; celvi wealthy woman, lady of rank, Laks.mi_; celvikkai luxury, affluence; cellam opulence, prosperity, private treasury (as of a king); cellan- wealthy person (Ta.); cellam wealth (Ma.)(DEDR 2786). celva-p-porul. wealth, riches; celvi lady of rank (Ka_cippu. Talavi. 29) (Ta.lex.) Payment of loan; note of payment: cel payment of loan; loan, debt; note of payment; cel-vaittal to enter a credit in account; to endorse payment; cela_van.i-c-ci_t.t.u negotiable instrument (Cen. xii,283)(Ta.); celavu expense, charges (Civaraka. Cukamun-i. 41)(Ta.); selavu (Te.Ka.); celavu (Ma.) (Ta.lex.)

2641.Sundry articles of commerce: cillar-e, cillar-a, cilr-e smallness; pettiness; fractional quantities; money under the value of a rupee (Ka.); cillara (M.); cillar-ai (Ta.); cillar-e (Ma.); cillare (Te.); cilla_n-am (Ta.); cilla_na, cilva_na (Ma.); cillar-a-karcu the nondescript petty expenses (Ka.M.); cillar-ajinasu sundry small articles of commerce, as grain etc. excluding cloth (Ka.); cillar-e dha_nya sundry grains, generally exclusive of rice and ra_gi; cillar-e-yan:gad.i a shop of sundry articles, as rice, pulse, oil, ghee, etc. with the exclusion of cloth (Ka.lex.) cf. cil small, slight (Kantapu. Val.. 209)(Ta.lex.)

2642.Pheasant: kolsa the common pheasant (P.lex.)

2643.Image: sluice: khali an aqueduct, a drain; khal a drain, an aqueduct, a gutter, an inlet, a hollow or cutting big or litttle made by water; kulh a brook, a rivulet, a canal (P.lex.) cf. khalla trench, creek, canal (Skt.)(CDIAL 3849).

2644.Image: groove: khal a groove; the depression along the spine of a fat man or horse; khaldar grooved (P.lex.) ka_lan:g, ka_lan:ga_ fulcrum (Kon.lex.)

2645.Image: shrike: kulan:gg the name of a bird, the king crow, the fork-tailed shrike (P.lex.)

2646.Image: crest: kalgi a feather worn in a cap or turban, a crest, a plume; kalgidar having a kalgi on the head; kalgi a kind of snake, cobra; kalan:gga, kalan:ggi a crest, a crop, a cock's comb, a tangle of hair on the top of the head (P.lex.) khol., khol.a_ hood (of the head)(Kon.lex.) khol. hooded cloak (M.); holu cloth cap covering the cheeks, helmet (S.); kho_la a kind of hat (Skt.); helmet (Skt.); kur cap (Kt.); kur. (Par.); kereti (Av.); kho_lat.a_, xolat.ek cap (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3942). cf. khol sheath, case (P.); covering (Ku.)(CDIAL 3944). kula_ hood of a snake (A.); kulya winnowing basket (Skt.)(CDIAL 3350).

2469.Anvil: kuraga an instrument of goldsmiths etc., a sort of anvil (Ka.); khura_rya_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

2647.Anvil; image; mouldkarava_yi an instrument of braziers: the anvil on which vessels are hung to be hammered (Ka.Te.); kharava-i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. karuvi instrument, tool (Ta.)(DEDR 1290). cf. karu embossed work, bas-relief (Ka.); karukku, karukkuve_lai (Ta.); karukkuvan.i (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kalbut a mould, a form; an image; kalbuti made with a mould or form (P.lex.) karuvid.u to put bosses or raised figures; to mould, to model (Ka.lex.)

4052.Anvil: d.a_gili an anvil (Ka.); d.a_kallu, da_gali (Te.)(Ka.lex.) nehae, ni~ha~i an anvil (Santali.lex.)

2648.Image: arch: kalbuti arched; kalbuti darwajja an arched door (because an arch is built on a temporary frame erected for the purpose)(P.lex.)

2649.Silken thread covered with gold or silver: kala_batu, kala_patu silken thread covered with gold or silver (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Gold or silver thread: kalabatu gold or silver thread (P.lex.) kal. a quantity or skein of cotton yarn (Ka.lex.)

2650.Image: mortar: kalabatta, kalpattu, kalbattu a metal or stone mortar and pestle or mullar (Ka.); khalabata_, khalabatta_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) Lapidary: kallukka_rar lapidaries, irattin-am vir-po_r (Ta.lex.)

2651.Image: to churn; to mix, to stir: pa_hul a Sikh initiatory rite involving the stirring of a bowl of sherbet (P.); praghu_rn.a turning round or rolling violently (Skt.)(CDIAL 8487). gho_la mixing, stirring together; buttermilk (Ka.lex.) cf. gho_layati mixes, stirs together (Skt.)(CDIAL 4526). gholan. to mix, to stir, to dissolve, to melt (P.lex.) kalila mixed, blended with; kalita mixed (Skt.lex.) kala_na_ to shake up, mix, shuffle (H.)(CDIAL 2919). sam.kalayati heaps together (Sus'r.); san:kalana addition (Pali); sam.kalia collected together (Pkt.); sa_ga_lnu to collect together (N.)(CDIAL 12822). cf. sam.galai melts, meets, is joined (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12848). kalan.n.uka to be mixed; kalakkuka to mix (Ma.); kalg- (kalgy-) to be mixed, confused in relationship; kalk- (kalky-) to mix (Ko.)(DEDR 1303). kalan:ku (kalan:ki-) to be stirred up; kalakku (kalakki-) to confuse; kalakkam, kalakku being agitated (as surface of water); kalan:kal turbidity, muddiness, muddy water; kala_vu (kala_vi-) to be pertured, confused (Ta.); kalur.. (-v-, -nt-) to become turbed (as water); n. weeping, muddiness; kalur..cci, kalur..vu sorrow, weeping; kalur..i disturbed water, puddle, flood, tears, confusion; kalir.. (-v-, -nt-) to weep, be troubled in mind; n. muddy water; kalacuka to be disturbed (Ma.); kalk muddy (of water); gal gu.r.- (gu.c-) (storm) is violent and unceasing (Ko.); kalx- (kalxy-) to be stirred up (water so that it becomes muddy); kalk- (kalky-) to stir up (water so that it becomes muddy); kas-k muddy (of water)(To.); kalaku, kalan:ku to agitate, shake, perturb, make turbid, stir up, disturb; kalakisu to perturb, stir; kalaku turbidness; kalad.u to be shaken or perturbed, become turbid, muddy, unclean; kalumbu to perturbate, make turbid; n. turbidness, contamination, defilement; kaluhe turbidness, impurity (Ka.); kalan:g- (kalan:gi-) to be stirred up; kalak- (kalaki-) to stir up, churn; kalak stirring up (Kod..); kalan:ku, kal.an:ku turbidness, muddiness; kalan:kuni, kal.an:kuni to be turbid; kal.an:ka_vuni to render turbid; galjuni to confuse, disturb (Tu.); kalagu to be in agitation, confusion or trouble, be turbid (as any liquid); kala~cu to stir, agitate, disturb, trouble, make turbid; kala~ka, kala~kuva confusion, trouble, turbidness; kala~ta turbidness (Te.); kallih- to shake (bottle etc.)(Go.); glahpa (glaht-) to mix by stirring, stir, confuse, perplex, confound, cause to be confused, perplex, confound, cause to be confused; n. act of stirring, confusing (Kui); xalaxna_ to disturb, make muddy (as water); xalxna_ to be wet and muddy (Kur.); qalge to disturb (as water); qalgro disturbed or muddy; glye to disturb, stir (as water); glgro muddy, disturbed (Malt.); kalus.a turbid (of water or mind)(Skt.) (DEDR 1303).

2652.Image: sun: kalka severe solar heat (P.lex.)

2653.War: kali perturbation, discomposure, uneasiness, war, dissension, strife (Ta.); kala_y (-pp-, -tt-) to get angry, quarrel; kala_pam disturbance, uproar, raid; kala_m war, battle, rivalry, rage (Ta.); kalas'al, kala_pam confusion, quarrel; kalampuka to get confused, quarrel; kalampal, kalampu uproar, quarrel (Ma.); kalambuni to quarrel, fight (Tu.); kala~ta agitation, disturbance, dissension, quarrel, strife; kalagun.d.u confusion, disorder, tumult, commotion (Te.)(DEDR 1303). khalal disturabnce, prejudice, damage, injury, interruption, confusion, ruin, hiatus; defeat (at cards), overthrow; khaldhu, khaldu commotion, tumult, alarm; khalhbali commotion, tumult, haste; kalkal karna to wrangle, to quarrel, to recriminate; kalihara troublesome, quarrelsome (P.lex.) kala_m < kalaha war, battle (Pur-ana_. 69,11)(Ta.lex.) kali strife, quarrel (MBh.); quarrel (Pkt.); fighting (Sh.); f. pl.: kalye_ (Sh.); kal disturbance, mutiny (P.); quarrel (Ku.N.); kali (B.); kal.i (Or.); kal., kal.i_ (G.); kal. (M.); kele war, fighting (Kt.); ke_le (Pr.); kal.ia_ quarrelsome (Or.) < kalaha (Skt.)(CDIAL 2933). Image: to quarrel: kala jhagr.a, kala jhogr. to quarrel, to wrangle; kharhia kharhi to quarrel with each other; kharhiau to quarrel (Santali.lex.) kali haughtiness, conceit, self-esteem (Kalit. 52)(Ta.); strength, force; spiritedness (Pu. Ve. 12,Ven-r-ip. 14); kalipili quarrel, wrangle (Ta.); galibili id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Foot-soldier: ka_la_l. foot-soldier (Ta.Ma.Ka.); ka_lari id. (Te.); ka_l leg, foot (Ta.Ma.Ka.Kol.); id. (Ga.Go.); id. (Kond.a.); id. (Pe.Mand..Kuwi) (DEDR 1479). ka_l.aga, ka_l.ega fight, battle, war (Ka.); ka_l.aiyan:kam (Ta.); ka_l.agan:gey to fight; ka_l.ega-valage a war-drum (Ka.lex.) cf. ka_l.ai warrior (Ta.Pur-ana_.334); ka_la warfare, war, battle (Kui)(DEDR 1501). Chief of a desert (pa_lai) tract (Ta.lex.) kalin:ga a warrior tribe in Coromandel (MBh.); kaliga, kaligya, kalim.ga (As'.); kalim.ga (Pkt.)(DEDR 2935). kal.in:ga_ a breed of big bullocks imported from the Deccan (Or.); ka_lin:ga belonging to Kalin:ga country (Skt.); the people and country of Kalin:ga (Pali); ka_lim.ga coming from K. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3099). kaliyan- warrior; Tiru-man:kai-ya_r..va_r, who was a warrior before he became a saint (Tiv. Periyati. 5,2,10)(Ta.lex.) X cf. kal.am battle-field; threshing floor (Ta.lex.) kal.amar warriors (Maturaik. 393); slaves (Pu. Ve. 3,15); husbandsmen (Cilap. 10,125) (Ta.lex.) Image: enemies: kalava_r enemies (Pu. Ve. 1,3, Kol.u); kalavar warriors (W.)(Ta.lex.) Fight:{Echo word} ghol wrestling, contention, altercation combat (P.lex.) kalin:ga a warrior tribe in Coromandel (MBh.); kaliga, kaligya, kalim.ga (As'.); kalim.ga (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2935). cf. kalahin quarrelsome (ChUp.); kalahi (Pkt.); kalaihn.a_ (P.); kalya_ha_ (N.); kal.hia_, kal.ia_ (Or.)(CDIAL 2925). cf. kalahaka_ra quarrelsome (Pa_n..); kalahaka_raka (Pali); kaliha_ra_, kalaha_ra (H.)(CDIAL 2924). galgal din, tumult, loud murmuring as of a crowd; galgalao to make a noise, to make a row, din or tumult; gal galao, gal golpo tittle-tattle; gal gul speaking, row, din, noise (Santali.lex.) cf. ko_la_hala uproar (R.Pali.Pkt.); kolha_l. uproar, abuse (M.); koholo, kokoholo uproar (N.); kohal (A.)(CDIAL 3534). For semant. 'abuse' cf. ga_li pl. abusive speech (Skt.Pkt.); id.(N.A.B.)(CDIAL 4145). kalipali, kalipili uproar, disturbance, quarrel, wrangle (Ta.); galaballi, galabili, galibili disorder, confusion; galabe hubbub, clamour (Ka.); galibili disorder, tumult, anarchy; galabu tumult, confusion, noise (Tu.); galibili, galaba confusion, noise, disturbance (Te.); galbaln.e~ to be in commotion; galba_ clamour (M.)(DEDR 1310). cf. kalavaram confusion of mind, perturbation; kalavari (-pp-, -tt-) to be confused, perturbed (Ta.); kal.akal.a, kal.aval.ike agitation of the mind, distress, confusion; kal.aval.isu to be agitated, grieve, be perplexed (Ka.); kal.aval.a confusion (Kod..); anxiety, alarm, sorrow (Tu.); kalavaramu confusion, state of being puzzled or perplexed, anxiety; kalavara-pad.u/po_vu to be confused; kal.aval.amu confusion, perplexity, anxiety; kal.aval.incu to be perplexed, anxious (Te.)(DEDR 1306). cf. kalan:ku to be confused, agitated (Ta.)(DEDR 1303). cf. khalati shakes (Nir.); khalate_ (Sus'r.); khalabhaliya shaken (Pkt.); khalhbala_un.a_ to have pain and rumbling in the bowels (P.); khalbal disturbance (Ku.); khalbala_unu to shake (N.); khalbal disturbance (N.B.H.); khalbala_na_ to be agitated, boil (H.); khal.bal.vu~ to be disturbed; khal.bal. noise (G.); khal.bal.n.e~ to agitate, rinse (M.)(CDIAL 3837). cf. halahala_ exclamation or applause (MBh.); halo, hala~_ attack (S.); halla_ (L.); tumult, noise (P.Ku.N.); id. (B.Or.H.); hallo attack (G.); halla_ (H.); hallapphala confusion (Pkt.); halphal shaking, undulation (A.); halbal, halbhal confusion (H.); halbhal (G.); halcali movement (S.); halcal (Ku.); halla-calla, halcal (N.); halla-khalla confusion (N.)(CDIAL 14017). cf. kal.am, kal.an- battlefield; kal.amar husbandmen, s'u_dras, slaves; warriors (Ta.); kal.am battle-field; kal.ari id., fencing school (Ma.)(DEDR 1376).

2654.A measure of grain: khalmar a measure of grain equal to 10 maunds; khalwar < kharbar (Pers.) an ass load; a measure of grain equal to eight or ten maunds; khalwar.a, khalwer.a a heap of unthreshed grain, a threshing floor (P.lex.) kal.si, kal.se 14 seers (Kon.lex.)

2656.Image: male shark: kal.ir-u male shark (Ta.lex.)

2657.Forked stick for bracing a pot in making pulp: kal.i-k- kavai-k- ko_l forked stick for bracing a pot in making pulp; kal.i kin.t.um po_tu pa_ttiram acaiya_vakai ta_n:kum kavar-k-ko_l (Ta.lex.) Liquid metal: kal.i liquid metal (cempuruku ven:kal.ika l.umir..va : Ci_vaka. 103); clay, kal.i man. (Cilap. 3,96, Urai)(Ta.lex.)

3168.Image: pair; split: ceccai pair or set (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) cf. jatai (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) genja (genji-) to be separated from, divided from, secede; n. separation, secession, schism; pl. action geska (geski-) (Kui); gespa (gest) to separate, make a division between; n. act of separating (Kui); geji frayed, split; geji inba to be frayed, worn out, split (Kui); kinz- (-it-) to be torn, as a cloth etc.; kis- (-t-) to tear (Kond.a); kenj- (kenc-) to be torn; kec- (-c-) to tear (Mand..); genj- (-it-), genjali to be torn; geh- (gest-), gessali (gest-) to tear; gespinai to laniate (i.e. tear to pieces)(Kuwi)(DEDR 1940). cf. kir..i (-v-, -nt-) to be torn, rent in shreds, be split (Ta.)(DEDR 1581). cf. kicri_ cloth, garment (Kur.)(DEDR 1521). ki_r-u to tear; slice, piece (Ta.)(DEDR 1624).

3934.Small dagger: cilla_n.a a small sword of wavy form (Ka.); cilla_d.a, cilla_n.a (Te.); ci_la_ya a small blade of a knife or sword (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3261.Image: hook; hook-swinging festival: citti hook-swinging festival; citti-k-kal stone or wooden pillar set up for hook-swinging (G.Sm.D.I, i,122)(Ta.lex.) cf. cet.il a mechanism consisting of a standing post with a long sweep at its top on one end of which a person under a vow is suspended by a hook fastened into the integuments of his back and, raised high in the air, is swung round (Sm.)(Ta.lex.) sid.i an iron hook; the hook machine (Ka.); sed.i (Tu.); sid.i a hook or goad; the hook machine (Te.)(DEDR 2761).

3267.Image: fish-scales; outer bark of trees: cetil, cetil. fish-scale, outer bark of trees; cital. fish-scales (Ta.); cetumpu, cetumpal, cettal scales of fish (Ma.)(DEDR 2768). Fin: cet.t.ai fin, wing, feather, plumage, shoulderblade (Ta.); cet.t.upa, cat.t.upa wing (Te.)(DEDR 2764).

3272.Ear of corn: s.is.a ear of corn (Phal.); sisa_ ear of rice emerging from stalk (Or.); sis-kat.ni_ cutting ears without stalks (Bi.); si_s, si_sa_ ear of wheat (Mth.)(CDIAL 12497). sit.o ear of corn (S.); sit.t.a_ (L.P.); sit.o, sit.ho dry twig (N.)(CDIAL 13396). kit.t.ha corn field (Skt.)(CDIAL 3449). ci_t.t.ai, ci_t.t.ai-k-katir ear of corn in the second growth (J.)(Ta.lex.) Grain (in general): si_tyam. rice, corn, grain; si_ta_naka peas (Skt.lex.) si_tya corn (Skt.); s'ili_ millet (Kal.); siri barley (Kho.)(CDIAL 13431). ci_ttiyam grain (Ta.); cf. sasya (Ta.lex.) Provisions, food: siddha prepared (of food)(Mn.); cooked (Pali.Pkt.); si_dho undressed provisions (S.); sidhro dried rotten fish (N.); xidha_ raw food supplied to a guest (A.); sidha_, sida_ (Or.); si_dha_ (Bi.); sidha_ provisions, food (Mth.); si_dha_ uncooked food (H.); si_dhu~ undressed provisions (G.); s'idha_ undressed rice or corn and fuel to cook it (M.)(CDIAL 13401). sidhyati is well cooked (Skt.); sijjhai is cooked (Pkt.); sijhan.u be cooked or seethed (S.); xiza_iba to cook (A.); sijhiba_, sijiba_ to be boiled (Or.); sijha_, sija_ (B.); si_jhab (Mth.); si~_jhal to cook (Bhoj.); si_jhna_, sijhna_ to be boiled, be seethed (H.); sijhvu~ be burnt (G.); s'ijhn.e~, s'ijn.e~ to be cooked by boiling (M.); s'ijta_ cooks (Konkan.i); hideyi is cooked (OSi.); idenava_ to ripen, mature (Si.)(CDIAL 13408). Rice: siktha boiled rice from which water has been poured off (Sus'r.); lump of rice in a ball (Skt.); sittha lump of boiled rice (Pali); sittha, sitthaya a preparation of rice (Pkt.); sito a cooked grain of rice (Ku.); sito crumb (esp. of boiled rice)(N.); si_th boiled rice (Mth.); a single grain (Aw.); rice water, rice gruel (H.); si_t grains of cooked rice (G.); s'i_t a grain of boiled rice; s'itd.i_ lump, clot (of buttermilk, curds, blood, etc.)(M.); s'i_ta rice (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13389). Uncooked food, provisions (supplied to a guest): si_dho undressed provisions (S.); xidha_ raw food supplied to a guest (A.); sidha_, sida_ (Or.); si_dha_ (Bi.); sidha_ provisions, food (Mth.); si_dha_ uncooked food (H.); si_dhu~ undressed provisions (G.); s'idha_ undressed rice or corn and fuel to cook in (M.); siddha cooked (Pali.Pkt.); siddha prepared (of food)(Mn.) Semant. X siddha acomplished (Skt.)(CDIAL 13401). sidhyati is well cooked (Skt.); sijjhai is cooked (Pkt.); sijhan.u to be cooked or seethed; to seethe (S.); xiza_iba to boil, cook (A.); sijha_, sija_ to be boiled (B.); sijhiba_, sijiba_ (Or.); si_jhab (Mth.); si~_jhal to cook (Bhoj.); si_jhna_ to be boiled, be seethed; sijhna_ (H.); sijvu~, sijvu~ to be parboiled, be scorched, be burnt, be distressed (G.); s'ijhn.e~, s'ijn.e~ to be cooked by boiling (M.); s'ijta_ cooks (Konkan.i); hideyi is cooked (OSi.); idenava_ to ripen, mature (Si.)(CDIAL 13408). cf. usi_jhna_ to cook by boiling over a slow fire (H.)(CDIAL 1884). X su_d make ready (Skt.); su_da, su_daka cook (Pali); su_a (Pkt.); su_-det.a head cook (Si.)(CDIAL 13566). su_dana making successful (RV.); su_das'a_la_ kitchen (Skt.); uyana-geya kitchen (Si.)(CDIAL 13567). su_dayati makes ready, makes fit (RV.); huyanava_, uyanava_ to cook (pret. hivuva_, ivuva_ < su_dita)(Si.)(CDIAL 13568). cf. su_di stale (of cooked rice)(Kol.)(DEDR 2745). cf. sidhro dried rotten fish (N.)(CDIAL 13401). sidhu, sidhu-sa_ma_n undressed provisions taken on a journey, given to a mendicant or guest (G.lex.) siddha boiled, cooked (P.lex.) sittha lump of boiled rice (P.lex.) sidh departure; sidh karna_ to depart (P.lex.)

3264a.Image: to gore with horns: s'itt to pierce with horns (Nk.); citt- to but with horns, gore (Pa.); sit- (sitt-) to thrust into hole, gore (Kol.); sit- to gore with horns; to pierce; citt- to insert (as flowers into a braid)(Ga.)(DEDR 2527). git- to penetrate, pierce; gitup- to bury (Nk.); git- to prick, pierce, penetrate (thorn, etc.)(Go.)(DEDR 1550). cf. s'ita whetted, sharp (RV.); sita sharp (Pali); sia (Pkt.); cya (Kt.); ci_l edge, sharp; cilaka sharp (Kal.); hiya, iya, i_-ya arrow (Si.)(CDIAL 12438). kedaku to stir, scratch (as fowls), dig up or loosen earth (Ka.); kettu dig slightly (Ka.); kot- (koty-) to dig earth with hoe (To.); ket- (kety-) to dig with hoe or other digging tool (Ko.); cettuka to dig slightly (Ma.)(DEDR 1953).

3905.Image: ravine deer: silib, sileb the Indian gazelle or ravine deer, gazelle bennetti, also sometimes, the buck which is generally called gand.ua, gend.ua, gind.ua or merom-silib (Mu.lex.) s'el.i, s'el.iye lamb (Kon.lex.) cital., citl.a_ deer (Kon.lex.) jel a deer; ghot.rec jel id.; badar. selep ravine deer (Santali.lex.) le_t.i, le_d.i antelope (Te.)(DEDR 476).

3278.Image: spotted antelope: cital spotted deer (N.B.); ci_tal spotted; axis deer (H.); ci_tal. a spotted snake (G.); cital. spotted antelope (M.); cittala (Konkan.i); citrala variegated, spotted antelope (Skt.); cittala spotted (Pkt.); citla_ id. (P.H.)(CDIAL 4809). iralai stag, kind of deer (Ta.); eral.e, erale antelope, deer, incl., for example, the black and spotted antelope (Ka.); eral.e antelope, deer (Tu.); iri pl. irulu stag (Te.inscr.); ir-r-i antelope (Te.); le_t.i, le_d.i id. (Te.)(DEDR 476). citramr.ga spotted antelope (Skt.lex.)

3167.Image: he-goat: s'el.i, s'el.ye sheep (Kon.lex.) ceccai he-goat (Pur-ana_. 286); sheep (Ja_n-a_. Pa_yi. 5,12); aries of the zodiac (Vita_n-a. Nalvin-ai. 9)(Ta.); tcutcu (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

2713.Image: barking deer, wild goat: ke.l.e, ko.l.e barking deer (Ir.); ke.yi id. (A_lKu.); ke.y wild goat (Ko.); ko.g barking deer (To.); ke.me id. (Kod..)(DEDR 2016). Image: ewe: kel.i sheep; ewe three or four or more years old (Kho.); *kaid.ika_ (ka_-, e_d.a-) a small sheep (CDIAL 3476). cf. kelmuva deer (Si.); kr.s.n.amr.ga black antelope (MBh.)(CDIAL 3454). kul.ar.u to howl, yell (Ta.); kel.ar to cry out, roar (Ka.); kil.ir to sound, neigh (Ka.)(DEDR 1831). kil.avu word, speech, language (Ta.); kel, kell to tell (Go.); kelpa to invoke, petitition, a deity, repeat incantations (Pe.); kle_ga sorcery, witchcraft; to enchant (Pe.); kre_cali to crow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2017). kulai (-pp-, -tt-) to bark (as a dog), talk incoherently; kulaippu barking, snarling; kulavai chorus of shrill sounds (Ta.); kula_kula_ imit. of barking (Ma.)(DEDR 1811). cf. kalai stag, buck, male black monkey (Ta.); kalan.-kompu stag's horn (Ta.); kala stag, buck; kalan.-kompu stag's horn (Ma.); kal a.r. Nilgiri ibex (Ko.)(DEDR 1312).

4509.Image: pial: cin, tin., tin small open veranda; dinn hillock, eminence (Tu.); tin.n.a, tin.a terrace, raised bank, open veranda (Ma.); tin. raised seat (Ko.); sleeping platform (To.); din.n.e, dinne a raising ground, eminence, bank, islet; tinE veranda (Ka.); tene outer veranda (Kor.); tinniya, tinne, ti_niya, ti_ne pial; dinne, dinnia, tinne pial; high raised embankment (Te.)(DEDR 3227). tin.n.ai pial, a raised perform or veranda in a house (Ci_vaka. 1126); mound; tin.n.aikkuntu edge of the tin.n.ai; a small pial (Ta.lex.) hi_n roof (Gaw.)(CDIAL 266). Image: coping of a wall: tene the upper part or coping of a wall, the top of a rampart merlon of a fort (Ka.); tene-gone the parapet on a rampart, or the top of a merlon (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4510.Ram: tin.n.akam ram; ram of the turuva_t.u variety: a kind of fleecy sheep; turuvai a kind of fleecy sheep (Malaipat.u. 414) cf. en. strength; e_n.u support; e_n., e_n.am, e_n.ai, e_t.ci firmness, stability (Ta.); e_n.am steadfastness; e_n.u energy, firmness, sability (Ma.)(DEDR 886). Strong person: tin.n.iyan- strong, robust, powerful man; man of courage; strong-willed person (Kur-al., 666); tin.n.an- strong, robust, powerful man; tin.mai strength, power, robustness (Kur-al. 988)(Ta.lex.)

4511.Image: goldsmith's polishing tool: tin.n.akam goldsmith's polishing tool (Cilap. 6,136, Urai)(Ta.lex.)

4511a.Image: a digging tool: t.imni, t.amna, t.amna kud.i, t.amni, t.amni kud.i a kind of digging implement worked in the same way as a kudali or hoe (Santali.lex.)

4643.Image: spotted deer; fat-tailed sheep: thumma_, thuma_ uncastrated ram (N.); thu_ma sexual power, virility (S.)(CDIAL 6105). dumbaka the fat-tailed sheep (Bhpr.); [< dumbak tail (Iranian); duma (Avestan); dum(b) (Persian); lem (Psht.)]; dambe-yer.o fat-tailed sheep (Pas'.); dieme-yer.e (Shum.); dumba_ (L.P.); fat-tailed, fat (B.); sheep (Or.H.)(CDIAL 6418).

4642.Images: tail; back: d.un.d.ri_ short tail of the Thal sheep (L.)(CDIAL 5560). dumar tail (Wg.); duma (Ir.Av.); dumbak (Pahl.); dum(b) (Pers.); lem (Psht.); dumo back, shoulder (Gypsy); dumr, tumt tail (Wg.); dumrei (Kt.); lmu_, demu_ (Pr.); dum)b), duma_, li_m (Pas'.); li_me (Shum.); limot.a (Gaw.); dhamre_i (Kal.); ru_m (Kho.); dumb, dumm tail (P.); dumba (K.); dum (N.); duma (Or.); dom (Mth.); dumb, dum (H.); dum (G.); duma_la_ hind part (M.)(CDIAL 6419). dumas'i~_ tail (Ash.); dumsi porcupine (N.)(CDIAL 6420). tubu tail of an animal (Si.)(CDIAL 13703). Image: tail: dumb a tail; dumba_ a fat-tailed ram (P.lex.)

4934.Image: goat: tul.l.al goat, sheep (Ta.lex.)

4935.Image: gnat: tul.l.al a kind of gnat, water insect (Ta.lex.)

4936.Quick movement: tul.l.al lively or quick movement in verse or singing; tul.l.al-celavu a mode of playing ya_r... (Ci_vaka. 657, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) tul.l.u to hop and run as calves (Tu.lex.)

4762.Rich; image: sheep: turu sheep (Nar-. 169); tura-v-a_t.u a kind of fleecy sheep (Ta.); turuvai id. (Malaipat.u. 414)(Ta.lex.) Image: cowherd: tur-uga_ra a cowherd; an owner of cows; tur-uval.a a cowherd; tur-u-ga_rti, tur-u-val.ti a cowherdess; tur-uva_l.a a possessor of cows (Ka.lex.) tura rich (RV. vii.41.2); turvan act of overcoming, attaining, acquiring (RV. viii.9.13; RV. viii.12.19)(Vedic.lex.)

4796.Image: bandicoot: turappan a bandicoot rat (Ma.); turavu burrowing, mine, hole; tura hole, burrow (Ma.); turu soil dug out in a heap by rats (Pa.); tr-uk- (-t-) (pig) to root up earth with snout (Kond.a)(DEDR 3339).

4789.Image: to bore: tu_rvai-cey-tal to dig up earth; to plough (Patin-o. Tiruvit.aimum. 10); tura-ttal to tunnel, bore (Na_(Ta.lex.) turi_pa victoriously entering; semen entering effectively, forceful seminal fluid (RV. i.140.10; VS. xxi.20); turi victory (RV. x.106.4); tu_rva to advance victoriously (RV. vi.20.3) (Vedic.lex.) turuvu, turi to hollow, to bore, to drill, to make a hole (Ka.Ta.); to grate, to scrape as fruits; to scrape out, as a kernel out of its shell (Ka.Ta.); turumu (Te.); tu_r-u penetrating; tu_r-ugallu a stone that pierces (Ka.); tu_r-u to enter; to enter a hole; to go through a hole or eye as a thread; to penetrate, to pierce (Ka.); tu_r-u, duyyu, du_yu, du_r-u to enter; to pierce, penetrate, go through; to creep in, under or through; to be introduced or inserted; du_konu to penetrate, pierce (Te.); tur-uku, tur-aku, tur-ubu, tur-umbu to force or crowd things into, to scram, to stuff, to cause to enter (Ka.); tur-u (Ta.Ma.); tur-uttu (Ma.); turaku, turugu, tur-umu to insert, stick in, as flowers, cram in, thrust in; to deck the head with flowers (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Image: gimlet: tura (-pp-, -nt-) to bore, tunnel (Ta.); turuvu (turuvi-) to bore, drill, perforate; n. hole (Ta.); turuval boring, drilling (Ta.); turi, turuvu to hollow, bore, drill, make a hole (Ka.); turipini, turipuni, turupuni to bore, perforate, string as beads; turiyuni, turuvuni to be bored, perforated, be strung (Tu.); trupka (< truk-p-; trukt-) to bore, pierce; truspa (trust-), tuspa (tust-) to pierce a hole, breach; tru_va (tru_t-) to be pierced, holed; trunga (trungi-) to become a hole, be pierced (Kui); tu_rna_ to pierce through, perforate (Kur.); tre to scratch out; tun-ga, tun-gr.a hollow of a bamboo or bridge, tube, tunnel (Malt.)(DEDR 3339). Image: chisel: tiruppul.i screw-driver (Ta.); tirupul.i id. (Ka.); tiruppi screw-driver as turning (Ta.); tirukul.i carpenter's plane; turnscrew, screw-driver (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) tur-appan.a-valaku drill-bit (Ta.lex.) tirupu that turns: a screw; an ornamental gold or silver screw; tirupul.i a turn-screw (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tir-appan.am gimlet; turu-p-pan.am, tura-p-pan.am auger, drill, tool for boring holes (Ta.Ma.); tura-p-pan.a-v-alaku drill-bit; auger; drill, tool for boring holes (Ta.); turattal to drive in, hammer down, as a nail (Poruna. 10); to tunnel, bore; turuvu hole; turuvu-ko_l scraping instrument; turuvalaku coconut-scraper consisting of a curved iron-piece set in a block of wood; turuval boring, drilling; turuvutal to bore, drill, perforate (Ta.); id. (Ka.); to churn (Ta.); uruvutal to pierce through, penetrate, as an arrow, a needle (Tiruva_ca. 28,2)(Ta.lex.) turuttu (turutti-) to bulge, protrude; thrust out (Ta.); turuntu (turunti-) to enlarge, as a hole or cavity (Ta.); tur.ikka to project, protrude (Ma.); tur.ippikka to press out (Ma.)(DEDR 3369). To hollow: du. hollow ground at burning-place where pyre is built (Ko.); du.e burial ground (Ka.); dukke obsequies (Ga.); du_ki graveyard, crematory (Kond.a); duger burial place (Pe.)(DEDR 3375). du_ra hole (Ash.); dum-durek smoke-hole (Ash.); kasara-du_ra nostril (Ash.); duri, da_rig smoke-hole (Wg.); dur, durah- acc. pl. door; dura- in cmpd. s'ata-dura- (RV.); du_r door (Pas'.); dure (Nin.. Shum.); du_r house (Kal.); dur (Kho.)(CDIAL 6423). dar cleaving (RV.); cave (K.); cave, hole, hollow in ground (B.); hole, burrow (G.); daro hole, crack (Ku.); daer ditch, canal (Or.)(CDIAL 6188). dula hole (Skt.); dulno hole, cavity, animal's den (Ku.)(CDIAL 6452). turakka to bury, undermine (Ma.); trungu to perish, die (?) (Te.); turge to bury the ashes of the dead (Malt.)(DEDR 3339). [cf. tu_r.u to enter, enter a hole as a mouse; n. penetrating (Ka.)(DEDR 3399-a). tun hole, cavity (Ta.); du_n well-shaft, well, pit (Br.); tu_tu hole (Ka.); tu_t.u hole (Te.)(DEDR 3399-b). tor.alu, tor.ale hole (Ka.); tor.e, d.or.e hollow, hole (Ka.); tor.a, tor.ata, tor.r.a hole, cavity in a tree (Te.); dora hole in tree (Go.)(DEDR 3533). turg (turgy-) to enter into hole, sink into swampy ground (Ko.); turk (turky-) to push through a hole, cram into mouth (Ko.)(DEDR 3367). Sharp crowbar; instrument to bore ola leaf or book: cu_r to bore, pierce, scoop out (Ta.); cu_rvu piercing, boring (Ta.); curi to bore, perforate as in an ola leaf or book (Ta.); instrument for boring ola leaf or book (Ta.); curai a kind of sharp crowbar (Ta.); curi round hole pierced through olas to thread them, the instrument which makes the hole (Ma.); suri to string, bore (Ka.)(DEDR 2685). tu_r to enter (Ta.); tu_r-u to go through a hole or eye, as a thread, etc., penetrate, pierce (Ka.); to enter, penetrate (Te.); turrv to thrust into (Go.); dorra_na_ to penetrate (Go.); turda'a_na_ to pass (a string, thread, etc.) through a hole (Kur.); turs to prod, poke (fire)(Go.)(DEDR 3399). tor-alu, tor-ale hole (Ka.); tor-e, d.or-e hollow, hole (Ka.); tor-a, tor-ata, tor-r-a hole, cavity in a tree (Te.); dora hole in tree (Go.)(DEDR 3533). cu_l (cu_n-r--) to pierce, cut off, scoop, dig (Ta.); cu_r-al, cu_r-r-al, cu_n-r-al scooping, digging out (Ta.); cu_luka to pluck out (Ma.)(DEDR 2734). Image: scraper; to scratch, scrape: cur-an.t.u, curan.t.u to scratch, scrape with fingernail or instrument, erase (Ta.); cur-an.t.i scraper, scrapings (Ta.)(DEDR 1564). To bore: tol. to perforate, bore with an instrument (Ta.)(DEDR 3528). Boring instrument: tirpul.i, tippili a kind of boring instrument (Tu.); tiruppi screw-driver (Ta.)(DEDR 3246). Drill: turappan.am auger, drill, tool for boring holes (Ta.); id. (Ma.); turappan.a-v-alaku id.; drill-bit; turappu driving, hammering; tunnel (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. turappan.am a carpenter's drill, gimlet (Ma.)(DEDR 3339). t.ropan.u to bore the ears or nose, lance a sore; t.ropo runnning stitch (S.); t.opn.e~ to pierce; gimlet (M.); t.opasn.e~ to pierce (M.)(CDIAL 6084). t.upvu~ to pierce, prick (G.); t.upn.e~ to pierce, enter, thrust (e.g. a needle) into (M.); turpa_ to pierce, sew (B.); turupna_ to hem (H.); dupim I sew (Pas'.); tuph (Wot..); du_pe (Gaw.); dup (Sv.); tropu stitching (K.); t.l.upp sewing (WPah.); tuppn.a_ to sew; turupn.a_, truppani_, tarupn.a_ needle (P.); turpan.o to sew a cloth double (Ku.); turup hem (A.);; turpiba_ to make simple long stitches (Or.)(CDIAL 6068). trumpati hurts (Dha_tup.); trumphati (Dha_tup.); trombun to prick with a needle (K.); t.rumban.u to prick, pierce, thrust (S.); tu~pvu~ to prick, pinch, strike, harass (G.); t.umn.i picking, goading (M.); tupati, to_pati, tumpati, tuphati, to_phati, tumphati hurts (Dha_tup.); trup pierce, hurt (Skt.); prastumpati butts (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 6070). t.o_a_ hole, pit (L.P.); t.ov little hole (M.)(CDIAL 6082). tro_pati hurts (Dha_tup.); t.ui_ba_ to lance (boil or blister), poke in the eye (Or.); t.ovin.e~ to prick, pierce (M.)(CDIAL 6083). To strip: tur.uxna_, tur.xa'a_na_ to take the skin off, shell, strip; refl. pass. tur.xurna_ (Kur.); trukking to pluck off, pluck, strip (Br.)(DEDR 3358). To tunnel, bore; image: to be strung: tul.ar-tal to hoe (Kur-un. 214); tul.ar weeds (Perumpa_n.. 201)(Ta.lex.) tura (-pp-, -nt-) to tunnel, bore (Na_.); turappu tunnel (Na_.); turuvu (turuvi-) to bore, drill, perforate, scrape out as the pulp of a coconut; n. hole, scraping, scooping; turuval scrapings as of coconut pulp; boring, drilling (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.); turakka to bury, undermine; turavu burrowing, mine, hole; tura hoe, burrow (Ma.); turi, turuvu to hollow, bore, drill, make a gole, grate, scrape as fruits, scrape out as a kernel out of its shell; n. grating, scraping out, etc. (Ka.); turipini, turipuni, turupuni to bore, perforate, string as beads; tiriyuni, turuvuni to be bored, perforated, be strung (Tu.); tur-umu to scrape with a toothed instrument as the kernel of a coconut; trun:gu to break, fall in pieces, perish, die; t(r)uncu to cut to pieces, tear, break, kill (Te.); turu soil dug out in a heap by rats (Pa.); tr-uk- (-t-) (pig) to root up earth with snout (Kond.a); trupka ( < truk-p; trukt-) to bore, pierce; truspa (trust-), tuspa (tust-) to pierce a hole, breach; tru_va (tru_t-) to be pierced, holed; trunga (trungi-) to become a hole, be pierced (Kui); tu_rna_ to pierce through, perforate (Kur.); tre to scratch out; turge to bury the ashes of the dead; tun-ga, tun-gr.a hollow of a bamboo or bridge, tube, tunnel (Malt.)(DEDR 3339). tun- hole, cavity (Cen. iv,213); tun-pam affliction, sorrow, distress, trouble, opp. to in-pam (Tol. Po. 270); tunpam id. (Ma.); tun-pu id. (Tol. Po. 184)(Ta.lex.)

4023.Image: pincers: ca_van.am barber's pincers for extracting hair of the nose; goldsmith's pincers (Ta.); sra_van.amu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cimat.ige, cimat.a a pair of tweezers, pincers, nippers (Ka.); cimat.a_, cimit.a_, cimmat.e (Te.); cavan.e, cavin.e (M.); ca_man.a, ca_van.am (Ta.); s'ravan.a a goldsmith's pincers (Ka.); a pair of tweezers or nippers (Ka.); cimat.a, cimat.ige, cimit.a, cimut.i to squeeze (Ka.); civat.a_, cimat.a, cimu_t.a, cibalan.e_m., cimat.an.e_m., cival.an.e_m. to pinch, to squeeze (M.); cimut.i plucking out hairs with nippers (Ka.); cipat.a_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

4024.Image: a fish: caval.am < capala a fish (Ta.lex.)

4025.Image: lightning: cavalai < capala_ lightning (Ta.lex.)

3277.Image: spotted fish; flat fish: citra_ a spotted fish (L.)(CDIAL 4804). sital part. kind of flat fish (A.)(CDIAL 4809). Image: dried fish: sidhro dried rotten fish (N.)(CDIAL 13401).

3889.Image: small fins of a fish: celu < cetil (Ta.) small fins of a fish (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran.. Ma_. 22); thin, poor, puny (Ta.); silu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: gills: cel.ukka gills (Ma.); cevul. id. (Ta.); cf. cekil. fish scales; skin or rind of fruit (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) harr.a~k gills of fish (Santali.lex.) ga_bl.a_ pl. gills (of birds and also of men; ta_ka_ ga_bl.a_ deuli he got gills (Kon.lex.) cempa_t.o fin (Kon.lex.) Image: fish-scale: s'alka fish-scale (Mn.)(CDIAL 12350). chiluru fish scale, crust of bread (S.)(CDIAL 5052). jalaha_ri fisherman (N.)(CDIAL 5215).

3890.Image: scorpion-fish: jella a fish resembling the dragonet (Te.); cellal freshwater fish, etrophus maculatus (Ta.)(DEDR 2788). te_l.i scorpion-fish (Ta.)(DEDR 3470). s'ili_ndhra the fish mystus chitala (Skt.); sil.indha, sil.inda the fish silundia gangeticus (Or.)(CDIAL 12467). ca_lar inhabitants of coastal region, fishermen (Ta.); ja_lari id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ja_wiya_ fisherman (WPah.); ja_lika bird-catcher (Can.d..); ja_lin fisherman (Pali); ja_li_ fisherman, sorcerer (B.); ja_liya_ fisherman (B.); jaliya_ cheat (Bhoj.); fisherman (H.)(CDIAL 5217). ca_lar (Ta.)(prob. ja_la net); ja_lari (Te.) inhabitants of coastal region, fishermen, as using nets (Ta.lex.) Image: fish: ca_l.a-mi_n sardine (Ma.); ca_l.ai oil sardine, sp. of clupea (Ta.)(DEDR 2479). cf. kolli a fish (Ma.); koleji id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2139). Carp; fish: ce_l carnatic carp; fish of the ken.t.ai variety; ce_lavan- Vis.n.u, as fish avata_r (Ta.lex.) Image: fish: ca_l.ai < sa_la oil sardine, bluish, attaining 8 in. in length, species of clupea; ca_l.ai-k-ken.t.ai a kind of river-mullet, greenish-brown, attaining 25 lbs., barbus carnaticus (W.)(Ta.lex.) s'a_la a kind of fish, ophiocephalus wrahl (Ka.lex.) A fishing catamaran: ca_l.ai-t-tat.i a fishing catamaran, used on the west coast (Ta.lex.) Image: fish: s'akula a kind of fish (AV.Pali); sala (Pkt.); sahol (L.); sal (P.); saul (P.); xal the fish ophiocephalus striatus (A.); sal, sol, sail a kind of fish (B.); sal.a, seul.a (Or.); saur, sauri_ a species of carp (H.)(CDIAL 12247). avul.iya_ pomfret, stromatens (Ta.); a_vo_li, a_ve_li, a_ko_li stromatens (Ma.)(DEDR 272). ta_rlo, ta_rlea_ sardine (Kon.lex.)

2714.Image: fish: ce_l, kayal carp (Ta.); kayal a fish, cyprinus; kayyan a river fish (Ma.); kakka fish; ce~_pa id. (Te.); kaye id. (Kol.); kayye id. (Nk.); kayyel pl. id. (Nk.); key sp. fish (Pa.); ki_ke a small fish, fish (Go.)(DEDR 1252). kai-, ke- in Skt. kaivarta, kevarta- fisherman (Skt.); kevat.t.a id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3469). cil.i, cil.iya mi_n name of a fish (Ka.lex.) celuppat.t.i flat fish, olive-brown, solea ovata; celu-mural a kind of fish (Ta.lex.)

2655.Image: fins of fish: celu < cetil small fins of a fish (As.t.ap. Tiruvan.. Ma_. 22)(Ta.lex.) cekil. fish-scales (Ta.); cegalo bark of tree (Kur.); ceglo shell of fruit (Malt.)(DEDR 2751).cellal freshwater fish, etrophus maculatus (Ta.); jella a fish resembling the dragonet (Te.)(DEDR 2788). jiol haka a species of fish (Santali.lex.) s'ili_ndhra the fish mystus chitala (Skt.); sil.indha, sil.inda the fish silundia gangeticus (Or.)(CDIAL 12467). Image: fish: kalavai Indian rockcod (G.Tn.D. i,229); kalan-am id. (Ta.); kalava_, kalava_y the sea-perches, serranus; kalava_yo_t.u, kat.an-urai cuttle-bone, shell of sepia, a shell of a sea-fish (Ta.lex.) kalavar fishermen (Ce_tupu. Kantama_. 91)(Ta.lex.) xalxo_ shad fish (Kur.); kalkor a kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 1314). ka_l.a_ robaul fish, polynemus (M.M. 761); kallir-a_l lobster; black prawn; ka_lir-a_l prawn with long legs, astacus jamaicensis (M.M. 373)(Ta.); ka_la_ a genus of sea-fish, polynemus (Ta.lex.) cf. gad.a young of the fish ophiocephalus lata or cyprinus garra; gad.aka (Skt.); gar., gar.ai species of gilt-head fish (B.); gar.is'a, gar.is'a_ the fish ophiocephalus lata; gal.a a kind of fish (Or.)(CDIAL 3970). gad.aka a sort of gild-head or gold fish (Ka.lex.) khalis'a the fish trichopodus colisa; khale_s'a, khale_s'aya (Skt.); khaliha_, khalihana_ (A.); khalis', khalis'a_ (B.); khal.is'a (Or.)(CDIAL 3844).3050.Image: fish; pomfret: s'a_kulika a fisherman (Skt.lex.) s'akula a kind of fish (AV.); sakula id. (Pali); sala (Pkt.); sahol (L.); sal, saul (P.); xal the fish ophiocephalus striatus (A.); sal, sol, sail a kind of fish (B.); sal.a, seul.a (Or.); saur, sauri_ a species of carp (H.)(CDIAL 12247). s'akuli a kind of fish (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) hako fish; sin:ghin hako, ruhi hako species of fish (Santali.lex.) vavva_l mi_n- (i.e. bat-like fish)(Ma.); a_ko_li, a_vo_li, a_ve_li pomfret, stromatens (Ta.)(DEDR 272). avul.iya_ id. (Ta.lex.) s'an:kuci skate-fish (Skt.); s'an:ko_ca, s'an:ko_ci (Skt.); s'an:ku a partic. water animal (Skt.); sam.kuja a kind of fish (As'.); sa~_kac skate-fish (B.); sa_n:kuca, sa_n:koca, sa_n:koci, sa_n:kosa, sa_n:kosi the sting-ray (Or.)(CDIAL 12261). ko_la_ flying fish, exocaetus; garfish, belone (Ta.); ko_la_n, ko_la_-mi_n, ko_li needle-fish (Ma.)(DEDR 2241). kolli a kind of fish (Ma.); koleji id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2139). khucila, kot.ro a species of fish (Santali.lex.)

3071.Image: sheat-fish; horned fish: s'r.n:gi_ a partic. kind of fish (Bhpr.); xin:gi a kind of fish (A.); sin:gi (B.); the fish saccobranchus fossilis (Or.); si~_gi_ a kind of fish (H.); sin.e a fish with hornlike projections (N.)(CDIAL 12596). jiva_l.(h)i_ living flesh (M.); jial.a small live fish used as bait (Or.)(CDIAL 5247). s'r.n:gi the sheat-fish (Skt.lex.) sin:ghin hako a species of fish (Santali.lex.) cin:ki a fresh-water fish, leaden, attaining more than 1 ft. in length, saccobranchus fossilis (Ta.); s'ingi_ (U.)(Ta.lex.)

3368.Image: kite: cilla, culla the Bengal kite, falco cheela (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cilli a kind of bird of prey (Sus'r.); cilla_ kite (Skt.); cilla (Skt.); gan:ga_-cilli the black-headed gull larus ridibundus (Skt.); cilla_ a bird of prey (Pkt.); ci_la kite (S.); ci_lh, ci_l (P.); ci_l (Ku.); cil (N.); sila_ kite, paper-kite (A.); silni_ (A.); cil kite (B.); cila (Or.); ci_l (Aw.); ci_lh, ci_l (H.); ci_l (G.)(CDIAL 4829). cilhwa~_s, cilwa~_s kite's flesh (eating which causes madness)(H.)(CDIAL 4830). hila a kite (S.); hill, hili (L.); ill kite, a kind of hawk (P.); illar. a foolish person (P.); ill kite, vulture (WPah.); ?i_l a wild animal (H.); ?illi lion, tiger (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1593). cf. gid.aga hawk, falcon (Ka.)(DEDR 1527). cf. kal.u, karu vulture (Tu.); kor.l. kite (To.); kar..u, kar..uku griffin vulture, gypus indicus (Ta.)(DEDR 1362).

3369.Image: to trample: sillu to spurn, trample upon (Tu.lex.)

3069.Image: leech: jigan.i, jigan.e, jigal.e, jigal.i, jigul.i (Tadbhava of jalu_ke) a leech (Ka.); jalu_ke (Ka.); cal.ukam (Ta.); cel.l.u (Ma.); jelaga, jelave (Te.)(Ka.lex.) zol.u, zol.ve leech (Kon.lex.) jo~k, keola a leech (Santali.lex.) jalauka_, jalu_ka_, jalaukas leech (Skt.lex.)

3070.Image: small dried fish; live fish used as bait: si_gad.i, si_gud.i a very small kind of fish that is sold in a dried state (Ka.); ti_kod.e a fish (Tu.)(DEDR 2605).

3072.Image: flea: cikka_d.i, cikka_d.u, cikat.a, cikkat.a, cikka_d.a, cigat.a a flea (Ka.); cel.l.u, tel.ku, tel.l.u (Ta.); tul.l.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cakal gnats, small flies (Pin..)(Ta.); cf. mas'aka mosquito, gnat (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: fly: cigl.a a fly (Ka.); hign.e mosquito; hen.n.e a fly (Mand..)(DEDR 2506). jit.t.i a grasshopper, a locust; mid.ite (Ka.lex.)

3073.Image: lobster: cin:ki, cin:kir-a_l lobster (Ta.lex.) Image: lobster: ce_kkai crab, lobster; cancer in the zodiac (Ta.lex.) Image: clamp: jigal.i an iron clamp to fasten the kur..a of a ran.t.e (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a small crab: cu_kka_y a kind of small crab (Ta.lex.) cin:gat.a, cin:gat.i_, cin:gad.a shrimp (Skt.); cin.r.i prawn (B.); cin:gur.i small shrimp (Or.); cin:gr.a_, cin:gr.i_ shrimp, prawn (H.); ci~ga_t.i_ shrimp (M.); cin:gal., cin:gu_l., ci~gl.i_ small crab or crayfish, small fish, any small fruit (M.)(CDIAL 4786). Image: pincers: sugraha having a good handle (MBh.); sugahi_ pair of horn or wooden pincers used by a smith (Bi.)(CDIAL 13458).

2658a. Image; twig: cilli, cille a small branch (Ma.); gellu a branch, a twig (Tu.); sel.egombu a slender branch; sel.ego_l a slender stick; sel.enad.u a waist like a small rod, a thin, delicate, waist; kalaka a kind of fish (Skt.);sel.e a twig, a small branch, a stick, a rod (Ka.); sele (Te.) (Ka.lex.) ilir (-pp-, -tt-) to sprout, germinate; cilir (-pp-, -tt-) to sprout, shoot (Ta.)(DEDR 2565). sel.e twig, small branch (Ka.)(DEDR 2790). sela twig (Te.)(DEDR 2790). hyolu ear or spike or tassel of corn (K.); s'ila gathering stalks and ears of corn (Skt.); sil gleaning (B.); sila_ pl. gleanings (N.); id. (P.); gleaning, gleanings (H.); sili_ heap of grain (Bi.); sil.a gleaning (Or.); sili_ grain and chaff on threshing floor before winnowing (H.); sila_ gleanings (P.); silaya gleaning (Pkt.); silla_ gleaning (L.); silla_ ear of corn, gleaning (P.); sillo ear of corn or maize (WPah.); s'illo~, pl. s'ila_~ (WPah.); silli_ grain and chaff ready for winnowing (Bi.); silla_ = sila_ (H.); si_lo gleanings (OMarw.)(CDIAL 12458). sileha_r gleaner (P.); s'ila_ha_rin one who gathers stalks of corn (MBh.)(CDIAL 12464). jek, jiki the small stalk on which a grain of paddy hangs (Pe.); jakehin pl. id. (Mand..); re_ga id. (Kui); je_ka head of rice; jengu_ (pl. jekana) ear of paddy; je_n:gu (pl. je_ka) head of rice (Kui)(DEDR 2750).

2999.Image: sprout: cigi, cigur to sprout, to shoot (Ka.); pp. cigitu, cigatu, cigutu, ciguta (Ka.); iguru, ciguru (Te.); kil.ai (Ta.); cigur, cigaru, ciguru a sprout, a shoot; cigurisu to cause to sprout (Ka.lex.) Corn: s'im.g s'i_m.g corn (M.); s'im.g (G.); sin.u (S.); sim.gg (P.); si_m.g (H.); heng (K.); sim.gu sigu am.ga (Si.); s'ing (Romany); sim.ga (Pkt.); s'rn:ga (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 409). Image: leaf: cigurele a young betel leaf; a fresh leaf; ciguru kombe the young branch of a tree (Ka.lex.) civuru sprout, shoot, sprig, tender young leaf, small twigs (Te.); ciguru id. (Te.); ciguru sprout, bud, germ (Tu.); ciguruni, tiguruni to sprout (Tu.); igaru, cigur, cigaru a sprout, shoot, young leaf (Ka.); imir.. to sprout (Ta.); sigur tender leaf (Ga.); ciga_, cigi_ young plant just piercing the soil, small seedling (Kur.); s'igri_ a tender sprout or shoot (M.)(DEDR 2489). sui to sprout up pyramidically (Santali.lex.) cf. an:kurita sprouted (Skt.lex.) Image:green shoots: sau~la_ pl. green shoots or twigs (Ku.); sau, cau corn, branch (Ash.); sya_ulo a cut branch (N.); sa_u_l., sa_vl.i_ branch of various trees (palm, coconut, betel)(M.)(CDIAL 12376). Image: head of paddy: je_ngu (pl. je_ka) head of rice (Kuwi); jiki, jeki the small stalk on which a grain of paddy hangs (Pe.); jakehin. (pl.) id. (Mand..); re_ga (pl. -nga) id. (Kui); je_ka head of rice; jengu_ (pl. jekan.a) paddy (Kuwi)(DEDR 2750). Image: an ear of corn: cf. to~gal a head or ear of corn, pendent portion of an ear-ornament (M.)(DEDR 3478). cf. gele an ear of grain (Santali.lex.) cf. jo_l(u) to hang down (Ka.)(DEDR 2889). cf. t.u~gna_ ear of wheat (Bi.); s'un.ulu ear of corn with grain in it (Kho.)(DEDR 12509). cf. jon:ge bunch, cluster (Kod..)(DEDR 2832). silla_ corn (P.); grain and chaff for winnowing (H.); sillo corn or maize; s'illa~_, s'illo_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 12458).

2658g.Image; to carry: cer.na_ to raise a burden to one's shoulders (Kur.); ced.e to convey, carry (Malt.)(DEDR 2762).

2971.Image: upper part of human trunk: cekil upper part of the shoulders (Poruna. 138)(Ta.lex.) cumal shoulder (Ma.); tegal shoulder (Ka.); sukor.i, sukoli shoulder-blade (Ka.)(DEDR 2696). cuk upper part of human trunk (chest, back and shoulders) (WPah.) (CDIAL 4629). Chest: tegale chest (Ka.); tigal chest,breast (Tu.)(DEDR 3206).

2658f.Image; stone-seat: salasun stone seat (OSi.); s'ila_sana stone-seat; adj. seated on a stone-seat (R.)(CDIAL 12463). sila_ stone slab (Pkt.); stone (As'.); rock, stone, quartz (Pali); s'el large stone, rock (K.); silo stone for grinding spices on (WKu.); sillh, silh brick, hone (L.)(CDIAL 12459). s'ila_ rock, crag (AV.); lower millstone (Skt.)(CDIAL 12459).

2658b.Image; bow and arrow: cila bow (Ma.); cilai bow (Ta.)(DEDR 2571). cf. s'ili_ arrow (Skt.)

2658d.Image; chipping; slit: cilu (-pp-,-tt-) to open, split; cilukku chipping, cutting; ciluval rags, tatters (Ta.); cilv- (cild-) to break along the length of the grain(Ko.)(DEDR 2566). cegla_ chip, spplinter (Kuwi); caka a slice (Malt.); s'akala piece, fragment (Skt.); cek chip (Ko.); chekke, cekki chip, split, splinter (Tu.); cekka piece, chip, slice (Te.); sekka bark of tree (Kol.); s'ekk to chip, scrape (Nk.); sek- to plough (Nk.); cekk- to chip, scrape, plane; cekka piece, slice, chip of woood (Pa.)(DEDR 2748).

2928.Image: split: cf. sigasu to have split as wood; sigi to split as wood; to tear or rend with teeth as sugarcane (Ka.); tigi, tigu, tiguru, siguru (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Image: chip; joint: sekke insertion: a joining; sekke, cakke a chip; sekku to put in, to insert; serku id. (Ka.); ceruku, coruku (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) sak peel of pomegranate fruit (L.)(CDIAL 14815). Fragment: s'akara, s'akala chip, fragment (S'Br.); s'alka chip, shaving (TS.); sakk chip, splinter (P.)(CDIAL 12350). s'akala chip, fragment, log (TS.); s'akara fragment (S'Br.); sayala fragment (Pkt.); s'ail wooden bolt (WPah.); saila_, saili_ sliver, small peg or stick, any bit to stuff a hole with (H.)(CDIAL 12243). s'a~kur, s'a~ku ice (Dm.)(CDIAL 12262). caccarai broken piece (Nan-. 273, Mayilai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Images: half an eggshell; chip, fragment: s'akala chip, fragment, log (TS.); potsherd, half an eggshell (Mn.); sayala fragment (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12243). cakke, cekke, sakke, sekke (Tadbhava of s'alka) a chip of wood (Ka.); cakke, cekke (Te.); cakkai (Ta.); cakke a chip of wood or of stone (Ka.); cekku (Te.); kettu (Ka.)[parimal.ada cakkeya mara : ko_laka, kakko_laka a kind of perfume)](Ka.); cakkegallu a thin split of stone (Ka.lex.) cekil. skin or rind of fruit, fish-scales (Ta.); ceglo shell of fruit (Malt.)(DEDR 2721). cakalam piece, fragment (Pa_rata. Patin-on-. 150)(Ta.lex.) Piece; slice: cakkai chips (Ta.); cake rind of fruits (Ta.); cekku to pare, cut the side or rind of; n. the rind or parings of fruits, etc. (Te.); cekka piece (Nk.Go.); sek to plane, fashion things out of wood (Kond.a); sespa planing, scraping (?Kui); sesa shavings (?Kui); seka piece (?Kui); cakta_ a slice (Kur.); cegla_ chip, splinter (Kur.); caka a slice ; (Malt.)(DEDR 2748). ya_gappa a chisel used in breaking stones (Ka.lex.) To open; split: cikka in brief, in a nut-shell (Kampara_. Ninta. 79)(Ta.); id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) sel chink, crack, flaw as in a stone (Tu.); selagu, selayu, sela~gu, celagu, celavu to cut; sela hole (Te.); calxna_ to open, uncover; calxrna_ to open (Kur.); calge to split or break open; calgro torn asunder (Malt.); caling, cale_nging to become cracked, split (Br.)(DEDR 2377). cf. cilu to open, split (Ta.)(DEDR 2566). sigul.u, si_l., si_l.u to split, to be cleft; splitting; a split, a fragment, a piece (Ka.); sigur-, sigur-u, sibar-u, sivar-u, sivur-u a splinter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) takar (-v-, -nt-) to be broken to pieces (as skull bone, earthen vessels), be shattered, crushed, bruised, be scattered (as the ranks of an army), be breached (as a dam, bank), be uprooted; (-pp-, -tt-) to break to pieces, strike, dash to the ground, cuff, strike with the knuckled (as on the head), bruise, fracture (as a bone), break the ranks of an army, ruin, destroy, break open (a blister, boil); n. dust, powder, shiver, fragment (Ta.); takaruka to be crushed, smashed; takarkka to smash, crush, demolish, be noisy, play boisterously; takarcca breaking in pieces; takarppu loud noise, great profusion (Ma.)(DEDR 2999). To pare the surface: che_ttum to cut; che_ttr. a cutter (MBh.); chettum. (Pali); chetta_, chettu_n.am. (Pkt.); chetna_ to break, pound; chitna_ (H.)(CDIAL 5063). che_da section, piece (R.); incision (VarBr.S.); interruption, cessation (MBh.); cutting, reduction (of rations), destruction, loss (Pali); che_a piece, boundary, end, destruction, loss (Pkt.)[cf. cer-uppu restriction (Ta.); kir- (kett-) to confine, close (Ka.)(DEDR 1980)]; che_la piece (Kal.); che cross cut with an axe (Sh.); chehu incision, end; chi_o loss, damage (S.); che_o~_ border (WPah.); chyo boundary (Ku.);[cf. cekkupanti < cakbandhi_ the four boundaries with their distinctive marks showing the limits of each field as entered in survey accounts (R.F.)(Ta.lex.)]; cheo border; chiya_-chiya_ in pieces (N.); seo, sew piece cut off, division, monetary stop in a dance (A.); che cut, blow with pestle, piece, cessation (of rain); cheya_ a cut, piece (B.); che_w striking down (Bhoj.); chet.i_ intermission (S.); chevat. end (G.); cher interval (L.); hole in teeth (P.); cheku_ one who pulls or drags (S.);[cf. cekku oil-press (Na_lat.i, 374); id. (Ka.); cekka_yam an ancient tax on oil-press (I.M.P.Cg. 1113)(Ta.); cekka_n- person of the Va_n.iya caste, as worker of oil-press (Tan-ippa_. i,58,114); cekku-va_n.ikar caste of oilmongers (I.M.P.Cg. 564)(Ta.lex.)]; chek hole; cheka_ drawer; chekar. end (L.); chek hole; chekar.i_ last; chekn.a_ to split, separate, bar (P.); chakkna_ to mince (WPah.); chekn.o to strike out (Ku.); chek limit, check (N.); cheknu to limit, interrupt (N.); che~k cessation (of rain); cheka_ to stop (B.); chekiba_ to obstruct (Or.); chekla_ hole (H.); chekna_, che~kna_ to stop; chikna_ to be cut, be cancelled (H.); chek end; cheko stroke, line; chekvu~ to scratch out (G.)(CDIAL 5064). Mark of punctuation: chyondu, chondu mark of punctuation (K.)(CDIAL 5065). cheu cut, stroke, mark, chip (H.); chewa_ stroke, line, mark of punctuation (H.); cheh end; chelu~ last (G.); s'ev making incisions into trunk of palm, border (M.); cher.o end (S.); cher.o end, boundary (G.); s'ed. slice (M.)(CDIAL 5064). che_dayati causes to cut off (Mn.); cuts off (S'a_n:khS'r.); che_de_ti has cut off (Pali); che_ai has cut, cuts (Pkt.); seiba to cut off (A.); cheiba_ to cut, peel (rind off fruit)(Or.); che_da_pe_ti has cut (Pali); cheya_na to cut in pieces (B.); chewab to tap a palm tree by cutting (Bi.); Lance: chewna_ to make an incision, lance (H.)(CDIAL 5067). Red mark: ce_tikai coloured mark on a horse, made with the bottom of a bamboo measure (Kalit. 96,27); cf. ce_tu, ce_takam red < cem-mai (Ta.); ce_ntu redness (Arut.pa_. i, Cecar-i, 689)(Ta.lex.) ce_tittal to cut off, divide, severe, dissect (Tiruva_ca. 15,7); to destroy (Upate_caka_. Cu_ra_ti. 50); ce_tan-am cutting, splitting (Pa_rata. Patin-o. 4); ce_tam severance, cutting off; part, piece, portion, section; denominator of a fraction; ce_tanai cutting, splitting (Kampara_. Ira_van.an--vatai. 56); ce_ta_ram waste, as of commodities in traffic; loss, damage, as of crops by cattle trespassing; wastage of gold or silver in making jewels, due to filing, etc. (Ta.); ce_da_ramu id. (Te.); ce_da_ra id. (Ka.); ce_tam damage, ruin, waste, loss, injury (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) che_dyate_ is caused to be cut (Skt.); chejab to dig (Bi.); chejni_ digging (Bi.); cho_ cut; chyati cuts (Skt.)(CDIAL 5068). kettu to pare the surface, make thin, chip, scrape or chip off (as grass), dig slightly, engrave, carve; kettike act of chipping, etc.; kettisu to cause to carve or engrave, cause to chip, etc.; kedaku to stir, scratch (as fowls), dig up or loosen earth (Ka.); kett- (ketti-) to cut (tree, or with large knife or axe); ketti a cut, blow (Kod..); kettuni to carve, chisel, engrave, dig slightly; kette a chip, paring (Ka.); kett a piece, slice, chip; kettig carving, engraving (Tu.); kederpu to dig (Kor.); cettu (cetti-) to cut with adze, chisel, pare off; n. cutting, chiselling; cetukku (cetukki-) to cut off a surface, pare, shave off, plane, hew with an adze, chisel; n. paring, chiselling; kettu (ketti-) to split asunder by driving in and turning the hatchet, chop, mince, cut off, make an incision; strike the stick in the game of tipcat (Ta.); cettu cutting, parings, rind or peel; cettuka to chip, cut off, pare, plane, clear ground, dig slightly; cettal chipping, planing, etc. (Ma.); ket- (kety-) to dig with hoe or other diggin tool (Ko.); kot- (koty-) to smooth (plank with adze, dig (earth with hoe)To.)(DEDR 1953). ci_ttu a shred, strip (Ma.)(DEDR 2491). To shave, cut with a sickle: cirai to shave, cut with a sickle (Ta.)(DEDR 1564). Barber: ciraiyan- barber (Ta.)(DEDR 1564). Torn, cut; to peel: chillia torn (Pkt.); chilanu to scale, peel (S.); chillan. (L.); chilln.a_ to cut with a knife, peel (P.); chilnu to peel (N.); chila_ (B.); chi_lna_ (H.); chilvu~ (G.); s'ila_n. peelings (M.)(CDIAL 5051). To be torn; slice, piece: kir..i (-v-, -nt-) to be torn, rent in shreds, be scratched, give way, split, be defeated, perish; (-pp-, -tt-) to tear, rend, split, cut, rip up, lacerate, uproot, scratch; n. piece of cloth torn off, gold or other valuables tied up in a piece of cloth as a prize (Ta.); piece of cloth containing a prize or present (Ma.); kir..iyal, kir..ical tattered garment, rent in cloth (Ta.); kir..ivu rent, tear; ki_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to rend, tear, split, destroy, dig, be uprooted (Ta.); kir..ikka to lacerate, rend (Ma.); kig- (kir.t-) to pluck up, pull (teeth), seize forcibly, go away in a hurry; kit- (kity-) to tear with the teeth; kiv- (kivd-) to become torn; (kivt-) to tear (Ko.); kis'f- (kis't-) to pluck out by roots, rape (To.); ki_r.. (kir..t-) to draw or pull out, pluck up or out, uproot, pull off, rob; kittu to pluck out or up (Ka.); giri, gil.i to loosen; kilekuni, kelekuni to draw out, pull (Tu.); ki- to pluck (Nk.)(DEDR 1581). chidyate_ is cut, is split (MBh.); chijjati (Pali); chijjai (Pkt.); cizi to be torn (Gaw.); ciz (Mai.); chijoiki to be separated; chizo_nu to be torn (Sh.); chezun to become extinguished (OK.); chijan.u to break, snap, fall (of a flood)(S.); chijjan. to be rent (L.); chijjn.a_ to be separated, be wasted, die (P.); chijnu to decrease (N.); chijai is cut (OB.); chi_jai wastes away; chi_ja loss (OAw.); chi_jna_ to be worn away, wither; chi_j waste, loss, ebb (H.); chi_jn.o to wear away (Marw.); cinj to break (Bshk.); chi_jnu to decrease (N.); sigiba to be torn, be broken (A.); sin.iba to tear (A.)(CDIAL 5042). cir to split (Wot..); ci_rel (Psht.); ci_ran to split (L.); ci_rvu~ to slit, crack, cut (G.)(CDIAl 4844). ci_ru to gash, rend, tear, cut in slices (Te.); ciru~gu, cinu~gu to be torn or rent (Te.); hi_kaval carpenter (Go.); sirik torn, split (Kui); ci_ring to slit, slice, tear open (Br.)(DEDR 2491). Image: to split: sigi to split as wood; to tear or rend with the teeth, as sugar-cane (Ka.); tigi, tigu, tiguru, siguru (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) s'ipha_ruha banyan tree (Skt.); siha_ru shrub boehmeria salcifolia (having fibrous bark used for making net ropes)(P.)(CDIAL 12444). s'ipha_ fibrous or flexible root (Mn.); sibha_ fibrous root of trees (Pkt.); xiha_, xiya_ fine fibrous root; xiya_iba to take root (A.); sia fibrous root, creeping root of banyan tree above ground (Or.); xihari rootlet (A.); s'ihad.a root (OB.)(CDIAL 12443). s'iphe, s'ipha_ a fibrous root; a root growing from a branch (Ka.Skt.lex.) bir..il, bi_r..ilu root growing from a branch (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vir..utu aerial root of the banyan (Ta.)(DEDR 5431). cimpu small splinter or fibre rising on a smooth surface of wood or metal, chip, flake from beaten iron, frayed ends of a worn cord, bamboo splits, twig; cimpal splinter, rough, nap (Ta.); cimpu splinter, bamboo slip (Ma.)(DEDR 2546). homburu cloth (Kui); himbori, humbori, himbo_ri id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2547). cf. cilike stick and other small pieces of wood (Ka.); cilpa piece of wood (Pa.)(DEDR 2586). Image: crack; spiny bamboo: ikucu spiny bamboo (Ta.lex.) Prob. iks.u sugar, bamboo (Skt.) isigna_ (isgya_) to open in long slits, chap, crack; isigka_ crack, slit, chink (Kur.); isge to be well parched (as grain), be cracked (as the skin)(Malt.)(DEDR 423). ici stripping, as bark leaves or fibre; breaking off, as a branch (Ta.lex.) Image: to separate from others leaving a space: ig- (igy-) to separate from others leaving a space between; igc- id. (Ko.); ix- (ix0-) to separte oneself from others; ixf- (ixt-) to make people separate, make people make room, open loop or bangle (To.)(DEDR 411).

2927.Chip; bark: cegalo bark of tree (Kur.); cekil. skin or rind of fruit (Ta.); ceglo shell of fruit (Malt.)(DEDR 2751). cekka, sekka bark of tree (Kol.); s'ekka bark of tree (Nk.); cakka bark (Go.); cakkai small wooden peg; cake rind of fruits (Ta.); cakke, cekk, cekki splinter (Tu.); cepp splinter, paring (Tu.); cekku the rind or parings of fruits etc. (Te.); sek- (sekt-) to make pointed (piece of wood)(Kol.); cekka piece, chip of wood (Pa.); eke peel, rind; ceppa split wood (Go.); sek (-t-) to plane, fashion things out of wood (Kond.a); sespa (sest-)) to scrape, plane, shave a stick or piece of wood; n. planing, scraping; sesa shavings (Kui); sekali to scrape (with a hoe)(Kuwi); seka a piece (Kuwi); cakta_, cakti_ a slice; cakta'a_na_ to cut in slices; cegla_ splinter, chip (Kur.); caka a slice; cagje to chop up (as meat)(Malt.); s'akala piece, fragment (Skt.)(DEDR 2748). cf. ce_ku solidity, hardness; ce_kam hard core of a tree, central part of exogenous plant hardened by age, heartwood (Ta.); ce_va, ce_ga essence, core, pith, substance (Te.)(DEDR 2802). cf. s'e_vadhi treasure (Vedic.lex.) s'akr.a_ bark (WPah.); s'akara, s'akala chip, fragment (SBr.); s'alka shaving, chip (TS.); fish-scale (Mn.); bark (Skt.); s'ekr.o~ bark, rind (WPah.); s'ekar. bark of tree (WPah.); sakkar. chip of wood (P.); sakk bark, chip, splinter (P.); sakka bark (Pkt.); hakh collection of splinters and twigs and driftwood, etc. for fuel (K.)(CDIAL 12350). cakkai bark, rind of fibrous parts of fruits, refuse as of sugar-cane after pressing; cakkal rotten straw, muck, that which is withered, shrivelled, chaffy (Ta.); cakka skin or rind of a fruit thrown away after pressing it out (Ma.); cekka oil-cake (refuse after pressing oil)(Te.)(DEDR 2276). cakkal rotten straw, muck (Ta.); saggu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) challi, challi_ bark; cha_la bark (Skt.); challi bark, bast (Pali); skin, bark (Pkt.); calak bark (Pas'.); cha_l skin (Ku.Mth.); bark (Bhoj.); bark, skin, peel (H.); bark, peel (G.); leather (Bi.); challa_ leather cover (Bi.); sa_l bark, peel (M.); bark, skin, rind, husk (A.); cha_l (B.); cha_la id. (Or.); cha_li bark (Or.); cha_la_ skin, hide (H.P.N.)(CDIAL 5005). chavi_ skin, hide (TS.); chavi skin (Pali); chavi, chai skin, body, beauty (Pkt.); chavad.i_ leather (Pkt.); savaya, havaya skin, snake's slough; siviya skin, hide (Si.)(CDIAL 5006). chal skin, bark; to skin; chailak a chip of wood, or shaving; raondae jokhec chailak chad.aoka when one planes the shavings fly (Santali.lex.) sahan firewood; gok sahan to assist at cremation; hela sahan an abundance of firewood; lar.ga sahan long pieces of firewood (Santali.lex.) s'a_kala an amulet made of ten trees (Kaus'. xxvii.5); s'akala fragment, chip, split (KS. xxvi.3); s'akalye_s.in seeking shavings (AV. i.25.2) (Vedic.lex.) Gritty; bark, rind, fragment: sakkar. chip of wood (P.); s'akara, s'akala chip, fragment (S'Br.); s'e_kar. bark of tree; s'e_kr.o~ rind, bark; s'a_kr.a_ bark (WPah.); s'alka chip, shaving (TS.); sakka bark (Pkt.); hak, hakas collection of splinters and twigs and driftwood etc. for fuel (K.); sakk chip, splinter, bark (P.)(CDIAL 12350).

2658f.Image; small hole: illi small hole (as in a pitcher), orifice as of the teat; cilli leak, hole, crack (Ta.); cilli-kkuttu a little hole (Ma.); jilli small hole in an earthen vessel (Ka.); cilli small hole as in a pot, paper, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 2575).

2658e.Image: river: s'ilka brook, river (Nk.); silka river (Kol.); cilva brook, rivulet (Pa.); silka small river; hilka, ilka rivulet (Go.); silk-(-it-) to splash (Kuwi); cilicilia_ a shower; cilicilla wet (Pkt.)(DEDR 2569). cf. ci.rl (to rain) in a drizzle (Ko.); sir.k- to sprinkle water (Go.)(DEDR 2640). cf. sele spring (Ka.); sela waterfall, cascade (Te.); jela a spring of water (Te.) (DEDR 27895).

2658c.Image; bristle as the hair on the body: cilir-cilir to get goose-skin from intense emotion; ciluppu (ciluppi-) to bristle; cilumpu (cilumpi-) id., have an uneven surface by the rise of splinters, fibres, etc.; cilumpu, cilukku splinter or fibre rising on a smooth surface of wood; ilir (-pp-, -tt-) to stand erect as the hair stands on end from fright, etc. (Ta.); sli_nga (sli_ngi-) to stand on end (hair)(Kui)(DEDR 2565).

2669.Image: long nail: sel.l.ugur a long (but nice pointed) nail (of women); cal.l.uguru finger nails as long as a switch; cal.l.u, cel.l.u, sel.l.u a long, flexible twig or rod (Ka.); caval.u to be flexible to bend (Ma.); caval.u, cal.l.u (Ta.); cavat.t.u, tuvat.t.u to make flexible (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

2658.Image: fish-dart; arrowhead;javelin: cile, s'ile a fishing-rod (Tu.)(DEDR 2790). cf. cel.e to pull off; force of a stream (Ka.); force (Tu.); celuku to pull out (as the eyes)(Te.)(DEDR 2791). s'ili_ dart, arrow (Skt.); se_la a kind of weapon; se_lla id. (Skt.); s'ili_pr.s.t.ha epithet of a sword (MBh.); sil (Psht.Pers.); sil spear (Ash.); s.i_l (Wg.); sili_ iris (the plant)(Gaw.); siu spear (Kal.); sella, sila spear, arrow (Pkt.); se_l spear (Wg.Gaw.); sel (Kal.); s'el arrowhead (K.); selhu large thorn (S.); sel long spear (P.); sela_ spear (P.); xel dart, stake (A.); sel dart, javelin, spit (B.); sella, helle_, pl. hela spear, dart (Si.)(CDIAL 12466). cilampam, cilamam practice of the art of using quarterstaff, fencing (Ta.); cilampam fencing; cilampi fencer (Ma.)(DEDR 2564).selleha, salleha (Tadbhava of s'alya) any stake, or rod, a spike; a dart, a javelin; a splinter, a thorn; a thin, emaciate body (Ka.lex.)  selu a spearman, a spy; sela a spear; sel a long spear (P.lex.) s'ili-mukha arrow (MBh.); silimuva_ bee (Si.); sili_muha arrow (Pkt.); s'ili_mukha bee (Skt.)(CDIAL 12469). sil wedge for door (Kho.); s'il.i_k, s'il.ak small pin or peg or spike of bamboo (M.)(CDIAL 12466). cilaka, ciluka a hasp or small chain for fastening a door; cilka a door staple; silku iron bolt (Ka.); ciluku, cilku the catch or bot\kt of a window (Tu.); cilaka, ciluka, ciluku a padlock, the bolt or hasp of a door; cilakat.a, cilukad.a a saddle buckle, a ring at the end of a rope used as a girth through which the other end is passed to fasten the saddle (Te.); silka a leaf-cup pin (Go.)(DEDR 2561). cilukku iron staple, tooth of a saw, barb (Ta.); cilukku spike, iron barb, javelin (Ma.); cille_li a sharp stick to dart (sic) a fish with (Tu.); cillako_la lance, javelin; ciluku, sela arrow (Te.); selago_la goad; selapandi porcupine (Te.)(DEDR 2568).

2659.Heifer: kalor a heifer (P.lex.) kal.in:ga_ a breed of big bullocks imported from the Deccan (Or.)(CDIAL 3099).

2660.People: khalk < khalq (Arabic) the people, the world, mankind; baisakh wasse, khalk hasse Baisakh rains make folk laugh, i.e. people rejoice if it rain in the beginning of baisakh as this is a promise of a good harvest (Prov.); khalkat < khalqat (Arabic) creatures, creation, world, people; khalln.a family, a race or tribe of people (P.lex.) cf. kula family, tribe (Skt.lex.)

2661.Economic partnership: cf. ker..i friendship (Na_n-man.i. 63); ker..i_-y-ili enemy as one not on amicable terms (Tol. Col. 57, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ke_l.a a companion (Ka.lex.) ke_l. economic partnership between Kota and Toda (Ko.); economic partnership between members of various Nilgiri communities (To.); kel.e, gel.e, gen.e, gen.i union, companionship, friendship, companion, friend (Ka.); gen.ega_re an associate (Tu.); kla_mbu (pl. kla_pka) family, lineage, kin, tribe, sort, species, kind (Kui)(DEDR 2018). cf. kelc outdoor work (To.); kelasa work, business, affair, deed, advantage; kelasi person who works (Ka.); kelasa work (Kod..); business, work, affair, advantage (Tu.); kelasamu businesss, work (Te.)(DEDR 1970). cf. kul.i, kul.ye tribe (Kon.lex.) sale, salike payment, the sum paid; salike, sallike delivering over, paying, payment (Ka.lex.) sel.e, sal.e to levy forcibly as tribute; to take away, to rob as grass (Ka.lex.)

2662.Friendship: ker..i friendship (Na_n-man.i. 63); kel.e id. (Ka.); ker..uvu to unite; to embrace (Te_va_. 951,5); to be attached, as the mind to earthly things; friendship (Paripa_. 8,63); ker..u-takaimai intimacy (Kur-al., 808)(Ta.lex.) gen.e, gen.eya, gel.eya, kel.eya a male companion or friend (Ka.); cel.iyud.u (Te.); celitan- (Ta.); kel.e, kel.eya companionship, friendship, affection (Ka.); kel.egol. to become a companion or friend of; to befriend; to become united; kel.egol.isu to join, to put to or in (Ka.); kel.etana companionship, friendship (Ka.); gen.ati, kel.adi a female companion or friend (Ka.); a harlot (M.); gen.eya, kel.eya, gen.e-ga_r-a, gen.i-ga_r-a a male friend, occasionally: a whoremonger (Ka.); gen.itana, kel.etana, gen.etana, gel.etana companionship, friendship, occasionally: disreputable connection (Ka.); gen.e, kel.e coupling (Tu.); gen.ega_ti a female friend (Ka.); kel.adi, gel.ati, gel.ate a female companion or friend (Ka.); celi, celiye (Te.); celati (Ta.); kil.ai consanguinity; kil.aiar companions, relations; ke_l. relation; ke_l.a a companion; ke_n.mai a relation; friendship (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) hen.e, en.e, pen.e joining together; the state of being joined; hen.e-kat.t.u to tie a row of cattle to the pillar in the middle of a threshing floor so as to tread out corn (Ka.); hen.e, en.e, pen.e to intertwine, to plait as mats, baskets etc.; to braid as the hair; hen., pen. a female, a woman (Ka.); hen.d.a, pen.d.a a female, a woman; a wife; hen.d.ati, pen.d.ati a wife (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2663.Matrimonial alliance: gale gole in company, together (Santali.lex.) kalatram a wife; kal to carry off (Skt.lex.) kalatra, kal.atra a wife (Ka.lex.) cf. kalatra pudendum mulibre (Skt.); wife (MBh.); family (BHSkt.); kad.atra (BHSkt.); kalatta wife (Pkt.); kaletri_ wife; kaletro husband (Pas'.); kalatravant having a wife (BhP.); khanwo_tri_ woman; kanwotro husband (Skt.)(CDIAL 2915). a_kalayati binds (Skt.); a_kaln.e, akal.n.e~ to bind, confine, understand (M.)(CDIAL 1003). kalappu cordiality, friendship, fraternity, copulation (Ta.); kalavi union, combination, sexual union; kalavin-a_r friends, relations (Ta.); kala the state of being promiscuous (Ka.); kalayu, kaliyu to join, unite, meet, mix, mingle, copulate; kalayika joining, uniting, meeting, union, copulation; kalapu to mix, join, unite, bring together, reconcile; n. mixing, mingling; kalapamu mixing; kalagal(a)vu familiarity, intimacy (Te.); kali_ta_na_ to meet and embrace, greet; ka_liya_na_ to meet; kali- to meet, be obtained, to meet, join; kalli- to get (Go.); kali- (-t-) to meet, come together, be mingled; kalvi a_- to be united together; kalh- (-it-) to copulate (Kuwi)(DEDR 1299). kula_vu (kula_vi-) to be on intimate terms, be friends (Ta.); kula_vuka to be bent on, converse with (Ma.)(DEDR 1804).

2664.Royal citadel: kalatram any royal citadel (Skt.lex.) Abode: ke_lu abode of a Pariah (Tu.); ce_ppu (ce_ppi-) to abide, remain; ce_kkai cot, bed, roost, dwelling place, nest (Ta.); ce_ (-pp-, -tt-) to dwell, lie, remain, sleep (Ta.); ki_dna_, ki_d'a_na_ to allow or invite one to lie down for rest or sleep, put to bed (a child, a sick person), lay in the grave (Kur.); kde to lay down (Malt.)(DEDR 1990). xeppas a visitor or friend entertained in the house, guest; fellow-villager, neighbour; xeppa_ inhabitant of a village; xeppar inhabitants, population (Kur.); qepu village; qepo inhabitant of a village, neighbour (Malt.)(DEDR 1956). To copulate: ke_ (ke_d-) to lie down, repose, copulate with (Ka.); ke_vu, kendu copulation (Ka.); kedon.uni to lie down, rest; keton.u, katon.u to lie down; kerapa_vu to cause to lie down (Tu.); ke.p (ke.pt-) to make (child) to sleep (Kol.)(DEDR 1990).

2665. Owner; to unite; series, group: ker..uvu (ker..uvi-) to unite, embrace; n. friendship (Ta.); ker..umu to attain, join, unite (Ta.); ker..i friendship (Ta.); kir..amai friendship, alliance, relationship, day of the week, as related to each of the seven planets (Ta.); kir..a_n owner (Ta.); kir..avan-, kir..avo_n- owner, master, husband (Ta.)(DEDR 1979). kar..umu combination, mixture (Tol. Col. 351)(Ta.lex.) Women's apartment: kur..ai-muka-p-puricai lit., the apartment guarded by women; women's apartment in a palace, zenana (Ci_vaka. 275) (Ta.lex.) Intimate: kula_vu (kula_vi-) to be on intimate terms, be friends (Ta.); kula_vuka to be bent on, converse with (Ma.)(DEDR 1804). Intimacy: kur..ai-tal to be in close intimacy, to be hand in glove with (Ta.)[cf kus' (Skt.)] kor..untan-pu doting affection (Tiruman. 280); kor..untan- husband (Kampara_. Pira_t.t.i. 9); husband's younger brother; kor..unti wife's sister; brother's wife (Kampara_. Ka_t.cip. 23); kor..untiya_l. id.; kor..unan- husband (Kur-al., 55); master, lord (Cu_t.a_.); kol.van-ai taking in marriage; kol.van-ai- kot.uppan-ai giving and taking in marriage, intermarrying (Ta.lex.)

2666.Betrothed: kel.e to draw or attract towards one's self (Ka.lex.) se_r.i bride (Kui); cer..umai beauty (Ta.); cer..u fine (Ma.); cer..ippu fertility (Ma.Ta.)(DEDR 2789). cf. vokle, vokal bride (Kon.lex.) cf. ke_l.van- husband, master, lord (Cilap. 18,33); ke_l. to accept, agree to (Kur-al., 643); ke_l. husband (Ci_vaka. 1052)(Ta.lex.) kel.avili betrothed (OM.); ke_l. kindred, friendship, friend; ke_l.van-, ke_l.an- friend; ke_l.ir friends (Poruna. 74); relations (Pur-ana_. 42,17)(Ta.lex.) ke_n.mai friendship, intimacy, kindness, relationship; kil.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to ramify, multiply (as families); n. kindred, relations, group, herd, flock, family (Ta.); kel.e to draw or attract towards oneself (Ka.); sel.e, sal.e to draw or attract towards one's self as a net, as a dear person, as a military force (Ka.lex.) kel.eya, gel.eya, gel.iya, gen.iya, gen.eya male friend; fem. kel.adi, gel.ati, gel.ate, gen.ati; kel.etana, gel.etana, gen.itana, gen.etana friendship; ke_l.a companion (Ka.); gen.e coupling (Tu.)(DEDR 2018). Beauty: celvam, celvu beauty, pleasure (Ta.); calu, caluve, caluvu, calva, calvu, caluvike, calvike, celuva, celuvu, celva, celvu, celuvike, celvike beauty, handsomeness, elegance, grace, propriety, niceness; caluvatana beauty, charming, coquettish behaviour; calumi, caluvi, caluvati, caluve, calvi, celvi, celve handsome woman (Ka.); celuvik beauty, comeliness; celuve handsome man (Tu.); celuvamu, celuvu beauty, loveliness; celuva a beautiful woman, a woman (Te.)(DEDR 2786). cf. tsali, tsalye girl, bride; tsalo, tsalea_ boy, bridegroom (Kon.lex.) cf. cilatan- male companion, associate, servant; cilati confidante, female servant or companion (Ta.); celi female friend or companion, woman; celiya woman; celimi friendship; celimari male or female friend or companion; celika~_d.u friend, companion; celikatte female companion; celli, celliya, cel(l)iyalu, celle, cellelu younger sister (Te.); sellay (? = selle) id. (Kol.); ca_lal (pl. ca_lacil) sister (Pa.); se_lal (pl. se_lasil), cella_l (pl. cella_sil) id. (Ga.); se_la_r/se_la_r. (pl. se_la_hk), se_la_r younger sister, sister; hela_r. sister; he_lar. (pl. he_lahk), e_lar. (pl. e_lask) younger sister; se_la_r. (pl. se_la_k) id.; eld a sister (Go.)(DEDR 2783). celapile = cel.apil.e a beautiful boy (Ka.); celva pil.l.ai (Ta.); cela pilera_ya name of an idol of Kr.s.n.a at Me_lko_t.e in Mysore (Ka.lex.) Youth: ce_y son, child; juvenility, youth (Ta.); ce_vala child at the breast (Ma.); je_vu child, lad, youth; jo_vu id., baby, female child; je_vu, jo_vu girld; jo_kul.u chyildren; je_ru pariah child (Tu.); ce_pal (pl. se_pakil) id.; sa_pal boy (Ga.); jo~_xas lad, youth, servant (Kur.)(DEDR 2813). Familiarity: salige, saluge familiar intercourse, familiarity; excessive familiarity; improper familiarity, freedom (Ka.); salaga, salagi_ intimacy, familiarity (M.)(Ka.lex.) [saluka_ good terms with or together, amicable footing; friendly relation with a foreign power (M.H.) < Arabic and not to be compared (Ka.lex.) cf. Truce: salla_, salaha_ counsel (Ka.M.H.); peace, truce (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)] cella, cellaya, cilla boy (Pkt.); romani-cel the Gypsies (Gypsy); celo disciple (S.); celo son, disciple (Ku.); pupil (N.); cela_ (B.Or.Mth.H.); celo (G.); celko boy (G.); cela_ disciple (M.); celli, calli girl, daughter (Kon.)(CDIAL 4911).

2667.Image: earthen pot: ke_l, ke_lu a large earthen water-jar; man.ika, alinjara (Ka.); ge_l.a_ a round vessel to hold oil etc. (M.)(Ka.lex.) galantike, gan.ati, gan.atige, galanti, galantige a small pitcher, a water jar; a small water-jar with a hole in the bottom from which the water drops upon a lin:ga (Ka.lex.) Lathe: kad.cil, kad.cila_ lathe; kad.cila_k gha_l turn (Kon.lex.) Ladle: kat.acchu ladle, spoon (Pali); kad.acchaka ladle (Skt.); kat.acchuka adj. (Pali); kad.acchu ladle; kad.ucchu, kad.uchuya, kad.uchaya (Pkt.); kruchu cooking ladle (K.); kar.chu, kar.chi_, kan.chu, kan.chi_ iron ladle (S.); kar.chi_ (L.); kar.ach, kar.cha_, kar.chi_ (P.); kar.chi_ (WPah.); karuch confectioner's spoon (Mth.); kar.cha_, kar.chi_, karcha_ iron ladle (H.); kar.cho, kar.chi_ (G.); kad.ci_ small boiler or saucepan; karcha_ flat ladle (M.); ken.esi spoon (Si.); karchulo stirring spoon (Ku.); karchul ladle (N.); karsali (A.); karchul (Bi.); karchul, karchal (H.); kalus iron spoon; kaluch, kalcha_, kalchul, kalchula_ (Bi.); kalchul (Aw.); kalcha_, kalchi_, kalchul, kalchula_ (H.)(CDIAL 2633). dumol.osu ladle filled with incense (Si.)(CDIAL 6850). galn. an earthen vessel with a wide mouth (P.lex.) kelhat a potsherd, a small piece of broken pottery; kelhat kati a piece of potsherd ground round like a penny with which games like pitch and toss are played [kati any game played like pitch annd toss; cario kati, kat.kati the game in which the piece of potsherd, with which it is played, is propelled by a stick by the hand; khun.t.i kati the game played to a pin fixed in the ground as a mark; gad.a kati the game played into a hole as a mark; od.ao kati the game played by sides] (Santali.lex.) ka_il, ka_ili pan, a vessel for making curry in; kund.le, kund.lea_ (Kon.lex.) kaula_la potter's ware (A_s'vGr..); kaula_laka (Pa_n..) > Pers. > Par. kela_li_ pot; karoliyo potter (G.)(CDIAL 3341). kliu, kilu clay, black cotton soil (Kui); kal.i, kal.i-man. clay, potter's clay (Ta.); kal.i-man.n.u potter's clay (Ma.)(DEDR 1381). golen.a white clay used for plastering walls of houses (in Nurpur and Nurkot especially)(P.lex.) galid mash, mush, mashy, mushy; khala a pit full of mire, sink in mire (Santali.lex.) kalam vessel, plate, utensil, earthenware, ship; kalavar navigators (Ta.); kalam pot, vessel, ship (Ma.); kalm (obl. kalt-) clay pot in the making; k/gal, in: ap gal (ap = appam or fried cake)(Ko.); kala pot, vessel (Ka.); kala big pot (Kod..); kara an earthen vessel (Tu.); kalamu ship; kalamari sailor (Te.); kaland. broken earthen pot, any old pot (Br.)(DEDR 1305). kad.ou, kad.va_ ferry; kad.ouga_r, kad.ouga_ra a ferryman (Ka.lex.) karaka water-pot, drinking-vessel ( = pa_ni_ya-bha_jana); it is one of the seven requisites of a saman.a, called dhamma-karaka regulation water-pot provided with a strainer (parissavana) to prevent injury to living beings (Pali.lex.) cf. karakam < karaka ewer, pitcher, water-vessel with a spout; decorated water-pot carried in procession in propitiation of certain gods or goddesses, either when an epidemic prevails, or when an auspicious ceremony is to take place in the family (Ta.lex.) khalak a kind of leaf cup (Santali.lex.)cf. kallai plate made of leaves sewn together (Ta.); kala leaf-cup, cup (Kond.a); kala leaf-plate (Pe.); leaf-cup (Kui); kale id. (Malt.); khallaga, khallaya leaf-cup (Pkt.)(DEDR 1301). cf. kala_ boat; kalas'a pot (Skt.)(DEDR 1305). ap gal clay plate with 7 to 9 pits, about 3 inches across, for frying cake called pit.a.r. (made of wheat flour and solution of jaggery)(Ko.)(DEDR 155). kalha a large cake of wheaten bread fried in ghi. It is used at weddings, not less than eleven nor more than 101, being given by the bride's father to the bridegroom (P.lex.) cf. kulija a partic. vessel (Kaus'.); a measure (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 3354). cf. go_la large waterjar (Skt.); gol, gola_ large globular waterjar (H.); gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). kaili, kaile a fire-pan, a potsherd; fire-pan of pot-stone (Kon.lex.) kaili of capacity (Ka.M.H.); kaili-vajani of capacity and weight (Ka.lex.) cf. ke_l a large earthen waterjar (Ka.); kela- a vessel for liquor (Ap.)(DEDR 2015). kela-dat.t.i a place put at the side of other things (Ka.lex.) ke_l a large earthen waterjar (Ka.); ke_li rice-pot (Kor.); ke_lu (pl. ke_lku) earthen pot (Kond.a); ke_d.u (pl. ke_t.ka) earthen pot (Kui); kela- a vessel for liquor (Ap.); ke_l.i a small vessel (M.)(DEDR 2015). cellam, cella-ppet.t.i metallic box for keeping betel leaves and areca nut (Ta.); callam, calla-ppet.t.i small brass box containing money and betel; cellam copper vessel, as for keeping or burying treasure (Ma.)(DEDR 2787). cf. kuliya_ small earthen cup (H.); kal.a-ged.iya waterpot (Si.)(CDIAL 3227). cf. kalas'a pot, jar, pitcher (RV. iii.32.15)(Vedic.lex.) kalas'a pot (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 2020). cf. kalcha_, kalchul iron spoon (H.)(CDIAL 2633). kol.me, kol.mea_ a big vessel for drawing water with; kol.so, kol.sea_ pitcher (Kon.lex.) kaloti an earthen vessel for keeping corn similar to a bhar.oli; kals an earthen water vessel used in Hindu woship (P.lex.) Image: a dome: kol.os, kol.osa_ spire, i.e. a round thing like a cupola (Kon.lex.) kals the spire of a temple, a dome, a pinnacle; kalhot.i an earthen cylinder from five to six feet high used for storing grain (P.lex.) Image: brink, edge: kellu edge, brink, vicinity (Tu.); kela side, vicinity, the right or left side; kalan:ku, kela~ku, kelanu side, part, region; (Inscr.) kelavaga vicinity (Te.); kela side (in: a_ kela, akla that side; i_ kela, ikla this side)(Pa.)(DEDR 1969). Image: spring of water: sele spring, fountain-head (Ka.); sela, selaye_r-u waterfall, cascade (Te.); jela a spring of water (Te.)(DEDR 2785). cf. silka river (Kol.); silk- (-it-) to splash (Kuwi); cilucilu to rain gently (Ta.)(DEDR 2569). celam < jala water (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuka_n.. 28)(Ta.lex.) sel.avu the force or velocity of a stream (Ka.lex.) cel, cellu to throw as water; caluku, calun:ku to pour out or forth, let loose, cast forth or throw away water; callu to pour out or pour as water (Ka.Te.); callu to sprinkle water (Ta.); calla_d.u to throw about; celan:ku, calaku to scatter etc.; cellu to throw as dust; cal.eya sprinkling; cal.iya sprinkling (Ka.lex.) selevod.e a spring to be opened; calime, calame an orifice, a bore, a small pit (Ka.); cerame, celame id. (Te.); calime, calame, calume, calme, jilume a hole dug in the dry bed of a river or in a dried up tank; a spring of water or a fountain head (Ka.); caduma, celame, celime, selame, jele, sele (Te.) (Ka.lex.)

2668.Image: shallow boiler: kal.a a certain measure, a kol.aga (Ka.lex.) kal.asige a water-pot; a certain corn-measure, 1/3 of a mud.i (Ka.); kal.ase, kal.asige (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kad.a_yi a large, round boiler of copper, bell-metal or iron (Ka.); kat.a_ram (Ta.); kid.a_ra (Ma.)(Tadbhava of kat.a_ha)(Ka.lex.) kalas'a waterpot (RV.); kalas'i_ (Skt.); kalasa waterpot, woman's breast (Pali); kalas'a pot (NiDoc.); kalasa, kalasiya_ small pot (Pkt.); kalas, kalsi (N.); kalah (A.); kalas, kalsi (B.); kal.asa, kal.asi_ (Or.); kalas, kalsa_ (H.); kalsi_ (H.); kalsa_, kalsi_ (Bi.); kalas (Bhoj.); kalsia_ (Aw.); kalasa pitcher (usu. for religious ceremonies)(OMarw.); kal.as waterpot, pile of waterpots (G.); kal.s'i_ a partic. measure equivalent to 16 maunds; kal.s'iyo jug (G.); kal.as waterpot; kal.sa_, kal.si_ (M.); kal.so, kal.si_ (Konkan.i); kalasa, kalaha, kal.aya (Si.); karasli_ small waterpot (G.)(CDIAL 2920). kulija a partic. vessel (Kaus'.); a measure (Pa_n..); kulhari_, kulharika_ pot (Bhpr.); kullad.a small vessel, fireplace (Pkt.); kullud.ia_ pitcher; kullu_ria_, kullaria sweetmaker; kullariya_ his shop (Pkt.); kulr.i_, kulli_ earthen pot, scrotum (G.)(CDIAL 3354). cf. ka_l.aji, ka_l.a_ji a spittoon (Ta.); ka_l.aji, ka_l.a_ji (Te.); ka_l.a_ci (Ta.Ma.); ka_l.aji a vessel of brass, silver etc. with which scented water is sprinkled (Ka.); khat.akat.a_haka a spitting-box (Ka.Skt.); kat.a_ha, kad.a_ya, kad.a_yi a boiler of a semi-spheroidal shape; a shallow boiler for oil or butter; a frying pan; a hemi-sphere (Ka.); kad.u-ka_vali a large frying-pan (Ka.); ka_vali, ka_vale a plate or pan for frying or baking; kandu (Ka.); ka_voli (Tu.); huri-ga_vali a parching, roasting or frying pan; hegga_vali a large plate or pan for baking or frying (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kal.a, kal. a sound imitating the noise of rice when nearly boiled (Ka.); kal.apel.e the sound of boiling violently (Te.); khal.abal.a rippling of a brook; clinking; rattling; clashing (M.); kal.a a sound indicating agitation or commotion (Ka.); khal.akhal.a clashing; trouble; toil; khalabala commotion of minds; khal.abal.a_ agitation; kal.akal.a concern, solicitude; the yearnings of pity (M.)(Ka.lex.)

2670.Kin; betroth: sairik kar betroth; ba_pa_in a_ple duvek Pedruk sairik kelea_ the father has betrothed his daughter to Peter; sairik, sairike betrothal; sairik, sairike kin (Kon.lex.) cf. ce_r (-v-, -nt-) to become united, have connexion with, be close in friendship or union; ce_rkkai fellowship, company, union (Ta.); ce_ruka to join (Ma.); se_rike meeting, union (Ka.); s'e_rig, s'e_rv union (Tu.)(DEDR 2814).

2672.Image: nape of the neck: kayil nape of the neck (Ta.); kekki, kekkilu neck, throat (Tu.); kekki, gekkili neck (Kor.)(DEDR 1253).

2673.Image: rake: kaipul, kaipula_ rake, an agricultural implement; ka_ipul, ka_ipula_ rake (Kon.lex.) Image: scraper; to scrape: ka_ntne, ka_ntnea_ scraper, an instrument for scraping; ; ka_nt to scrape; ka_nta_p, ka_ntpa_ scraping (Kon.lex.) khad.rao, ghasao, ghasar, khayot, khod.rao, khokrao, khot.rao to scrape; kakhorni a scraper for pots (Santali.lex.)

2674.Solitary: kalla single, solitary, unaccompanied; alone, single-handed; akall, akalla_ free from complexity, simple, single, sole, solitary, lonely; cf. akela_ (H.)(P.lex.) aka_l bun:gga (lit. pavilion of immortality) a place of the 6th guru of the sikhs at Amritsar opposite to the entrance of the golden temple, where the pauhal the sikh rite of baptism is administered to converts; aka_li the name of a class of sikh devotees, who wear blue dress and iron weapons over their ppersons (P.lex.) cf. gholi consecration, dedicating or sacrificing one's self, (professedly) as a mark of affection to the interests of another; ghol ghattin.a to promise self sacrifice for the interests of another (P.lex.)

2675.To exile: kalapani the sea, to transport, as a convict; kalapanikedeako they transported him; khalas to emit, to set free (Santali.lex.) kalai (-v-, -nt-) to disperse (as an assembly, a defeated army), be scattered (as clouds), be ruined, wander in thought, be blurred (as writing on slate); (-pp-, -tt-) to disperse, break up, scatter, detach, exile, frustrate, erase (as writing on slate)(Ta.); kalayuka to disperse (as a mob); kalayikka to drive away birds (Ma.); kali to open (Kor.); kalayu to be dissolved or broken up (as an assembly)(Te.)(DEDR 1311). Ökal impel (Skt.); kalayati incites, impels (MBh.); kala_na to induce, instigate (B.)(CDIAL 2919). kalana_ inciting (Skt.); kalan.a_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2916). wal- to descend (Wot..); valo_nu, valyo_nu to descend, fall (Sh.); wa_lun to bring down, make descend (K.)(CDIAL 14246). nis.ka_layati drives out (Skt.); nikhaleti drives out; fut. nikalis.yati, pass. nikhalayati (NiDoc.); n.ikka_le_i takes out (Pkt.); nikhl to draw out (Dm.); niga_l to excavate (Tor.); nikhaloiki to take out or off, dismiss; nikhalo_nu to take down or off (Sh.); nika_ran.u to drive out, cause to issue (S.); nika_lan.a_ (P.); nika_ln.o (Ku.); nika_lnu to take out (N.); nika_liba to drive out (A.); nika_la_ (to take out (B.); nika_liba_ (Or.); nika_lna_ to drive out, take out (H.); nika_lab (Mth.); nikhal.n.e~ to hoist out, take to pieces (M.)(CDIAL 7484). nika_l outlet; nika_la_ exile (P.); banishment (N.); nika_l expulsion; nika_la_ eruption on skin (H.); nika_l passage (G.M.)(CDIAL 7483). nigyldum I went out (Gypsy); nekl- to go out, stand up; nikil- to go out; nikl- to take out; enkli go out; nikl-, nik- to go out; pp. niklisto; nikav- to take out (Gypsy); nikhilna to come up, go up on; pret. nikhit. (D..); nikiran.u to issue; caus. nikeran.u (S.); nikkilan., nikkalan., niklan. to come out; nikhlan., imper. nikul go away (WPah.); nikaln.o to come out (Ku.); niklanu (N.); nikaliba to come out, be driven out (A.); nikala_ to come out (B.); nikal.iba_ (Or.); nikarab (Aw.); nikalna_ (H.); ni_kalai (OMarw.); ni_kalai, ni_m.kalai (OG.); nikal.vu~ (G.); nikkalta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 7478). cf. utka_layati drives out (Skt.); ukilan.u to come out, be finished (S.)(CDIAL 1716). cf. ka_layati drives forward (MBh.); ka_l.iba_ to drive wild animals in the jungle by beating (Or.)(CDIAL 3091). Image: separated fingers; to quit, to leave; to separate: ni_ (-pp-, -tt-) to separate from, renounce, put away, reject, be removed; ni_n:ku (ni_n:ki-) to leave, go, separate from, turn away, be liberated, released, be discharged, go, proceed, be spread out (as fingers)(Ta.); ni_n:kal removing, separating; ni_kku (ni_kki-) to remove, exclude, put aside, spread out (as the fingers), abandon, change; ni_kkam, ni_kku separation, removal, disengagement, liberation; ni_kkal destroying, opposition; ni_ppu relinquishment, renunciation, separation, parting; ni_ntu (ni_nti-) to relinquish, give up; ni_vu (ni_vi-) to cease, discontinue, pass beyond, transgress; spread (Ta.); ni_n.n.uka to go aside, go off, go farther, retire, vanish; ni_n.n.ikka to make to retire; ni_kkam removal, departure, variation, exception; ni_kkuka to put away, aside, remove; ni_kkikka to cause to remove, withdraw a complaint (Ma.); ni.g- (ni.gy-) to cover a large expanse, be broad; ni.gc- to make to cover a large expanse, (feline) walks making its body long (Ko.); ni.k (ni.ky-) to brush away (dirt); ni.x- (ni.xy-) to crawl (snakewise), (river) runs in flood (Ko.); ni_gu to quit, leave, abandon, give up, get rid of, lose, remove, take away, do away, squander, be got rid of, go off or away, vanish; ni_gisu to cause to quit (Ka.); ni.n:g- (ni.n:gi-) to go aside; ni.k- (ni.ki-) to put aside, remove (Kod..); i~_gu to remove; ni~_gu id., get rid of (Te.)(DEDR 3685). nichur.an.u to become separate (S.); n.icchut.t.a released (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7101). niks.ipta abandoned (Mn.); n.ikkhitta id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7154). nihi_yate_ is lost (RV.); -nze- to put, place (Pr.); nizik to take off clothes, flay (Kho.)(CDIAL 7183). Image: gap, crack; hole: ni_kkam separation, removal (Tol. Col. 77, Ce_n-a_.); interstice, gap, chin, crack (W.); ni_kkal opening, hole (J.); ni_kku separation, removal (Cu_t.a_. 8,46); opening, cleft, crack; deduction; ni_kka-p-po_kku opening, interstice, gap; ni_n:ku-tal to form, as a gap, crevice, chasm (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: leaving a space between: cf. ig- (igy-) to separate from others leaving a space between; igc- id. (Ko.)(DEDR 411).

2676.Image: hip and loins: kalatra, kal.atra the hip and loins (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kalatram the hip and loins (Skt.lex.) kulla buttock (Pkt.); kulla_ hip, buttock (P.); kula_ hip, buttock (H.); kule id. (G.); kula_, kulla_, kulla_n.a_, kulha_, kulha_n.a_ buttock (M.)(CDIAL 3353).

2677.Image: quickly: ghar..il quickly; ghar..ilane quickly (Ka.lex.)

2678.Image: laughter: gal.l.ane a sound produced in loud laughter (Ka.lex.)

2679.Image: lump: gal.l.e, galle a lump (Ka.lex.)

2680.Clock vessel: gar..ige-bat.t.ala the metal vessel by the sinking of which in water the gar..ige is measured; gar..ige (Tadbhava of ghat.ike) a period or hour of twenty-four minutes (Ka.lex.) cf. vat.t.il a vessel (Ta.lex.)

2681.Image: pincers: ga_l.uka a pair of pincers; a pair of tongs (Ka.); ga_vi_ id. (M.); ga_hi_ pincers, tongs (M.)(Ka.lex.) Fish-hook: ka_l.am fishing hook to catch alligators (Ma.); ga_l.a, ga_n.a [cf. ka_l.am > ka_n.am] fish-hook, fishing tackle, an angle (Ka.); fish-hook (Tu.); ga_lamu fish-hook, an angle, a many-hooked instrument for finding and taking out anything fallen in a well (Te.); gal. fish-hook (Nk.); ge_lam id. (Pa.); ga_lam id. (Go.)(DEDR 1495). gal.a hook, fish-hook (Pali); gala hook (Pkt.); gal lever (N.); hook, drag hook (H.); gal. hook (G.); hook, drag hook, hangman's hook (M.)(CDIAL 3971). Instrument for drawing wire for chain-work in jewellery: kal.i-k-kan. instrument for drawing wire for chain-work in jewellery (Ta.lex.)

2682.Wind: ka_l air, wind; ka_r-r-u id., breath (Ta.); id., life (Ma.); ka_lu wind (Ma.); ka.t- id. (Ko.); ko.t- id. (To.); ka.ti id. (Kod..)(DEDR 1481). ga_l.i, ga_l. wind, air (Ka.); ga.l.i wind (Kod..); ga_li, ga_l.i wind, air (Tu.); ga_li id. (Te.); ga_d.upu wind (Te.); ga.li id. (Kol.); gha_l.i id. (Nk.); gha_y id. (Nk.); ga_l id. (Go.); ga_li wind, air (Kond.a); ga_li id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1499). garuvali wind (Ka.); karuvali (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2683.Image: lion: kalan:kas.a a lion (Skt.lex.)

2684.Possession, wealth; grow luxuriant: kol prep. near, by, with, in the keeping or possession of, by the hand of, by means of; kol anna to come near to; kol kol, kolo kol adv., prep. approximately, about, nearly, side by side; kol rakkhna to keep by, to retain; to deposit; lahore ya amritsar de kol the neighbourhood of Lahore or Amritsar (P.lex.) kalita gained, obtained; furnished, endowed; plucked, gatherd; arisen, produced; kalana_ doing, effecting; kal to attach to, tie on; furnish with (Skt.lex.) kali (-pp-, -tt-) to grow luxuriantly, sprout, come into being, appear, increase; n. flourishing, prospering; kala (-pp-, -nt-) to appear, come into being, spread (as news)(Ta.); kalugu to accrue, happen, occur, be produced or caused, be born, be, exist, be able (inscriptional forms with l., kal.gina); kaligincu to cause, produce, effect, bring about; kala existing, true, actual, possessing, having; kala-ter-a~gu truth, fact; kala-ru_pu id., the real state of things; kalad.u exists, is possessed, belongs to; kalimi existence, presence, possessions, wealth (Te.); kal- (neg.), kalt- (present-future paradigm, present-future or past in meaning) possibly be, may be; kall-, kal- to do (Kol.); kalgi- (-t-) to accrue as prosperity, happen (Kond.a); kalg- to get, become, accrue (Kuwi)(DEDR 1300). kalbhag unexpectedly, unawares, unwarned, unanticipated; kalbhag leka it so happened; kal bhag lease of life (Santali.lex.) Materials: cf. kalapa materials for a plough, timber for buildings (Te.); kalapu materials for a house, for a plough, etc. (Ka.); kalappa plough and what belongs to it (Ma.); kalappai plough, ploughshare (Ta.)(DEDR 1304). kala_pa bundle (Pali); kala_paka id. (Pali); kala_va collection (Pkt.P.); kala_vr.a_ bundle (P.); kala_u group, cluster (OG.); kalamba bunch, cluster, bundle (Si.)(CDIAL 2931).

2685.Complete agricultural apparatus: gar..ige acquirement, acquisition; gain; gar..i-sa_li-ven. an acquisitive, industrious woman; gar..i-sa_l.i a person bent on acquisition; gar..isu bringing together, making gain etc.; gar..iyisu to join or bring together; to acquire, to obtain; gal.e_vu, gal.eyavu, gal.eya a complete agricultural apparatus; a set of implements of kabbilas; ghar..iya the act of putting in order, arrangement, regulation; the act of making ready, preparation (Ka.lex.) ga_l.aka a good, proper man (Ka.); a clever, ingenious man = praud.ha (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2686.Image: a fly: kileji, keleji a fly (Tu.); kelen:gi, keln:gi house-fly (Kor.)(DEDR 1573).

2687.Image: to shout: kele to cry or shout with energy or for joy (Ka.); cilai, cilampu, cilumpu to sound (Ta.); kele to cry out, to vociferate (abusively); keleta abusive vociferation (Ka.lex.) cf. kel.ar to cry out, to roar (Ka.lex.) To say: kuyil to sound, play; vi_n.ai kur..alo_t.u kuyila (Ci_vaka.1255); kuyiluvam playing on stringed musical instrumments, drums, tabrets, clarionets, horns; kuyiluvar players on stringed instruments; payir- orr..irmor..i soft, sweet words, like the notes of the koel; liquorice; kuyil ku_vu to present a pleasing, thriving aspect, as a field with luxuriant crop (Ta.lex.) kollat.iga a player with sticks, a pole-dancer, a rope-dancer (Ka.); ko_ramba (Ta.); ko_lha_n.t.i_ (M.); kollan.ige playing, play, performance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To babble: kur..ar-r-utal to make incoherent or indistinct sounds, as when affected with strong emotion (Kampara_. U_rte_t.u. 188); kur..ar-utal to babble, as an infant; to talk indistinctly; to gabble (Tiruva_ca.21,10); to cry, as a bird; to crow, as a cock (Pat.t.in-ap. 268)(Ta.lex.) cf. kalakala (-pp-, -tt-) to reiterate in sound, rustle (Ta.); kalakala confused noise (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 1302).

2688.To steal: galua a boaster, a braggart, a deceiver; galkat.ua boasting; bragging; a boaster, a braggart (Santali.lex.) khala mischievous person (BhP.); wicked (Pkt.); kharu mischievous person (S.); khal mean (H.); base (N.); talebearer (A.); mischievous (B.); khal.a deceitful (Or.); khal. vile (M.); kala fraud (Si.)(CDIAL 3835). kal. to rob, steal, deceive; n. stealing, theft, robbery (Ta.); kal.kkuka to steal (Ma.); kal.avu theft (Ma.Ta.); kal.v to steal (Ko.); kal. to steal (Kod.); kal.l.a deceitful (Tu.); thief (Ka.); kalla falsehood, deceit (Te.); kall to steal (Go.); kalli mleha/mneha rogue, scoundrel (Kuwi); kar. to steal (Mand.); xar.na_ to steal (Kur.); xalb theft (Kur.); qale to rob (Malt.); qalwi theft (Malt.); kalp deceitful (Br.)(DEDR 1372).

2689.Image: neck: gal, gala the neck, the throat (P.lex.) cf. gala throat, neck (MBh.)(CDIAL 4070). kol., koral the throat; kol.har-e the neck-rope of a bullock to break (Ka.lex.)

2690.An assigned place: kol.a a place of assignation, an appointed place; san:ke_tasthala; kombu (Ka.lex.)

2691.Image: phalange; knot: galit.hi the portion between two joints of the finger, the same of sugar-cane and grain stalk (P.lex.) kalakku joint (Ta.); kalavu joint of the body (Ta.); kalv- pair-word with elv bone (i.e. joint)(Ko.)(DEDR 1299). ka_p interstice between fingers (N.)(CDIAL 2941). kar..alu two or three of the upper joints of a sugarcane that are insipid (Ka.); kar..al a piece of sugarcane (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kal to count, to reckon (Skt.lex.) cf. kar..al piece of sugarcane (Ma.)(DEDR 1352). kal.ale a swelling at the joints (Tu.)(DEDR 1350). kar..ile a tender shoot that grows from the root of a bamboo bush and is used for pickles etc. (Ka.); kayal (Ma.); kan.ile (Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

2692.Valley; image: alley: gali_ mountain pass (Pas'.); hole, narrow street (P.); gala_ passage through a hedge (P.); gali narrow lane (B.); gal.i alley; gal.ia_ hole in a wall, rivulet (Or.); gali_ lane (Mth.); lane, mountain pass (H.); lane (S.G.); galli_ (M.H.); galli (N.); ga_li_ valley (G.); golu cave, robber's lair (K.)(CDIAL 4085). cf. gul inhabited valley, country; goli_ tribe (Ash.); gal valley (Dm.); ghal river (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4453). kolli valley, corner (Ma.); kolli, kolle a bend, corner, gulf, bay (Ka.); kolli small stream with rocky bed (Kod..); a bay (Tu.)(DEDR 2137).

2693.Melting: galai, galwai melting, wages paid for melting; galan., galan.i to melt, to dissolve; to boil (P.lex.) cf. galati drips, drops, oozes, trickles (Skt.)(CDIAL 4074). ga_lana straining (fluids)(Nir.); sifting, melting (Pkt.); ga_lan.a_ id. (Pkt.); ga_rn.i_ melting (S.); ga_l.an. a quantity to be sifted or strained; ga_l.n.e~ sieve; ga_l.n.i_ sifting (M.)(CDIAL 4143). ga_la flowing, dropping (Skt.); ga_l melting (P.); ga_o central hole of a millstone (WPah.); ga_l.o melting, oozing, flow (Or.)(CDIAL 4142).

2694.Mixing, mixture: kali the water wherein raw rice and other corn and vegetables have been washed, to which strained rice-water etc. is added, and which is given to cattle (Te.); kala-gaccu (Ka.); kalagacu the vessel in which kalagaccu is kept (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kala (-pp-, -nt-) to mix; kalacu (kalaci-) to mingle; kalampakam mixture, combination; kalavu (kalavi-) to mix; kalaval mixing, combining; kalavan- mixture of various things, medley; kalavai mixture, compound; kala_vu (kala_vi-) to mix, join together, unite (Ta.); kalaruka to be mixed, united; mix; mingle (esp. what is dry); kalarcca mixture; kalarppu act of mixing, mixture, adulteration; kalaval mixing, intermingling (Ma.); kalv- (kald-) to knead, mix (solid in water); gal gu.r. (gu.c-) to join in dense mass (Ko.); kas-f- (kas-t-) to mix (rice and milk, rice and curry), feed (solid food to child)(To.); kali, kale to join, be mixed, come together, meet; kala state of being joined or mixed, of being various; kalaka, kalka mixture; kalapu a joined or mixed state, a miscellaneous mass; kalasu to mix, mingle; n. mixed or mingled state; kalpisu to join, mix (Ka.); kala- (kalap-, kaland-) to knead; kalap kneading (Kod..); kalad.uni to be mixed, kneaded; kalad.a_vuni to mix, knead; kalapuni to mingle, knead; kalappu mixed, kneaded; kalaberak admixture, compound; kalamu grafting; kalka decoction, infusion of any drug (Tu.); kalavan.t.akamu boiled rice mixed with several ingredients; kalavud.u to mix, mingle (Te.); kalay- (kalayt-) to be mixed (liquids, grains); kalp- (kalapt-) to mix (Kol.); kalay-, kalap- to mix (Nk.); kalp- to mix (Go.); kalp- to mix (Kond.a); kalhali, kalhinai to be mixed, mingle; kalpali, kalpini to mix; kal- (-h-) to mix together; kalp- (-it-) to mix (Kuwi); khalna_ to dilute, mix with water or other liquid (Kur.); kalka- a medicinal paste (mixture); avakalkana- mixing (Skt.)(DEDR 1299).

2695.Hero: kali hero (Skt.inscr.); strength, force (Ta.); kaliyan- warrior (Ta.); man noted for valour and prowess, warrior, hero; kalitana valour, heroism (Ka.); kalitanamu bravery (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 1308).

2696.Image: perforation: gali a hole, a perforation, a leak (P.lex.) galtani, galtan.i the wood placed round the hole in which the vertical wheel of a well revolves, to prevent clay and dirt getting into the wheel; the throat latch of a bridle, also a part of the headstall (P.lex.) kar..u, kar.. an instrument for perforating an elephant's ear (Ka.); kar..u a trident; a stake for impaling malefactors = s'u_lam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kar..u, kar..uku stake for impaling malefactors (Ma.)(DEDR 1361).

2697.Image: a spot, mark: khal a spot, a mole; khaldar spotted, streaked; khal makhali, khal makhuli empty, empty handed; khalli empty, void, hollow; kalan:k fault, blemish, stigma, stain (P.lex.) kali, kale scar of an old wound, mark of small-pox, stain of mud, oil etc. (Ka.); kale scar, white spot on nail (Kod..); kal scar, mark, blemish, stain (Tu.); kala mark as of smalll-pox, scar, mole (Ma.)(DEDR 1313). kalanam, kalan:ka a spot, mark (Skt.lex.) kalan:ka stain, spot (R.); spot, blemish (Pali); kalam.ka stain (Pkt.); kal.an:ka, kal.an:ki rust on metal (Or.); kal.a_k verdigris (M.)(CDIAL 2911). kalam, kalabi verdigris, rust; kalambitso rusty of verdigris (Kon.lex.) khil.a callosity (Pali); khil corn, callosity, hard centre to a boil (N.); clot forming on a teat when milking (B.); khi_l., khi_l.a_ (M.); khilla boil (Pkt.); khi_l pimple (G.); kil pimple (L.); kill (P.)(CDIAL 3886). gil goitre (WPah.); gilht., gilht.a_, gilht.i_ hard lump in flesh (P.); gillhar., gillar goitre (P.)(CDIAL 4166). Image: to protrude through a hole: galle, gal.l.e a lump, a clot; a concretion (Ka.lex.) cf. kar..al (kar..alv-, kar..an-r--) to protrude, bulge out, pass through (as an arrow); kar..alai wen, tubercle, tumour (Ta.); kar..ar-r-uka to protrude; kar..ala a swelling (chiefly in the groin)(Ma.); kar.v- (kar.d-) to be stretched, protrude through a hole (e.g. piles); kar.t- (kar.ty-) to make to protrude through hole; kal. swelling (e.g. caused by blow of a stone)(Ko.); gal.alE swellling of a gland (Ka.); karal a swelling (Tu.); kad.alu-konu to swell, rise, increase (Te.)(DEDR 1350). cf. kar..al anklet, toe-ring (Ta.); foot-ring, anklet (Ka.)(DEDR 1351).

2698.Image: die with one dot: kali the side of a die which is marked with one point; the bibhi_taka tree; kal to count, to reckon; a_kalayati observes, reckons (BhP.); kal to collect; kalita reckoned, counted; kala_ an atom; kal to take hold of the die called kali; to throw, cast; kal impel (Skt.lex.) gel.e, gede odd (number) (Kon.lex.) kali a die marked with one dot, a losing die (AV. vii.109.1: ghr.te_na kalim. s'iks.a_mi)(Vedic.lex.) kali the unlucky die, bad luck (Pali)(CDIAL 2933). kali the unlucky die; 'the dice were seeds of a tree called the vibhi_taka... an extra seed was called the kali'; kali = kaliggaha an unlucky throw at dice, bad luck, symbolically as a piece of bad luck in a general worldly sense or bad quality, demerit, sin (in moral sense); kalin. vicina_ti gathers up demerit; kali(g)gaha the unlucky throw at dice, the losing throw, symbolically bad luck, evil consequence in worldly and moral sense; ubhayattha kaliggaha faring badly in both worlds; kali(p)piya one who is fond of cheating at dice, a gambler; kat.aggaha he who throws the lucky die, one who is lucky, fortunate; opp. to kali the unlucky die, in phrase: kalin. gan.ha_ti to have bad luck; kaliggaha = para_jayasan:kha_ta i.e. one who is defeated, as opp. to kat.aggaha = jayasan:kha_ta (Pali.lex.) a_lea game at dice (Lat.); akkha that which has eyes, a die, occulus (Lat.)(Pali.lex.)

2699.Wood used for turnery: kaikoia a small tree, flacourtia sapida; the wood is used for turnery, the fruit is eaten (P.lex.)

2700.Image: delivered: khalas to be delivered, to calve, to emit, to set free, to acquit; khalasenae he is acquitted; khalasenae she is delivered (of a child)(Santali.lex.) khalas free, liberated; khalas hon.a to be liberated or freed; to have a seminal emission (P.lex.) kale the embryo (Ka.lex.)

2701.Pure: khalas < khalis (Arab.) unmixed, pure (P.lex.) khalsa < khalsah (Arabic) the word is applied to all Sikhs who have received the pauhal; khalsa kaum, khalsa raj the sikh rule; khalsaji a title of respect for a sikh; guru n da khalsa sikhs (P.lex.)

2702.A charm: kalam discourse, a word, speech; an incantation, a charm; kalam-Allah (lit. the word of God) The Alquran, the Muhammadan scripture (P.lex.) kalam, kalma_ paragraph (Kon.lex.) galh a word, a matter, talk; an abuse; gall a word, a saying, a thing; gall bat, gall katth, gall katha conversation (P.lex.) An article: kalamu, kalam, kalmu a paragaph: a distinct head, item, article (Ka.); kalama (M.)(Ka.lex.) Document: kalam document written on palm-leaf (Tol. Col. 81, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2703.Agreement: kalida agreement, combination (Te.); kalita attached, affixed, joined, endowed with; known, understood; numbered (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2704.Goldsmith: kala_da a goldsmith (Ka.SKt.)(Ka.lex.)

2705.Herd: galla a herd (of horses, camels, asses)(P.lex.) goul.i, goul.ya_ shepherd; fig. spiritual guide (Kon.lex.)

2706.Roll, scroll: koul.o, koul.ya_ roll, scroll (Kon.lex.)

2707.Image: leaf: kholo, kholya_ green leaf; kholi, kholye dry leaf (Kon.lex.)

2708.Image: the tail of a fat-tailed sheep: kalar.i the tail of a dumba or fat-tailed sheep; chakki id. (P.lex.) xola_ tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2135).

2709.Paradise: kayila_yam < kaila_sa S'iva's abode, the heaven according to S'aivas (Te_va_. 1156,2)(Ta.lex.) kayilai Mt. Kaila_sa, in the Hima_layas, abode of S'iva (Te_va_. 1159,1)(Ta.lex.) kaila_sa name of a mountain in the Hima_laya range; the seat of Kuve_ra and paradise of S'iva (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

2710.Vestment: kayili vestment for an idol (Ko_yilo. 74); kaiyoli small cloth, usually five cubits long, with which idols are clothed (Ko_yilo.); kaiyoliyal id. (Tol. Po. 1, Il. Ampu_ra.); kaili id. (Ko_yilo. 30); kayili < khilat (U.) a kind of checkered cloth worn by Muhammadans (J.); kaili tartan used by Muhammadans (G.Tj.D. i,118)(Ta.lex.)

2711.Petticoat: calanaka a short petticoat worn by common women (Ka.); cf. can.aka breeches which reach only to the middle of the thighs (Ka.); cad.d.i id. (Ka.); callan.a, calan.a, caln.a, collan.a, col.l.a, can.n.a drawers or breeches of different length (Ka.); callat.am (Ma.Ta.); callad.a, calla_d.a, jallad.a (Te.); co_l.an.a_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ce_la clothes, garment (Gaut.); celi_, celika_ bodice (Skt.PadmaP.); ce_la cloth, garment (Pali.Pkt.); cel dress, cloak (Dm.); cila_ cloth, dress (Pas'.); ceu (Kal.); ce_l cloak (Kal.); cel.a cloth, garment (Or.); hela carpet (Si.)(CDIAL4910). cerngl corner of a cloak or piece of cloth (Ko.); tergy corner of a garment (To.); seran:gu the end or edge of a female's garment (Tu.); cer-a~gu the skirt, hem, end or corner o a garment or cloth (Te.)(DEDR 2796).

2712.Image: side, belly: keladan a man who is on one side, or on both sides (Ka.); kela belly (Kod..); kila id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1969). kela side, vicinity; the side; the right, or left, side; aside (Ka.); kelaku, kelanu, kelane, kelape, kel.avu, ke_va, kre_va, cekku, cente (Te.); cir-ai = pakkam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

2715.Gain: keli (-pp-, -tt-) to conquer, overcome; kelippu winning, success, victory (Ta.); gel- (ged--) to win; gelc- to win and secure something; gel a goal, test, objective in race, a win in a game (Ko.); kelc- to be successful (To.); gel (geld-), gedi/gelu/gellu (gedd-), geli (gelit-, gelid-) to win, gain, conquer, overcome, triumph; gela, gelavu, gelu, geluvu, geluha, gella gain, victory; a winning, happy, sprightly air; gelisu, gellisu to win etc. (Ka.); gell- (gelluv-, gedd-), gell- to win (Kod..); gelipuni, gelpuni, genduni to win, conquer; gelkayi victory, winning, victorious; gelpu victory, gain; gelavu sprightliness, liveliness, courage; ge_lo victory, success (Tu.); geddu to win (Kor.); gelucu to win, gain, conquer, overcome, succeed; gelipincu to cause to succeed or win; gelupu, gelpu victory, success, gain, winning; geluvamu victory, success; gelivi, gelivid.i joy, gladness, cheerfulness (Te.); gell- to win (Kol.); ghel- id. (Nk.); gels- (-t-) to win, escape from danger; gelpis- (-t-) to save, rescue, cause to win or become eminent (Kond.a); gelhinai to win; gelpali to save (Kuwi)(DEDR 1972). cf. vel (velv-, ven-r--) to conquer, overcome, subdue, destroy (Ta.); velluka to overcome; venni, ver-r-i victory (Ma.)(DEDR 5493).

2716.Yoke: keln:gam yoke (Pa.); kelman, kelman. id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1974). cf. hala plough (Skt.lex.)

2717.Image: laugh: calla, cay, cella great mirth, fun, amusement, pleasure; jest; smiling, laughter; callava_d.u to frolic, to sport, to gambol (Ka.); cerala_d.u, cerla_d.u, cella_d.u to frolic (Te.); cayya_t.a, ceyya_t.a, cella_t.a sport, fun (Ka.); cella_t.a (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ke_li, ke_li_, ke_l.i play, sport, pastime, amusement (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kayn:g- (kayan:kt-) to laugh (Kol.); kayn:g- to laugh (Nk.); kayn.(g)- to laugh (Kol.); gr.ay- (-t-) to laugh (Pe.); kav-, kowwa_na_ to laugh (Go.)(DEDR 1256). Wife's younger sister: kayn:gekan man who is in a jesting relationship with female (essentially, cross-cousin); fem. kayn:gekad (Kol.); kayn:ga wife's younger sister, husband's younger sister; kayman (pl. kaymar) husband's younger brother, wife's younger brother (Nk.); kavna, kavtik joking relation (Go.)(DEDR 1256). xalli_ father's younger brother's wife (Kur.); qali mother's sister; qalapo sister's son; qalapi sister's daughter (Malt.)(DEDR 1318). khala, khalan. a mother's sister, a maternal aunt (P.lex.) khulxa_li wife's younger brother; khulxa_lni_ wife's younger sister (A.)(CDIAL 3733).

2718.Images: a drummer; tomtom: xe_l tomtom (Kur.); qle a small drum; qlwa a drummer (Malt.)(DEDR 2014).

2719.White water lily: kahla_ra, kalha_ra white esculent water lily nymphaea lotus (MBh.);[Mth. with divergent r. supports non-Aryan origin]: kallaha_ra (Pali); kalha_ra (Pkt.); kar.ahar (Mth.); kala_r (G.); kalha_r (M.)(CDIAL 2986). kalla_ram red Indian water-lily, cen:kar..uni_r; blue nelumbo, karun:kuval.ai (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) kalla_t.am name of a S'iva shrine (Tiruva_ca. 2,11)(Ta.lex.) Blue water-lily: cf. kalha_ra, kahla_ra a red water-lily; cen:kaluve (Ka.lex.) cen:kalam kamala, red lotus, nelumbium rubra, centa_marai (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) Blue Indian water-lily: karun:kuval.ai blue Indian water-lily, neytal (Kur-icip. 84, Urai.); kuval.ai blue nelumbo (Ain:kur-u. 299); purple Indian water-lily (Ci_vaka. 256); a large number (Paripa_. 2,13)(Ta.lex.) kuvalaya, ko_mal.e, ko_val. any water-lily; the blue water-lily (Skt.Ka.); kanneydalu id., ni_lo_tpala [kan blackness] (Ka.); kuvala the water-lily (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Fragrant blue water-lily: kalave, kaluve (Tadbhava of kalamba); kalave the iris or fragrant blue water-lily (Te.); can:galave the red water-lily (Ka.lex.) Water-lily: kalave, kaluve water-lily; can:galave, cen:galave red water-lily (Ka.); kaluva water-lily; cen:galuva red water-lily (Te.); kar..uni_r, cen.-kar..uni_r (Ta.); cen.-kar..ini_r id. (Ma.)(DEDR 1307). alli waterlily, nymphaea lotus, inner flower petals as opposed to pulli filament of stamen (Ta.); pericarp of lotus with the surrounding filaments, antlers, stamen, lotus (Ma.); alli, allige waterlily, flower of nymphaea speciosum (Tu.); alli the water plant called nymphaea alba (Te.)(DEDR 256). cf. a_mpal water lily, nymphaea lotus (Ta.); a water lily which opens after sunset (Ma.); a_bal, a_val, a_la red waterlily (Ka.); a_mbalu a water-lily which opens after sunset (Tu.)(DEDR 362). Water-lily: kumutam esculent white water-lily; red Indian water-lily (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 43)(Ta.lex.) kumuda esculent white water-lily (AV.); kumudika pertaining to water-lilies (Pa_n..); kumuda white lotus (Pali); kumua water-lily (Pkt.); konda esculent white water-lily (Si.); kai~_ water-lily (Or.); ku_i~_ (OAw.); kui~_ lotus (H.)(CDIAL 3305). kairava the white esculent water-lily (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) go_pa-bhadram the fibrous root of a water-lily (Ka.lex.) Blue Indian water-lily: kucaram blue nelumbo, karun:kuval.ai pontederia monochoria-vaginalis (Ta.lex.)

2720.Image: to seize: kariju, karicu to lay hold of, to seize (Ka.lex.)

2721.Pulse: kulth, kulthi a kind of pulse; Madras horse gram, dolichos uniflorus, dolichos catjang (P.lex.) cf. kulattha the pulse dolichos uniflorus (MBh.)(CDIAL 3335). kala_ya a sort of pea (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); kara the pea pisum sativum (K.); kala_i, kala_-ma_h a kind of pulse (A.); kala_i (B.); kal.a_-mug phaseolus maximus (Or.); kal.a_-sim dolichos ensiformoides (Or.); kara_i, kala_i the pulse phaseolus roxburghii (Mth.); kala_i_ pulse (H.); kala_ya_ a long thin small black bean (H.); kara_yi_ pod of a white pea (H.); kera_u pea (N.); kera_w pisum sativum (Bi.Mth.); pisum arvense (H.); kira_u id. (H.)(CDIAL 2932). kat.alai Bengal gram, cicer arietinum (Ta.); kad.ala (Ma.); kaci (katalai > *kar.ly > *kar.yl > kacl)(?Ko.); kad.ale, kad.le (Ka.); kad.ale (Kod..Tu.)(DEDR 1120). ka_n.am horsegram, dolichos uniflorus (Ta.Ma.); ka_n.amu food for horses, fodder (Te.); kha_n.amu food (Te.)(DEDR App.25). cf. kha_n. boiled grain for cattle (G.)(CDIAL 3867).

2722.Image: beetle: ka_la_r-u beetle, as having six legs (Kalaicaic. 13)(Ta.lex.)

2723.Goddess: ka_l.i Durga_, as being black (Kantapu. Acurarya_ka. 40); the Sakti of Ka_la, the Va_yumu_rtti (Cit. Ca_. Ja_n-pa_. Vya_. 4); ka_l.imam blackness, black colour (Kantapu. Tirunakarap. 72); ka_l.imai id. (Kampara_. Na_kapa_. 217); ka_li_ the goddess Durga_ (MBh.Pkt.H.); ka_lia_ (Pkt.); ka_li (A.B.N.); ka_l.i_ (Or.G.M.); ka_lika_ a female spirit, one of the mothers in Skanda's retinue (MBh.)(CDIAL 3102).

2724.An ancient coin: ka_l.i-c-cakkaram an ancient gold coin, as stamped with the figure of Ka_l.i; ka_l.i-p-pan.am ancient coin = 3 as. 4 ps. (E.T.)(Ta.lex.)

2725.Image: leak: ku.l- (ku.t.-) (water) run from punctured vessel or tap; ku.lp- (ku.lupt-) to puncture (vessel) so that water runs out (Kol.); ku_l.- to leak (Nk.)(DEDR 1919).

2726.Basil: kullai wild basil, sacred basil, scarlet ixora (Ta.); kula, kulavu a kind of creeper (Tu.)(DEDR 1815). kut.he_raka basil, tulasi_ (Skt.lex.) kut.he_raka a kind of basilieum, ocimum sanctum (Ka.lex.) cf. tur..a_y, tul.aci ocimum sanctum (Ta.)(DEDR 3357). tulasi_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 5885).

2727.A measure: kul.akam a dry or liquid measure = 1/8 na_r..i (Ta.); kol.akam a measure of 50 id.an:ga_r..is in Wayana_d.u (Ma.); kwa.x (when numerated, kwa.w) a large measure (To.); kol.aga, kul.a a measure of capacity - 4 bol.l.as (Ka.); kol.aka a measure of capacity (Kod..); kol.aga a measure of grain (Tu.); kolagamu water-vessel (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 1827a). cf. kud.ava, kud.apa, kut.apa a measure of grain or of wood or of iron etc. (Skt.)(CDIAL 3246). calakai a grain measure = 1/3 poti or a bullock load = 60 or 80 measures; land sufficient in extent for sowing one calakai of paddy (Ta.); calg a grain measure (Ko.); solage, solige, sollage, sollige a measure of capacity = 1/4 of a kud.ava or of a bal.l.a (Ka.); salaka a small sack; 2 1/2 times the measure called tu_mu (Te.)(DEDR 2365). Measurement: kola measurement; kola~di limit, extent, measure, count; kolaga~_d.u one who measures grain; kola~ta measurement, measuring; kolucu to measure (Te.); kul- (kult-) to count; kulleng to measure (Kol.); kull- id. (Nk.); kul- id. (Nk.); kolsa_na_, kols- id. (Go.); koli- (-t-) id. (Kond.a); ko_la a measure (Kuwi)(DEDR 1827b).

2728.Oil-man; sugar; mahua: kulikam south Indian mahua, iruppai (Pin..); cf. gud.a molasses (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kalu oil-man (by caste)(B.Or.); kolu_ id. (H.); kolluga, kolhua sugarcane press (Pkt.); kolu_ oilpress, sugarcane press (S.P.); kuhulu_ id. (P.); ko_lu_ oilpress (WPah.); kol (N.); kohlia_, koliha_, kolia_ sugarcane press (Or.); ko_lh oilpress (Mth.); ko_lhu (Bhoj.); kolh, kolhu_, kelhu_ oilpress (Bi.); kolhu_, kolu_ sugarcane press, oilpress (H.); kohlu sugarcane press (G.)(CDIAL 3536). kolha_r oil factory (P.); kolhua_r sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3537). kolsa_r sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3538). ku~hiya_r sugarcane (A.); kusia_r id. (Mth.); ko_s'aka_ra a kind of sugarcane (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 3541). Oil-press: kolhar, kolhu an oil factory, an oil-press, a sugar press (P.lex.) Perfume ball: kur..iyam globular, round shape; perfume ball (Cilap. 14,171)(Ta.lex.) cf. gulika_ a ball; guli_ a pill (Skt.lex.) cf. s'as.kuli a large round cake composed of ground rice, sesamum, and sugar, and cooked in oil (Skt.); cigul.i a ball made of fried gingilli-oil seed mixed with jaggery (Ka.)(DEDR 2490). Sweetmaker's shop: kullaria, kullu_ria sweetmaker; kullariya_ his shop (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3354).

2729.Jaggery shop: goliyasa_la_ shop selling jaggery (Jain.Skt.) Sugar-cane: gaud.ika relating to molasses; gaud.ika sugar-cane; gaud.ikam rum; gaud.i_ spirit distilled from molasses (Skt.lex.) gur.aur sugar boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 4183). gul.-ha_r, gurha_l. place and works for pressing sugarcane (M.)(CDIAL 4184). gul.vari_, gurval.i_, gurol.i_, gurul.i_ a puff stuffed with molasses (M.)(CDIAL 4185). gurau~dha_ ceremony of the bridegroom's elder brother offering mollases and ornaments to the bride (Mth.)(CDIAL 4186). gur.a~ba_ mollasses and mango juice (H.)(CDIAL 4187). gud.a boiled sugarcane juice, molasses (Ka_ty.); gul.a molasses (Pali); gud.a, gula (Pkt.); gur., gur.e (Sh.); go_r (K.); gur.u (S.); gur. (L.P.WPah.Ku.B.H.N.Mth.); gur.a (Or.); gu_r (Bi.); gu_r. (M.); gol. (G.); gal.pan. sweetness (G.); gu_l. (M.); gul.a (Si.); gulde sweet; gudlo, gullo, gulo (Gypsy); guliyo sweet (Ku.N.); gal.yu~ (G.)(CDIAL 4182). gaud.a prepared from molasses (MBh.); sweetmeats (R.); gaud.ika (Sus'r.); god.d.a made with molasses, sweet (Pkt.); god. sugared, sweet; god.e~ any sweet mixture (M.); god.so sweet (Konkan.i); go_l.ika prepared with molasses (Pali); gor.i_ sweetness (G.); god.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 4344). god. adj. sugared, soft (M.); god.i_ softness (G.); gudlo soft; sugar-sweets (Romany); gaud.a (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 327). gu gud. raw sugar, molasses (M.); gul.a (Pkt.); gud.a (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 327). gud.a, gula, gul.a treacle, molasses, jaggery (Ka.lex.) kut.a_kku < gud.a_ku_ (M.) ball made of tobacco, treacle, plantain and sandal, used in a hookah (W.)(Ta.); hookah, ukka_ (Ta.); cf. gura_ku_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) gur.a_ku a preparation of tobacco and molasses (P.lex.) cf. guruguru rattling of phlegm in the throat (Tu.lex.)

2730.A marriage badge: gul.a-da_l.i = ayda_l.i, ayra-da_l.i ?the sweet marriage badge, the badge of good or sweet concert (Ka.lex.); gul.l.i a small round shell (Ka.lex.)

2731.Amulet: kul.icam amulet (G.Sm.D. I,i,145); thin piece of metal with magical characters worn as a charm against evil spirits or disease (Ta.lex.)

2732.Image: bubble: gul.l.i a bubble, blister, pustule (Ka.lex.)

2733.Image: socket of the eye: gul.l.i-gan.n.u an eye on the ball of which a pustule has formed (Ka.lex.) gul.l.i, kul.l.i an ink-stand (Ka.); gulle anything hollow or empty (Te.); kuval.ai the socket of the eye; gul.l.e-muttu an artificial, hollow pearl (Ka.lex.)

2734.A fragrance mixture or paste or mallow: kor..umpah-r- in: (kut.amalaip pir-anta kor..umpah- r-a_ram : Cilap. 10,106): this is interpreted by the editor (At.iya_rkku nalla_r) as ta_ram-cantan-am akil etcetera (Ta.)(TED). {cf. the images of ox-fat perfumed cones used by ancient Egyptian women; cf. akir--kut.am interpreted as: vessel meant for burning agar incense (Ci_vaka. 2391)}. kor..uppu fat, grease, lard (Pin..); kor..u fat (Na_lat.i, 46)(Ta.lex.) cf. kolha_r oil factory (P.)(CDIAL 3537). cf. ko_lu_ oilpress (WPah.)(CDIAL 3536). {Evokes the vivid image of a threshing floor (or oilpress) with paved burnt-bricks of the Indus Valley civilization in Mohenjo-daro}. cf. kur..ampu mixture; liquid of thick consistency as sandal pastee (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,76); id. (Ma.); kur..amputal to become mixed; to be mingled as liquids of different consistency, as powders with liquids (Ta.Ma.); kur..ar-utal to mingle, be mixed up (Ko_yir-pu. Patac. 14)(Ta.lex.) ku_r..-varaku ragi; cf. ke_r..-varaku id. (Ta.lex.) kur..aittal to macerate, mash, reduce to pulp, make soft by mixing with water (Ta.); kur..ekka id. (Ma.); kur..ai-ttal to mix, as powder with liquid; to melt and blend in union, fuse (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,6,9); to gather in a lump, as boiled rice; to cause to melt (Kantapu. Me_ru. 16)(Ta.lex.) Mixture: cf. kur..ampu (kur..ampi-) to become mixed; n. mixture, liquid of thick consistency (Ta.); kur..appu (kur..appi-) to mix, stir; n. act of mixing (Ta.); kur..ampu thickened fluid, ointment; kur..ampikka to grow thick (Ka.); kol.ku to stir with the hand (Ka.); gr.oka turbid (Pe.); glo_nga (glo_ngi-) to be muddy, turbid; n. turbidity (Kui); gn.ok- to stir things in hot water (Kuwi)(DEDR 1817). Mashy; mire: kur..ai soft mud, mire (Tiva_.)(Ta.); kor..aci id. (Ka.); kur..ai-ce_r-u soft mire, slime; kur..aivu mashy condition; tenderness of mind, pity; kul.akul.attal to grow soft, as jaggery; kur..a-kur..a-ttal to be mashy, pulpy; kur..ampu mud, slime, macerated earth; ku_r..ai mud, mire (Te_va_. 473,8)(Ta.lex.) Marshy ground; mire, mud: kur..ampu mud, liquid of thick consistency (Ta.); gr.oka turbid (Pe.); glo_nga to be muddy, turbid, impure; n. turbidity (Kui); glo_pka (< glo_k-p-; glo_kt-) to make muddy or turbid (Kui); go_na e_yu muddy water; go_no puddle; go_r~r~o/gor.r.o/gorro muddy; gn.ok- to stir things in hot water (Kuwi)(DEDR 1817). cf. ghont.o turbid (Go.); got.ri muddy, dirty (Kui); grot.a' turbid (Kuwi)(DEDR 2067). Marshy ground; mire, mud: ko.b feverish place, grazing lands in feverish river valley (Ko.); kor..e dirt, mud (Ka.); kor..aci, kor..ace muddy; soft mud; kocce mud, mire, bath-drainage (Ka.); kure filth, dirt; swamp, pool (Tu.); korambe, kolambe swamp, marshy ground (Tu.); kurai mire, mud, fine clay (Ma.); kor manure, filth, mud (Ko.); kwar mud (To.)(DEDR 2123). kur..ai soft mud, mire (Ta.): ku_r..ai mud (Ta.); kur..akur..a slimy, soft (Ma.); (DEDR 1822). kor..e sakkada impure or corrupt Sam.skr.ta (Ka.lex.)

2735.Decay; corpse: kujna_ to moulder away, rot, ferment, become old (H.); kujn.e~ to lose cohesion of parts, rot, putrefy, (in games) lie out of play; kujavin.e~ to make rot; kujd.a_ rotten (M.)(CDIAL 3222). kutthai s, makes rot, rots; kutthan.a rotting (Pkt.); kuthra_ putrefaction (H.)(CDIAL 3279). kuthyati stinks (Dha_tup.); kucchai rots (Pkt.); kusn.e~ to rot; kusd.a_ rotten (M.); kuth rot (Skt.)(CDIAL 3284). kuthati s, is rotten (Pali); kuthita rotten (Pali); kuhai rots, stinks; kuhia rotted, stinking (Pkt.); kuhiba_ to rot (Or.); kuhijn.e~ (M.); kuhunu (N.)(CDIAL 3282). ko_tha putrefaction (Sus'r.); ko_ha (Pkt.); koh, koho, ko decay (G.)(CDIAL 3513). krijoiki to rot, go bad (Sh.)(CDIAL 3201). kut.umpuka to rot, putrefy (Ma.); ku_r.. what is rotten (Ma.); kol.v (kol.d-) (flesh) putrefies so as to fall apart (Ko.); kwad. to rot (To.); kwa.w decayed dead body (To.); kor..e to decay (as a corpse)(Ka.); kor..aci, kor..ace state of being putrid (Ka.); kureyuni, kurevuni, kuriyuni to decay, rot, putrefy; kul.i = kuri to decay (Tu.); k(r)ul.l.u to rot, putrefy, decay; adj. rotten, putrid, decomposed (Te.); kukka_na_ to go rotten (Go.); to rot, of hemp (Go.)(DEDR 1822). kun.apa corpse (AV.Pali); smelling like a corpse (S'Br.); kun.ava stinking; corpse (Pkt.); kun.ima (Pkt.); kun.u (Sh.); kun.uva corpse, carcass (Si.); kun.u, kunu dirty, putrified (Si.); kun.a, kuna carcass, dirty, any decayed substance (Si.)(CDIAL 3257). cf. kumbu decay (of dry trees or bamboos)(Ka.); rottenness; decayed (Tu.); kumbi dry rot, rust (Kod..)(DEDR 1753). cf. kumai to be ed soft to a mash (Ta.); kumevuni to decay, putrefy (as meat)(Tu.); kumt.u nauseating smell (Te.)(DEDR 1746).

2736.Image: one-fourth: kul.aiccu one-fourth (J.)(Ta.lex.) Tubularity: ko_lu, kro_lu tube, hole (Te.); kro_vi tube, flute (Te.); kur..al any tube-shaped thing, flute, pipe, music of the pipe (Kur-al., 66); tubularity, hollowness (Tamir..na_. 63); kur..al tube, flute (Ma.); ko_vi tube, flute, gun (Ka.); kol.ave, kolave, kola_yi a hollow tube (Tu.); kro_d.u (pl. kro_t.ka) tube, quiver (Kui)(DEDR 1818). kur..alo_n- flute-player (Cilap. 3,69)(Ta.lex.)

2737.Arrowroot: ku_vai East Indian arrowroot, curcuma angustifolia (Maturaik. 142)(Ta.); ku_ve_ (Tu.); ku_vai-ni_r-u arrorroot flour (ku_vaini_r-un. kor..un:kot.ik kavalaiyum : Cilap. 25,42); kuva_ East Indian arrowroot (Ta.lex.) cf. ku_r.. thick gruel, porridge, semiliquid food (Tiva_.); food (Pur-ana_. 70,7) < ku_ra (Skt.); ku_d.u (Te.); ku_r.. (Ka.Ma.); ku_l.u (Tu.); ku_r..-p-pacai rice gruel for starching clothes; paste (Ta.); ku_r..a_tal to be over-boiled, as rice; to become addled, as eggs; kur..ai-tal to become soft, mashy, pulpy, as well-cooked (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,1,3, Vya_.) (Ta.); kor..e (Ka.); kur..ayu (Ma.); kur..aital to be overboiled, as rice (Ta.) [cf. kuth (Skt.)](Ta.lex.)

2738.Dive for pearls: kul.i-y-a_l. pearl or chank diver (muttu-k- kul.ippo_n); kul.i-ka_ran id... (Ta.lex.)

2739.To wet; bathe: kul.i (-pp-, -tt-) to bathe, wash one's body up to the neck, take purificatory bath after menstruation, dive for pearls; n. bath, ablution, diving (Ta.); kul.ippu, kul.iyal washing, bathing (Ta.); kul.i bathing, ablusion; kul.ikka to wash, bathe, plunge into water (Ma.); kul.i- (kul.ip-, kul.ic-) to take bath; kul.peki menstruation (lit. need to bathe); kul.i mane menstrual hut; kul.ip bathing; kul.iyame pregnancy (lit. need not to bathe)(Kod..); kul.un:kuni to wet, moisten; kol.amb bath (Tu.)(DEDR 1832).

2740.Cold: kul.ir (-v-, -nt-) to feel cool (as breeze), be cool, refreshing, get numbed (as in death); n. coldness, chilliness, ague, shivering; kul.ircci, kul.irtti, kul.utti coolness, cold, act of cooling or refreshing, numbness (as in death); kul.irppu, kul.irmai, kul.umai coolness, kindness; kul.iri a fan; kul.l.a-k-kul.ir- to be intensely cool and refreshing (Ta.); kul.ir, kul.ur coldness, cool, refreshing; kul.iruka to be chilly, refreshed; kul.irma freshness; kul.irppu, kul.uppam chilliness; kul.irppikka to chill, quiet, refresh, comfort; kul.ukul.u intense cold (Ma.); kul.ak in-, kul.kul. in- (hands, feet, body) feel cool, (mind) feels calm and peaceful (Ko.); kul.ir to be cool or cold; n. coldness, coolness, cold, snow, frost (Ka.); kul.i- (kul.ip-, kul.it-) cold feeling is; kul.iri ka.a cold season (Kod..)(DEDR 1834).

2741.Image: falling water: gul.ugul.u murmuring or gurgling sound produced by running or rippling water (Ka.); gul.ugul.u a noise made as in filling a pitcher with water (Tu.); gulu-gulita roaring of an elephant (Skt.); gulagula_ thunder (Pali): gulagula_yate_ thunders (Pkt.); gul.u_gul.u_ sound of fruits falling into water (Ma.)(DEDR 1837).

2742.Extent of land: kul.a-p-pirama_n.am area of cultivation irrigable by a tank; an ancient standard weight for gold (S.I.I. i,81)(Ta.lex.) kul.a-nel, kul.a-c-cennel wild rice, oryza mutica, growing spontaneously in the bed of a tank (Ci_vaka. 355); kul.a-p-puravu the whole extent of land irrigable under a tank; kul.a-vitaippu sowing in a tank bed (Ta.lex.)

2743.Flight of stairs of a tank: ku_lu a sloping flight of stairs leading down to the water of a tank (Ka.); ku_l stair, ladder (Pa.)(DEDR 1908). Hollow; bank, shore; low-lying: ku_lam bank of a river or tank, seashore; ridge in a paddy field (Ta.lex.) ku_la declivity (RV.); shore (S'Br.); heap, mound (Car.); slope, bank of river (Pali); bank, shore (Pkt.OMth.); ku_l low-lying (Dardic); bank, shore (A.B.); ku_la_ dam (WPah.); ku_l.a id. (Or.)(CDIAL 3416). ku_la pond (Skt.); ku_lya belonging to a bank (VS.); ku_lyo along the bank of (Dardic); ku_l.ia_ situated on the bank (Or.)(CDIAL 3417). Tank: kul.am tank, reservoir, lake (kul.a-k- ki_r.. vil.ainta... ven.n.el) (Pur-ana_. 33,5)(Ta.); tank (Ma.); kol.a, kol.ahe, kon.a pond (Ka.); kul.a tank, pond (Tu.); kolanu, kola_ku, kola_kuvu id. (Te.); kollu deep pond dug or built near the outlet of a tank, in which water is collected before supplying it to fields (Tu.); kollu gun.t.a pond into which water from irrigation wells is baled out (Ma.); kol tank (Go.); glu_nju a small pool, puddle (Kui.); ku_la pond, pool (Skt.)(DEDR 1828). kul.avat.ai tax for the enjoyment of the tank and its income (Ta.)(EI 17.IEG.); an ancient tax on tanks (S.I.I. ii,247) (Ta. lex.) Tank-irrigation: kul.an.-ko_vai cultivation in the bed of a tank (Ci_vaka. 1488, Urai); kul.a-t-tul.va_y bed of a tank; deep part of a tank near the flood-gate; kul.a-p-par-ippu hollow dug out in the bed of a tank (Ta.inscr.); kul.a-p-pat.ukai, kul.a-p-pa_t.u lands adjacent to tanks; kul.a-k-ki_r.. field in front of the sluice-gate of a tank (Ta.lex.) kul.am-pa_ci fishing right in a tank; kul.m-ar..i to have the water in a tank consideratbly reduced to allow easy fishing; kul.a-varaku tank millet; kul.ava_r < kulwa_r (U.) settlement made with ryots individually; kul.ava_r..ai a coarse tank-paddy, sown in a_n-i-a_van.i, maturing in six months; kul.a-vet.t.u tank repair; a cess paid by ryots to the land-holders on account of tank repair; kul.a-vet.t.u-ma_n-iyam inam granted for the service of procuring workmen for tank repair (Ta.lex.)

2744.River: kut.iai river (Kantapu. Ka_l.inti. 3)(Ta.lex.) kut.ila bent, curved, tortuous (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kucel bend in a stream (Santali.lex.) Image: curve: kulavu bend, curve (Pu. Ve. 1,10); kulavu-tal to bend, curve (Pur-ana_. 11,4); hvar (Skt.); kula_vu-tal to be bent, curved (Ya_p. Vi. 22); to bend as a bow (Pu. Ve. 4,3)(Ta.lex.) Channel: kulya_ small river, canal, ditch (RV.); ku_la pond, tank (Skt.)< kul.am tank (Ta.); kulla_, kolla_ stream, channel (Pkt.); kuzu water-channel (Kho.); kol stream, canal (K.); kull natural or artificial stream (WPah.); ku_l conduit, canal (WPah.); watercourse (Ku.); kulo ditch (Ku.); channel, drain, ditch (N.); ku_la_ irrigation channel (H.); ku_ra deep canal (S.); ku_la id. (S.); ku_hl watercourse; kuhal (L.); ku_lh, ku_hul brook, canal (P.); kolo hole in the ground (G.); koli_ hole in the ground for a game (M.)(CDIAL 3352). kur-anku a branch channel (Ta.); kor-akalu a cut, excavation made by running water, bed of a stream (Ka.)(DEDR 1841). Valley: kolli valley (Ma..); gulf, bay (Ka.); small stream with rocky bed (Kod..); a bay (Tu.)(DEDR 2137). gul inhabited valley, country (whence goli_ tribe)(Ash.); go_l valley (Wg.); gul (Kt.); valley, country (Pr.); gal ravine, valley (Shum.); valley (Dm.); gale rivulet (Tir.); ghal, gal river (Pas'.); g'al ravine, valley (Gaw.); gehal, ghau, gha_l (Kal.); gol (Kho.); gal (Bshk.); so_n.ai-gu_l bank of a river (so_n.i_)(Phal.); ghal.a-ghal.a copious discharge of pus (Or.); ghal. trench torn up by rush of water, ravine (M.)(CDIAL 4453). galanava_ to drip, overflow (Si.); ghal.ia_ a leak (Or.); ghal.an. furrow or ravine made by overflowing water (M.)(CDIAL 4454). ghal.ay ravine (M.)(CDIAL 4455). golo_k river (Kho.); gulabo_ river (Ash.); gelewe (Kt.); gulawe (Pr.); abo_ (Ash.); a_we water (Kt.)(CDIAL 4456). sokr.a, son:gha a valley of rice-fields (Santali.lex.)

2745.Image: water-carrier; fisheerman: koli_ fisherman, water-carrier (name of a caste)(M.)(Bloch, p. 320).

2746.Smoothing plane: kur..a-v-i-r..ai-pp-ul.i a kind of smoothing plane (Ta.lex.)

2747.Rising sun: kur..avi-ja_yir-u rising sun (Tol. Po. 579, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2748.Galangal: kulajana, kulaja the plant alpinia galanga (Skt.); kulajan., kulijan. alpinia galanga (the tuberous root of which is used as a substitute for ginger)(P.)(CDIAL 3333). arrattai galangal, alpinia (Ta.); aratta alpinia galanga (Ma.)(DEDR 206).

2749.Image: hillman: kul.uvan- fowler's attendant, hillman (Ta.); kul.ivai fowler's attendant (Ta.); kul.uvan hillman (Ma.)(DEDR 1836).

2750.Image: seated: kul.itu = kuntu pp. of kul.ir seated, sit down; kul.ir, kun.d.ru, kul.l.ir, kul.l.iru, kul.l.u, kod.ru, kor to bend, to stoop; to squat; to sit down (Ka.); ku_kun.d.u, ku_cun.d.u, ku_rcukonu, ku_rcun.d.u, ku_rpun.d.u to sit down (Te.); kul.l. (Tu.); kul.l.irisu, kun.d.risu, ku_d.irisu, ku_d.risu to cause to sit down (Ka.lex.) Image: to squat: kun.d.aru, ku_d.ru, ku_d.aru to bend, stoop, squat, sit down (Ka.); kul.l.uni to sit, sit down, lodge, dwell (Tu.); kul.upu to sit (Tu.); kulali, kulli, kol.l.ani to sit (Kor.); kulsa_ stool (Go.); kul.ir to sit, rest; n. sitting, resting (Ta.); kwil. to hatch (To.)(DEDR 1835). kel.illen idinava_ to squat (Si.); kel.illa, kel.ili bending of the knees (Si.)(CDIAL 3557).

2751.Wages: ku_li wages (Ta.Te.Ka.Ma.); muyar-ci meyvaruttak ku_li tarum (Kur-al., 619); fare (Ta.lex.) ku_li wages, pay, freight (Ta.); hire, wages (esp. daily)(Ma.); id., day-labourer, coolie (Ka.); hire (Tu.); wages, hire, working for wages (Te.); labourer's wages (Pa.); wages (Go.); payment, present (Kuwi)(DEDR 1905). ku_li-k-ka_ran- hired labourer, cooly (Ta.); ku_li-k-ka_ran id. (Ma.); ku_liy-a_l. hired labourer, cooly (Ta.Ma.); kai-k-ku_li daily wages; bribe, cash payment, money paid by parents of bride to bridegroom (Ta.); bribe, fine upon a lease and its renewal (Ma.); ku.j daily wages paid in money (Ko.); ku.jga.rn, ku.j a.l. day-labourer, coolie; ku.ly ka.rn cooly (only applied to Tamil and other coolies)(Ko.); kokwily bribe, payment made by bridegroom to bride's father (To.); ku_lika_r-a, ku_liga_r-a day-labourer (Ka.); kay-ku_li, key-gu_li working as a day-labourer (Ka.); ku.li wages (Kod..); ku_li_ hired labourer, coolie (Te.)(DEDR 1905). -ku_li : ari-ku_li dues payable in handfuls of the stalks harvested (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) kol-ku_li tax for measuring or weighing (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) kol-nir.ai-ku_li tax on articles measured by weight (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ma_d.ai-k-ku_li tax for minting gold into coins (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)[ma_t.am a measure of weight = 10 kunr.i; black gram (Ta.lex.); ma_s.a (Skt.); ma_t.ai an ancient coin = 1/2 pagoda, arai-vara_han; a gold coin weighing 10 kunr-i; ma_t.u place; treasure, wealth; gold; dowry; large gem (Ta.lex.)] tula_-k-ku_li fee for weighing in balance (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.)

2752.Image: ox, covering bull: ku_l.i ox, covering bull (Ta.)(DEDR 1917). gu.l.y bull belonging to a dead man, that is released from work until its death (Ko.); Image:stud bull: ku.l.y stud bull (To.); gu_l.i bull, esp. a bull allowed to roam at liberty and dedicated to a deity (Ka.); gu.l.i a bull (Kod..)(DEDR 1917). kol.e~ hump on a bull (M.)(CDIAL 3607). Image: dewlap: kal.akampal.am bull's dew-lap (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 20); gala-kambala (Skt.); kal.am throat (Cilap. 6,157); gala (Skt.); kal.ama_lai goitre (Tiruppu. 627); kal.an- throat, neck (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) gol.o, gol.ea_ neck (Kon.lex.) ku_lam cow, elk (marai)(Ta.lex.< prob. kula.)

2753.Dwarf: ku_l.i dwarfish, malformed race of goblins constituting the army of S'iva; dwarfishness, shortness; fault; unchaste woman (Ta.lex.) cf. kul.l.am shortness in stature, dwarfishness (Ta.)(DEDR 1839).

2754.Sylvan tract: kollam-a_n.t.u Kollam or Malabar era, dating from September 824 A.D. (Ta.lex.) kollam an ancient division of Tamil land believed to have been submerged under sea (Cilap. 8,1, Urai)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); a town on the west-coast in Travancore (T.A.S. IV,9)(Ta.lex.) kollai sylvan tract, mullai nilam (kollai payin-r-u vallai yo_n:kiya : Perun.. Ucaik. 49,110)(Ta.); dry land; uncultivated land (Akana_. 89, Urai.); enclosed garden, grove; backyard, open space behind and attached to a house; kollai-p-payir corn growing on elevated ground; kollai-vel.i open uncultivated plots (Ta.lex.) khulla hut (Pkt.); kholi_ inner room (G.M.)(CDIAL 3946). ko_la_, ko_li_, ko_lwa_i_ small patch of ground to the side of a house (Bi.); kolt.o side (Bi.); kol with (L.); kolhu~, kolo~ from (L.); kol, kole near (P.); kolo_ from (P.)(CDIAL 3607). Inhabited valley: gul valley, country; gal ravine, valley; gehal, ghau, gha_l, gol ravine, valley; go_l, gul valley; gale rivulet; ghal river (Dardic); so_n.ai-gu_l bank of a river (so_n.i_)(Dardic); ghal.-ghal.a copious discharge of pus (Or.); ghal. trench torn up by rush of water, ravine (M.); gul inhabited valley, country (whence goli_ tribe (Ash.)(CDIAL 4453). kui valley, inhabited place, village (Dardic)(CDIAL 3400). cf. kue well (Ku.)(CDIAL 3401). Ravine; valley: kho_l ravine (Pas'.); khol cavity, hollow (P.); khol. stream (WPah.); kholo small river, valley (N.); khol, kholi trough in which the share lies when fixed in body of plough (Bi.); khol, kholar. cavity, cave (H.); kholiba to hollow out (A.); kholni mortice (A.); kholiba_ to dig (Or.); kholla hollow (Pkt.); khola_ hollow (L.); khola cave (Or.); khol hollowness (G.); deep (M.); kho_l. cave, hollow under rock (Kho.); khor. cavity, hollow (P.); khor cavity, hole (A.); xor deep, hollow, depth (Gypsy); ko_r cave (Sh.); khori_ enclosure (L.); khora_ empty (P.); khor enclosure, trap (N.); cave (A.H.); cavity (H.); glen (M.); khora_ pit, cave (H.)(CDIAL 3943). kol.l.a a deep place, a depth, the cleft in a rock, a cave, etc. (Ka.); kolame a very deep pit, abyss, hell (Tu.)(DEDR 2157). Valley; gulf: kolli small stream with rocky bed (Kod..); a bay (Tu.); valley, corner (Ma.); a bend, corner, gulf, bay (Ka.); kolle id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2137). Valley: kul.u_ the valley of Kulu (WPah.); kulu_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 3348). kur..i excavation, pond, well; hollow, hole, excavation, pit, grave (Ma.); (-pp-, -tt-) to form pits, hollows, cavities, excavate, inscribe, engrave (Ta.); gor.l. hollow between two sloping hills (Ko.)[cf. kur-un.i capacity measure = mara-k-ka_l (Ta.) < kur.ni to be hollowed out (Kond.a)(DEDR 1818).] Deep pit: kol.l.a a deep place, a depth, the cleft in a rock, a cave, etc. (Ka.); kolam a very deep pit, abyss (Tu.)(DEDR 2147). kol.l.am mud, slime (Kalla_. 73,17)(Ta.lex.) Artificial mound: cu_l.ikai shore (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 46); an artificial mound (Kantapu. Varaipun-ai. 7)(Ta.lex.) cf. ku_laka (Skt.) cf. cu_r.. to surround, encompass, envelope (Na_lat.i, 230); cu_r..-akar..-irukkai a fortified capital; cu_r..al surrounding, encompassing; place, locality; sand-hill (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,2,4, Pan-n-i_.); assemblage, company; cu_r..i pool in hilly tracts, tank, pond (Pur-ana_. 375); cu_r-utal to surround, encompass (Pa_rata. Ka_n.t.ava. 31)(Ta.lex.) kur..i pit, hole, hollow, cavity, dimple, depression, excavation; tank, pond (Ta.); khud.i_ (M.); goyyi (Te.); kur..i_ (Ka.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kur..i-vet.t.u digging in a field for the purpose of levelling it (G.Tj.D. 97)(Ta.lex.)

2755.Images: to spill; to topple over, to roll over; to fell trees: ku_lu to fall down, be overturned, be destroyed, ruined; ku_lisu to cause to fall, destroy (Ka.); ku_lu to fall down, sink, drop, die, fall dead; ku_l(u)cu to cause to fall, fell, bring to the ground, knock down, kill; ku_la~bad.u to fall down suddenly, sink, drop; ku_r.a_na_ to topple over (of a vessel, boulder on hillside), founder (of a bullock); ku_d.a_na_ to topple down; kura_na_ to roll over; gu_r.- id., spill, lie down to sleep; ku_r.- tree to fall; ku_r.h- to fell (Go.); gu_r- (-it-) to lie down, sleep, roll on floor (Kond.a); gu_r- (-t-) to fall down; gru_t- (-t-) to fell (Pe.); ku_ra (ku_ri-) to fall over, fall down, tumble, prostrate oneself, lie down; n. a fall, tumble. prostration (Kui); kuriyu to rain, shower, fall, leak, rain down (fire, arrows)(Te.)(DEDR 1907).

2756.Grain bazaar: ku_la-k-kat.ai grain bazaar (Cilap. 14,211, Urai); ku_lam street having shops and stalls on either side, bazaar street (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,82); regulation, rule (Kampara_. Pirama_t.164); ku_la-va_n.ikan--ca_ttan-a_r the trader-poet who wrote Man.ime_kalai (Ta.lex.) ku_l a single grain (Bshk.); n.-kul testicle (Bshk.); kula scrotum (Phal.); ku_lu a grain (Sh.); ku_l berry; ku_lu berry, corn on foot (Sh.); kulaka stone of a fruit (Car.)(CDIAL 3331). -kula : ku_lam tax on grains and pulses (Ta.)(SITI) kirukula commercial taxes or tolls on retail articles; kiruku_la-vis'e_s.am id. (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) Paddy: ku_li paddy (Kond.a.Pe.Mand.Kuwi); ku_d.i grain, paddy, seed (Kui)(DEDR 1906). Grains: ku_lam grains, esp. of 18 kinds (Ta.): nel [paddy (DEDR 3753)], pul [(bulrush millet, pennisetum typhoideum = panicum spicatum = holcus spicatus = kampu (DEDR 1242)], varaku [millet, paspalum scrobiculatum = p. frumentaceum (DEDR 5260)], tin-ai [little millet, setaria italica = panicum italicum (DEDR 3265)], ca_mai [little millet, panicum miliare, panicum miliaceum, panicum crusgalli; cf. s'ya_ma_ka panicum frumentaceum, p. mileaceum, p. colonum (CDIAL 12667)], ir-un:ku [black co_l.am; great millet, sorghum vulgare, panicum indicum, setaria italica, a maize (DEDR 525)], tuvarai [cajanus indicus (DEDR 3353)], ira_ki [ra_gi (Te.Ka.Ma.Tu.) cereal, eleusine coracana, ke_r..-varaku (Ta.lex.)], el.l.u [sesamum indicum, gingily oil seed (DEDR 854)], kol.l.u [ko_d.a (Kuwi) horse gram, dolichos uniflorus = d. biflorus = glycine tomentosa (DEDR 2153)], payar-u [green gram, phaseolus mungo (DEDR 3941)], ur..untu [black gram, phaseolus mungo, p. radiatus (DEDR 690)], avarai [field-bean, dolichus lablab (DEDR 264)], kat.alai [bengal gram, cicer arietinum (DEDR 1120)], moccai [hyacinth bean, dolichos lablab, d. tetraspermus (DEDR 5110)](Cilap. 14,211) (Ta.lex.)(DEDR 1906). kulattha the pulse dolichos uniflorus (MBh.); a kind of vetch (Pali); pulse (Pkt.); a wild pulse (B.); kulattha_ the pulse dolichos uniflorus (Skt.); kulat leguminous plant sown as a crop (Sh.); krotha the vetch dolichos uniflorus or biflorus (K.); kulth, kulthi_ d. uniflorus (P.); kulthi d. uniflorus or biflorus (N.); kurthi_ chicn-pea, d. biflorus (Bi.); kurthi (N.); kulath d. biflorus (B.); kul.atha, kul.athi chick-pea, d. biflorus (Or.); kurathi_ id. (Mth.); kulthi_, kurthi_ d. uniflorus (H.); kal.thi_, kalthi_ a kind of black seeds used as food (G.); kul.i_th, kul.i_t, kuli_d the vetch glycine tomentosa (M.); kalat a kind of small bean or gram (Si.); kul.tho, kul.thi_ d. biflorus (S.)(CDIAL 3335). kuli_naka the wild kidney bean phaseolus trilobus (Skt.); kuli_na_ a kind of wild kidney-bean, a kind of pickle (H.)(CDIAL 3346). Horse gram: kol. horse gram, dolichos uniflorus (Ta.); kol.l.u horse gram, glycine tomentosa (Ma.); ko_d.a, kor.a (pl. -na) horse gram (Kuwi); kud.u horse gram (Tu.); kon.n.e dried plants of horse gram (Kor.); kol (pl. kolkul) d. uniflorus (Pa.); kolut, kolup horse gram (Ga.); kor.e~_, kor.i, kor.e id. (Go.); kor.aka (pl.) id. (Kui)(DEDR 2153). [d. biflorus = d. uniflorus = glycine uniflora]. kol.l.at.t.u ciliate-leaved yellow horse-gram, dolichos ciliatus (Ta.lex.) kol. a small measure of weight used in ancient times (Tol. Er..ut. 164, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Bean: Dolichos lablab: shimbi (Skt.); sem (H.); makham-sim (B.); panti (M.); avarai (Ta.); seeds: febrifuge, stomachic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac; roots: poisonous; wild and universally cultivated throughout India (GIMP, p.101). nis.pa_va dolichos lablab (Car. Su. 24.6, 26.84). Vigna sinensis = dolichos lubia (Ancient Egyptian iwryt; Coptic oypw; Modern Egyptian Arabic lubya_ or labla_b) "Beans have been found in Egypt from the Old Kingdom onwards... The workmen at Deir el-Medi_na received beans as part of their wages... beans... were considered impure... In pharaonic medicine bean meal was used to treat constipation... used in an unguent to treat a urinary complaint... used in bandages or unguents to treat the 'vessels'." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.154). cf. avarai dolichos lablab (Ta.)(DEDR 264). cf. cikkat.i field-bean (Ta.)(DEDR 2496). moccai hyacinth bean, dolichos lablab (Ta.); mocca dolichos tetraspermus (Ma.)(DEDR 5110). s'imbi_ dolichos lablab (Car. Su. 27.32). kulattha dolichos biflorus [cf. alasandige a kind of pulse, dolichos biflorus (Ka.)(DEDR 242); cf. ko_d.a horse gram; kol. id., dolichos uniflorus (Ta.)(DEDR 2153); cf. kulattha (Skt.)(CDIAL 2153); hor.ec dolichos biflorus; malhan dolichos lablab (Santali.lex.). kulattha dolichos biflorus (Car. Su. 27.97).

2757.Buttock: ku_la buttock (Kol.Go.); kula_ hip (Kol.); kulla buttock (Go.); kula buttock (Go.); ku_la_ buttock (Go.); kullige the buttocks (Tu.)(DEDR App.30). gol.l.e the anus of males (Ka.); anus (Kod..)(DEDR 2159). kulla buttock (Pkt.); kulla_ hip, buttock (P.); kulo id. (G.); kula_ hip, buttock, waist (H.); kula_, kulla_, kulla_n.a_, kulha_, kulha_n.a_ buttock (M.); kole~ hump of buffalo (G.)(CDIAL 3533).

2758.Image: breast of a quadruped: kor.o bosom, breast (S.); kurouru breast (Dm.); kor.i_ breast of a quadruped (L.); koli_ chest of an animal (L.)(CDIAL 3607). kol breast, bosom; kaula_, kola_, kauli_ id., lap (H.); kro_d.a breast, bosom (AV.); ko_la breast, lap (Skt.prob. MIA.); kor.o bosom, breast (S.); kor.i_ breast (S.); kor.i_ breast of a quadruped (L.); kor.a lap (Or.); kor lap (Mth.); kora_ id. (Bhoj.); kor womb (H.); kol. lap (M.); ko_la breast, bosom (Pkt.); koli_ chest of an animal (L.); kol womb (Ku.); lap (B.); kol, kola_ lap, hip on which children are carried (A.); kol.a lap (Or.); Image: foetus: kola foetus (OMarw.)(CDIAL 3607). god, goddi_ lap (P.); god.i fastening of dhoti in front (S.); god lap, bosom (N.Mth.); goda id. (OAw.); god lap (H.); godi_ lap, arm (OMarw.); godi lap (G.)(CDIAL 4284). Image: offspring: xo_l womb, offspring, entrails, woof, weft (Br.); xo_laxu~, xo_xu_ entrails, woof and warp (Br.); koli abdomen (Malt.); ku_l belly, stomach, womb; ku_las offspring, descendant (Kur.)(DEDR 2244). [kola_ lap (H.) ~~ Drav.cf. ku_ti pudendum muliebre (Ta.); id., posteriors (Ma.)(DEDR 1887). kut.e thigh (Mand..); kut.a thigh (Pe.); ku_t.u hip (Tu.); ku_t.i hip (Kui); krun.d.u hip (?Kuwi)(DEDR 1885).,The forms gu_d.e, ku_l.e basket (Ka.) provide the analogous transformations.] Woof, weft: xo_l woof, weft, womb, offspring, entrails, (Br.); ?<IA. kol breast, bosom, kaula_, kola_ id.. lap (H.); ku_las offspring, descendant (Kur.); ku_l belly, stomach, womb (Kur.); koli abdomen (Malt.)(DEDR 2244)(CDIAL 3607). xo_laxu_, xo_xu_ woof and warp, entrails (Br.)(DEDR 2244). {The association of the woof and warp with the imagery of 'offspring' and 'womb' semantically conveys a process of weaving as analogous to the process of creation}.

2759.Image: crane: kulur a kind of crane (Pa.); a crane (Kond.a); kolor a kind of crane or heron (Pa.); kuluri id. (Kond.a); crane, heron (Kui)(DEDR 1808). cf. ul.l.al, ul.l.a_n-, ul.l.u common snipe, gallinago media (Ta.); ul.l.i sandpiper (Ma.); ullan:gi snipe; lapwing (Ka.); ulla_mu, ullan:ki, ullan:gi sp. curlew; lapwing (Te.)(DEDR 704). Image: shrike; magpie, bird: ke_ya shrike bird (Kuwi); snipe or similar bird (Pa.); ke_ga magpie (Kui)(DEDR 1994). kulinga fork-tailed shrike (MBh.); kulinkaka sparrow (Skt.); kulika_ a kind of bird (VS.) < Prob. Austro-as. kulinka a particular bird (Pali); kulang forktailed shrike (P.)(CDIAL 3343). kukkat.i fork-tailed shrike (Ka.); ku~_kat.ima~_ga id. (Te.)(DEDR 1627). kalin:ga the fork-tailed shrike (Skt.Pali); kolun:gu a kind of shrike (K.)(CDIAL 2936). kalli sparrow (W.)(Ta.lex.) kalavin:ka sparrow (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2760.Image: leopard: kukond.i, kukand.i leopard (Pa.); kukka_l id. (Go.)(DEDR 1626). kul tiger; kul dander den of tiger; an.d.kul to become tiger; hudur. to growl as tiger; maran. d.at.kap kul a big-headed tiger (Santali.lex.) kolo, kolea_ jackal (Kon.lex.) Jackal: kur..i-nari jackal (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Ve_t.an-valam. 13)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

2761.Image: kettle-drum: kul.ir kettle-drum (Ta.); contrivance to scare away parrots (Kur-icip. 43); sling; kul.ir-u to sound, rattle (Ta.lex.) cf. kulun:ku to be shaken, agitated (Ta.)(DEDR 1806).

2762.Image: loop: kun.ike, kolike, kol.ike a loop, a noose; a hook, a clasp; a knot (Ka.); kolike, ko_d.amu (Te.); kul.acu, kol.acu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) gali a looop (Santali.lex.) ga_nt. knot, noose (Kon.lex.) Image: noose; joint of the body: cf. kalakku joint (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 6)(Ta.lex.) kul.ike, kun.ike loop, noose, clasp, link, knot (Ka.); klo_lu hasp; kor.lu door-fastening (Kuwi); kur..aiccu, kur..aicci, kul.accu, kul.acu loop, noose, knot, joint of the body (Ta.)(DEDR 1824).

2763.Image: chain, link of a chain: kolucu gold or silver chain for arm or ankle (Ta.); golasu, gon.asu a link of chain (Ka.); gon.asu, gan.asu id. (Tu.); golusu a chain (Te.); golsa_ id. (Kol.)(DEDR 2134). kolucu chain measuring 22 yards, survey chain (Ta.lex.) Measuring rod: ko_lar-ai working area portioned out for each individual labourer, as deteremined by a measuring rod (Ta.lex.); kut.i-ta_nki-k-ko_l an ancient measuring rod (Ta.lex.)

2764.Taking, accepting: kol.kai taking, accepting, doctrine (Ta.); kod.a buying, taking, plucking (Kui.)(DEDR 2151). To obtain: -kol. (as the second member of a compound): to get, gain, obtain, acquire, hold on etc., e.g. kan:kol., ku_ntu-kol., manam kol. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kol. to receive, as a gift (Kur-al., 222); to buy, purchase (Nait.ata. Nakarap. 18)(Ta.lex.)

2765.Cost price: kor..u-mi_ti the owner's share of the produce of a field after deducting the Government dues (W.G.); kol.-mutal, kol.vilai cost price; kol.-vilai-k-ka_n.i land acquired by purchase (J.); kol.l.ai price (Perumpa_n.. 64); use, profit (Ira_mana_. Pa_laka_. 9); excess, abundance, copiousness, plenty (Pa_kava. 1,5,14); kolla id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Gain from agriculture: kor..u-la_pam net income or gain from agriculture; kor..u bar of metal, bullion (Ta.); kul.a id. (Ka.); koru id. (Tu.); kor..u ploughshare (Ta.Ma.); awl (Tol. Pa_yi. Urai); kor..u-k-kat.t.utal to fasten the share to the plough; kor..u-t-tat.t.utal to sharpen the ploughshare (Ta.lex.)

2766.Image: sprout; tender leaf: kur..ai-ttal to cause to sprout, shoot forth (Nar-. 140); kur..ai tender leaf, sprout, shoot (Pur-ana_. 50); kur..ai-mar-aivu dense foliage, shrubbery or trees as intercepting vision; kur..ai-pit.ittal lit., to hold a bough; to obstruct an affair; kul.u-kul.uttal to grow luxuriantly kur..ai-na_r-r-am unpleasant smell of rotten leaf or grass; kur..ai-y-uram green manure; kul.aku herbs, grass, anything that serves as food for herbivorous animals (Kalit. 42); kur..a young, tender (Ta.); cf. kud.a (Skt.); kor..untan-pu tenderness, doting affection (Tiruman. 280); kor..umai freshness as of shoots (Cilap. 4,39); plumpness, luxuriance, richness, fertility; kor..untu tender twig, tendril; tender leaf, shoot, sprout (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 2,143); id. (Ma.); kor..untu tenderness (Cu_t.a_. 12,150); scion, shoot of plant cut for planting (W.)(Ta.lex.) kus.malam a leaf; cutting (Skt.lex.) Foliage serving as clothes: kul.aku foliage, serving as clothes for women of the hill tract (Ka_cika. 44,16); greens, potherbs (W.); kur..i-ci_lai loin-cloth (Ta.); kul.i-ci_lai id.; kor..untu-vit.utal to send forth tender shoots (Tiv. Irama_n-ucanu_r-. 61)(Ta.lex.) Image: sheaf: ko_r. a sheaf in the field (Go.); xo_l rice-sheaf (Kur.)(DEDR 2253).

2767.Image: betel pepper: kor..untu betel pepper (J.); kor..untu-k-ka_l stick or pole planted to suport the betel creeper (Ta.lex.) cf. ks.o_d.a post to which an elephant is fastened (Skt.); boundary post (Pkt.); kho_d.i_ big piece of wood, wooden bolt (Pkt.); khor. piece of wood; khor.a_ stocks, handcuffs; khor.ka_ stump of a tree (H.); khor. large block of wood (G.); khod. trunk or stump of a tree (M.); khod.a_ stocks for criminals (M.)(CDIAL 3748). cf. khut.i_ peg (Ku.); khun.d. peg, stump (P.); tethering peg or post (WPah.)(CDIAL 3893). cf. ku_ccam small-sized post used in a building (Ta.); ku_cu, ku_ca post or pillar in a wall for the support of beams; gujju queen-post, strut (Ka.)(DEDR 1878). cf. kuci pit for erecting a flagstaff (Ci_vaka. 143); flagstaff (Ci_vaka. 143, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: central upright pole: kol.kompu stick or pole for supporting a creeper; help, support, aid; central upright branch of a tree (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvu. 130); kor..u-k-kompu, kor..u-kompu id. (Cevvantippu. Tirumalaicca. 9); kor..uvu-ko_l id. (Varata. Pa_kavata. Naracin.. 64)(Ta.lex.) kor..u to prosper, flourish; to be fertile or rich, as soil (Na_lat.i, 96); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kor..untu-patittal to plant a stoloniferous stem; kor..u-mutal stout stem of a tree (Perun.. Makata. 19,40)(Ta.lex.) Image: creeper, gold or silver waist-thread: kot.i creeper; gold or silver thread worn round a person's waist (S.I.I. ii,5)(Ta.lex.); kot.i creeper, what is long and thin, umbilical cord (Ma.); kor.y creeper (To.); god.i creeper (Pe.); kur.i id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2050). Images: betel pepper; flag-staff of a temple: kot.i-k-ka_l betel pepper; flag-staff of a temple (Ta.lex.); kod.i ele betel leaf (Kod..)(DEDR 2050).

2768.Image: sprout; to rise: kilar climbs; klauar raises; klinna_ ladder (Gypsy); kha_lun, kha_run to make ascend (K.); ko_lar rides, embarks; klauar gives a mount to (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3838). kil.ar (-v-, -nt-) to rise, ascend, emerge, shoot up, increase, shine, be conspicuous, be exalted, be roused; n. light; kil.arcci rising, zeal, growth; kil.artti rising in tumult; kil.arttu (kil.artti-) to raise up, fill; kil.ampu (kil.ampi-) to rise in air or water, shoot up, sprout, emerge from obscurity, prosper, be stirred, increase; kil.appu (kil.appi-) to raise, excite, rouse; n. raising, rousing; kil.appam rising, swelling; kil.ai a sprout, shoot, bud, branch; (-pp-, -tt-) to grow thick or close, abound, appear (Ta.); kil.aruka to rise, grow high, burst (as a floor not smeared with cowdung); kil.ar splendour; kil.arcca rising; kil.arttuka to raise, make high; kil.ar-uka to rise (as dust); kil.ampuka to rise, bear a grudge; kil.ukka to grow up, sprout; kil.unnu a shoot; kil.urkka to shoot, bud again; kil.a bud, sprout; kil.iccal bud (Ma.)(DEDR 1583). Image: to gape, open: kel.ar to gape, open, expand, extend, blossom, appear, rise; keral.u to increase (as pain, etc.), spread (as a sore)(Ka.); keralu to increase, rise, swell; (-t-) (leaves) to sprout (Pe.); kle_ja (kle_ji-), kelja (kelji-) to be distended (udder), be ready for milking; kr.i_pa (kr.i_t-) to swell; n. inflation, expansion (Kui)(DEDR 1583). Sprout; cluster, bunch (grouping in numeration): ku_r..e, ku_l.e stump of jo_l.a left in the ground to push out new shoots, stubble in general (Ka.)(DEDR 1914). kulai cluster, bunch (as of fruits, flowers)(Ta.Ma.); kulunku to be full, abundant (Ta.); kulekka to bear fruit (Ma.); kwin bunch of fruit, esp. plantains (To.); gole, gone cluster or bunch of fruits (plantains, mangoes, grapes, coconuts, etc.)(Ka.); konar(u) shoot, sprout, new branch (Ka.); kola (plant) shoots against (one who planted it; in a proverb)(Kod..); kole bunch of plantains (Kod..); gone a bunch of fruits (Tu.); kile, ki_le a bunch (Tu.); gola a bunch, a cluster (Te.); gela a bunch (Te.); gella a bunch (of plantains) (Kuwi) (DEDR 1810).

2769.Image: wasp: kul.avi wasp, sphegidae, carpenter bee xylocopa tenisocapa (Ta.); wasp, hornet (Ma.)(DEDR 1830). kodhana, kujjhanasi_la waspish (Pali.lex.) cf. ul.u wood-worm (Ta.Ma.); ul.uvey id. (Ta.); ul.umpu grain-moth; ul.n:gu a nit (Ka.); lu_ta ant (Te.); lupenji a species of ant (Kui)(DEDR 700). cf. nul.ampu, nul.l.al, nol.l.al gnat, eye-fly, mosquito (Ta.)(DEDR 3715). Image: seizing: kul.a, kul.ike, kul.u, kol., kol.u seizing (Ka.lex.) Notch: kula noose of bow-string, end of bow or arrow (Ma.); kulekka to draw the bow (Ma.); gole notched extremity or horn of a bow (Ka.); kulai notch in a bow to keep the string in check; bow-string (Ta.)(DEDR 1812). cf. kolike, kun.ike, kulike, kol.ike a clasp, hook (Ka.); kolike (Te.); kol.uvu to connect, join, tie together, hook in (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) gallu the hangman's hook (Ka.); gal.a id. (M.); galla_gu execution by hanging to take place (Ka.lex.)

2770.Image: scorpion: kol.li-t-te_l. scorpion (Arut.pa_. ii, Er..uttar-i. 28)(Ta.lex.)

2771.Image: nail; to pinch: kil.l.u (kil.l.i-) to pinch with the thumb and fingers, nip, pluck; n. pinching, nipping (Ta.); kil.l.uka to nip, pinch, pluck; kil.l.al pinching, a pinch (Ma.); kil.y- (kil.c-) to pinch with fingernails (To.); gin.d.u to pinch with the nails (Ka.); kin:kuni, kinkuni to pinch (Tu.); gillu to pinch, nip with the nails; n. a pinch; gillud.u pinching, a pinch (Te.); kr.ik- (-t-) to pluck (flower)(Mand..)(DEDR 1589). Image: clasp of a jewel: kol.uttu clasp of a jewel (Pur-ana_. 150, Urai.); kol.ukki hook, clasp, hasp, staple, bow of a key, ey of a hook (J.); koliki id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kol. to seize, grasp (Ta.Ma.Ka.); konu id. (Te.); kol.uttutal to cause to hold; to apply (Pur-ana_. 14, Urai); kol.uttu joint of the body (Ta.Ma.); kol.u fastening-hook of a curtain (Perun.. Ucaik. 58,52)(Ta.); kol.uvi hook, clasp (Ta.); kol.uvutal to clasp, buckle up, hook on, lock (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,12); to cause to hold (Pur-ana_. 55,1); kol.ai hold, as of a string in a bow (Ci_ka_lat. Pu. Cilanti. 57)(Ta.lex.) kol.uttu hook (Ma.); kolike, kulike, kol.ike a clasp, hook (Ka.); kolik a clasp, hook and eye; kolav, kola_yi, koltal. , kiltil, koltul a clasp (Tu.); koliki, kolki hook or clasp of a necklace (Te.)(DEDR 2151). kolike a clasp, a hook; a_r, a_ru, e_ru a pair of oxen yoked to the plough (Ka.); a_r, a_ru a frame put on the neck of cattle when training them (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2772.Wife: kur.i wife, woman, girl (Mu.); kurim (Khasi)(Mu.lex.) kur.ia a small hut in which there is room only for 2 or 3 persons to lie down (Mu.); kur.ya_ (Oraon); kur.i-au the journey of a bridegroom with his family to take a wife and bring her home; the actual bringing home of the bride (Mu.); kut.um, kut.un relationship by marriage (Mu.); kut.umb (H.)(Mu.lex.)

2773.Image: hare: gulug, guluk hare (Didey, Koraput.); glu, gulu, gulu hare, an animal locally called ka:ra (Bonda, Koraput.); gili id. (Gutob or Gadaba.); kulej hare (Ho, Singbhum, Bihar.); kulae id. (Munda.); pundi kulae white hare (Munda.) [ > pander-en, pander hare (Sora.)]; kulei hare (Santali.): kulahi (Koraku, M.P.); kujali (Mowasi, M.P.); kva:li(j) id. (Korku.) > kunde_lu hare (Te.); kuntu to sit on the heels with legs folded upright (Ta.)(DEDR 1728). kulae a hare; jar.akulae, mandariakulae a taller and darker kind; horlasikulae, l.er.eakulae a smaller kind (Mu.lex.) kur.il, kud.il, kut.il a jump, jumps; to jump over something (Mu.); kuti (Ta.)(Mu.lex.) tur-dan-en hare (Sora.) Rabbit: kur..i-muyal rabbit, lepus cuniculus (Ta.lex.) kur-u-muyal hare; kurul.ai young of hare (Ta.lex.) kulai a hare (Santali.lex.)

2774.Image: fish: kur..al milk-fish, brilliant glossy blue, attaining 3 or 4 ft. in length, chanos salmoneus (Cir-upa_n.. 163); a sea-fish, bluish, attaining several feet in length, seriola bipinnulata (Ta.lex.) kolli a kind of fish (Ma.); koleji id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2139). Image: needle-fish: ko_la_ flying fish, exocaetus; garfish, belone (Ta.); ko_la_n, ko_li, ko_la_-mi_n needle-fish (Ma.)(DEDR 2241). kur..u-mural a species of thick needle-fish (Ta.lex.) kariva_l.an--ko_la_ garfish, bluish green, attaining 3 1/2 ft. in length, belone choram (Ta.lex.) Image: carp: kul.l.a-k-ken.t.ai carp; carp, silvery, small, barbus dorsalis; kur-un.-ken.t.ai a fresh-water fish, silvery, attaining 5 in. in length, barbus chola; a small river-fish, silvery, barbus dorsalis; kul.a-k-ker..utti large river-fish, silvery, attaining more than 4 ft. in length, pemilodus buchanani (M.M. 389); cat-fish, macrones (Ta.lex.)

2775.Carp: ko_l.arica_n- carp, leaden-grey, attaining 9 1/2 in. in length, labeo ariza; cf. ko_l. serpent (Ci_vaka. 320, Urai)(Ta.lex.) kor..u-mi_n- a salt-water fish (Tirukko_. 188); id. (Ma.); kol.l.i-k-karuva_t.u a kind of salted and dried fish (Pata_rtta. 929)(Ta.lex.)

2776.Planet: ko_l. planet; me_r-ko_l. the planet Saturn (Ta.lex.)

2777.Image: trough: kur..u-ta_r..i cattle trough, made of clay and burnt (Ta.); kur..u-ta_t.i id. (Ta.) kur..i-t-ta_r..i id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kor..uni_r abundance of water (Man.i. 11,39); highly fermented liquor, as toddy (W.)(Ta.lex.)

2778.Image: pot: kur..ici pot, cooking vessel (Perumpa_n.. 366); large pot (Tiva_.); kur..iyal a kind of hollow metallic vessel; kur..i-c-cat.t.i earthen pan with hollow cavities for frying cakes; kur..imi spout of a vessel (Ta.lex.) Image: pot: ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lamba dish (Pkt.); kollara (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin..); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502). kal.amba urn for keeping things in, in the kitchen (Kon.lex.) Pot: kulla pot; kulija a particular vessel (Skt.); kulhari_ pot (Skt.); kullad.a small vessel, fireplace (Pkt.); kullud.ia_ pitcher (Pkt.); kulr.i_, kulli_ earthen pot, scrotum (G.)(CDIAL 3354). ko_d.a, ko_d.aya small earthen pot (Pkt.); ko_ri milking pail (Dm.); kor.iyu~ earthen cup for oil and wick (G.); kode~ earthen saucer for a lamp (M.); kur.ua_ tall red earthen pot for cooking curry and rice offerings in the temple at Puri (Or.); kut.a water-pot, pitcher (Skt.)(CDIAL 3227). gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin:g.); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.); ko_lam.ba dish (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3502).

2779.Image: hub of wheel: kur..ici pot, hub of a wheel (Ci_vaka. 2229)(Ta.)(DEDR 1818). kut.am hub of a wheel (Ta.lex.) Potter: kulappan- < kula_la potter (E.T.); kula_lan- potter (Perun.. Vattava. 9,48)(Ta.lex.) kula_la potter (VS.Pkt.); kaula_la potter (VS.S'Br.) > Pers. > Paraci Iranian kela_li_ pot: non-Aryan; prob. kut.a < Drav. (CDIAL 3310).

2780.To open; release: ko_lar loosens; xulav to comb out (hair), part, divide (Gypsy); kho_lun to open (K.); kholan.u (S.); kho_lun. (L.); kholhn.a_ to open, loose (P.); kholl to open (WPah.); kholn.e~ to deepen (a well)(M.); khoe releases (WPah.); kholn.o to open (Marw.); kholnu (N.); khola_, khula_ (B.); kholiba_ (Or.); kho_lab (Mth.Aw.); kholna_ (H.); kholvu~ (G.); khulan.u (S.); khullan. to be open (L.); khullhn.a_ (P.WPah.); khuln.o (Ku.); khulnu (N.); khula_ (B.); khulna_ (H.); khulvu~ (G.); khuln.e~ (M.); khulo adj. open (OMarw.)(CDIAL 3945). Loosen: kor..iyuka to fall out, drop (as fruits, leaves, hair); kor..ikka to cause to fall (Ma.); kur.hutta_na_ to take off skirt; kurahta_na_, kur.'-, kur.h- to take off clothes (Go.); kud.u_sa_na_ to undress; kussa_na_ to drop off or out (e.g. a nose-ring), fall (of leaves), drop off, drop; kus-, gus- to fall off (hair, feathers etc.); kusp- to take off (skirt); kusam slough of snake; kus- to drop (feathers as peacock)(Go.); kur.v- to become loose (Kond.a); kr.uz- (kr.ust-) (serpent) to slough skin (Pe.); kr.uhpa (kr.uht-), kr.uspa (kr.ust-) to unloose, unbind, undo, pull off, take to pieces, tear out; n. act of undoing, realising; kr.oho inba to become undone, become loose; kr.umba (kr.umbi-) to fall to pieces; kr.uppa (kr.upt-)(Kui)(DEDR 1825).

2781.Woman with sunken eyes: kur..i-k-kan.n.i woman with sunken eyes (Pa_rata. Or..ipi. 39)(Ta.lex.) Eye of a needle: kur..a what is hollow, eye of a needle, aperture in the head of an axe or hoe (Ma.)(DEDR 1818). kur..i-p-pa_r-ai ledge with hollow cavities for pounding grain (Ta.lex.) kur..i-t-tailam lit., pit oil. Oil extracted by burying and heating the pot containing medicinal herbs (Ira_cavait. 96, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

2782.Image: halves of hollow gold beads: kur..iya-vit.u-tal to form the halves of hollow gold beads to be afterwards soldered together, in jewelry (J.); cf. kur..iyam globular, round shape (Tiva_.); perfume ball (Cilap. 14,171); a kind of curved bludgeon (W.); kur..iyammi, kur..ikkal oval stone for macerating medicines; kur..ivu hollowness, depression; kur..i-tal to be hollowed out, as a hole, a pit, a cavity; to sink hollow (Na_lat.i, 49); id. (Ka.); kur..ittal to form pits, hollows, cavities; to sink, excavate (Na_n-man.i. 30); id. (Ka.); to inscribe, engrave (Kalit. 84, Urai.); kur..ippu forming pits, hollows; hollow, depression; kur..i-par-ittal to dig a pit (Pa_rata. Kirut.. 179); kuvavu roundness, fullness, plumpness (Pur-ana_. 24); kuvva id. (Te.); kuvi-tal to become round, globular (Kampara_. Nikumpa. 92); to assume a circular form, as the lips in kissing or in pronouncing labial vowels (Tiruccen. Pil.l.ait. Va_ra_n-aip. 5)(Ta.lex.) Image: mould for making gold beads: kur..iyaccu mould for making gold beads (W.)(Ta.lex.)

2783.Image: handle of spoon; stalk of leaf: kulun (pl. kulungul) handle of spoon, stalk of leaf (Pa.); klu_ju (pl. klu_ska) handle, haft, stem, shaft (Kui)(DEDR 1807). Image: ladle: xollna_ to serve (rice, meat, potatoes, etc.) out of the cooking vessel, transfer by means of a ladle from the cooking pot into the plates of bowls ready for a meal (Kur.); qole to take up liquids (as with a spoon) (Malt.) (DEDR 2140). Image: cup with brim: ko_l-val.l.am a cup with ornamental brim (Ci_vaka. 2700); ko_lu-tal to bale, draw up, as with an ola bucket (Kalit. 23, Urai.)(Ta.); ko_ru (Ma.); ko_l handle as of an umbrella (Paripa_. 3,74)(Ta.lex.) ko_l.akai ornamental ring as of an elephant's tusk (Pin..); globe, orb (Kampara_. Akalikaip. 60); envelope, receptacle, socket (W.); ko_l. enveloping (Paripa_. 4,57)(Ta.lex.) A script: ko_l-er..uttu a variety of script used in Malabar (I.M.P. Trav. 93-B.)(Ta.lex.)

2784.Image: grinding pestle: kur..avi roller of ammi and kallura, grinding pestle (Paripa_. 10,83)(Ta.lex.); small rolling stone to grind with (Ma.)(DEDR 1819).

2785.Woman's hair-knot: kur..al curling hair (Ci_vaka. 1092); woman's hair dressed by coiling and tying up behind in a roll, one of aim-pa_l [woman's hair, from its being dressed in five modes: van.t.in-an:kal. ... ampara_vukan. mat.ava_raimpa_lan.aiyum (Tiv. Periyati. 7,5,3)](Ta.); woman's hair tied in a knot (Ma.)(DEDR 1818). kur..al(l)utal to curl; to be folded back into a roll or tied in a lock, as the hair of women in kur..al; kur..ar--kottu tuft of a woman's hair; false hair for dressing the head; kur..ar-ci curling, as of a woman's hair (Ci_vaka. 1092, Urai.); roll or lock of hair tied behind; kur..ar-cikai hair of the head (Ci_vaka. 252)(Ta.lex.)

2786.Cinnamon: kollama_ a species of cinnamon; a_n-aikkuru (L.)(Ta.lex.)

2787.Sqare feet of land: kur..i square of a number; square foot; twelve square feet in land measure; a land measure varying in different places from 144 sq. ft. to 576 sq. ft.; a unit of square measurement for building sites = the square of a tacca-k-ko_l of 33 inches (G.Tn.D. 239); kur..i-ma_r-r-u table of squares (arith.); multiplication table; kur..i-ma_rutal to square, to multiply; kur..i-co_tan-ai estimation of the total produce of a field from that of a single kur..i harvested; kur..ippar-ai pariah caste (Ta.lex.) Measure: cf. -gho_l in: na_bhigo_l the measure of two cubits (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kur..i-k-kan.akku square measure of land; kur..i garden bed, irrigated portion of a garden (Na_n-man.i. 16); kur..i-k-kuttu pit made for transplantation (Ta.lex.)

2788.Measure: kul to count (Kol.); kulleng to measure (Kol.); ko_la a measure (Kuwi); koli to measure (Kond.a)(DEDR 1827-b). kulija a measure (Pa_n.)(CDIAL 3354). kul.akam a dry or liquid measure = 1/8 na_r..i (Ta.); kwa.x (when numerated, kwa.w) a large measure (?To.); kol.akam a measure of 50 id.anga_r..i in Wayana_d.u (Ma.); kol.aga, kul.a a measure of capacity = 4 bol.l.a (Ka.); kol.aka a measure of capacity (Kod..); kol.aga a measure of grain (Tu.); kolagamu a water-vessel (Te.Inscr.)(DEDR 1827-a). calakai a grain measure = 1/3 poti or a bullock load = 60 to 80 measures; land sufficient in extent for sowing one calakai of paddy (Ta.); calg a grain measure (Ko.); solage, solige, sollage, sollige a measure of capacity = 1/4 of a kud.ava or of a bal.l.a (Ka.); salaka a small sack; 2 1/2 times the measure called tu_mu (Te.)(DEDR 2365). kulya a measure of capacity = 8 dro_n. (IE 8-6.IEG.); a land measure, shortened form of kulya_va_pa, [kulava_y (B.)] an area of land requiring one kulya measure of seed to be sown (IE 8-6. EI 28, 29.IEG.); kulya_ a channel for irrigation (EI 13. IEG.) [cf. kuli (Ta.) a small land measure = 1/240 pa_d.agam (IE 8-6. EI 28. IEG.) 4 bol.l.a = 1 kol.aga: [This mensuration equation gets semantic confirmation: bol.l.a flood, inundation (Tu.); vel.l.am flood, deluge (Ta.); be_l large hill-torrent (?Br.)(DEDR 5503). The result? kul.am tank, reservoir, lake (Ta.); kol.a, kol.ahe, kon.a pond (Ka.); ku_la pond, pool (Skt.)(DEDR 1828)]. ko_la a measure (Kuwi); kola measurement (Te.); kolucu to measure (Te.); kulleng to measure (Kol.); kul to count (Kol.)(DEDR 1827-b). kur..i a unit of square measure for building sites = square of 33 inches, a tacca-k-ko_l (carpenter's rod); a land measure varying from 144 sq. ft. to 576 sq.ft.; garden bed, irrigated portion of a garden; pit, hole, hollow; tank, pond (Ta.lex.) [cf. gale (Ka.) as a linear measure, MIAI, p.16: 13, 18, 25 spans; MIAI, pp.48-49: kula or kulya as much land as could be cultivated by two ploughs; kula lands of one cultivator. kulya_va_pa, a_d.ha_va_pa, dro_n.ava_pa are mentioned in Bengal inscriptions. 1 kulya = 8 dron.a = 32 a_d.haka. kha_ri = 16 dron.a.] kol.aka a measure of capacity (Kod..); kol.aga id., = 4 bol.l.a (Ka.); a measure of grain (Tu.)(DEDR 1827-a). kwa.x (when numerated kwa.w) a large measure (?To.); kul.a, kol.aga a measure of capacity = 4 bol.l.a (Ka.); kul.akam a dry or liquid measure = 1/8 na_r..i (Ta.); kol.akam a measure of 50 id.anga_r..i (Ma.)(DEDR 1827-a). kud.ava a measure of grain = 1/4 prastha (MBh. < Drav. kut.a pot; kul.a_va pot, vessel for oil (Si.)(CDIAL 3227). kol.ve~ a measure of capacity = 1/8 ser (M.)(CDIAL 3246). [cf. ko_l, ku_l length, largeness (Ka.); ko_lu big, huge; much, very (Te.)(DEDR 2239)].

2789.A coarse paddy: kur..i-y-at.icca_n- a coarse paddy sown in a_van.i-purat.t.a_ci, maturing in four months (Ta.lex.) kol.ake, kol.ke the third crop of rice (Ka.); kolake, kol.ake id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2154).

2790.Image: hoof: kul.ampu hoof (Ta.Ma.); kol.k hoof (Ko.); kwil.x lower joints of calf's leg down to hoof, wrist (To.); kol.aga, kol.agu, kon.agu hoof (Ka.); kol.bu id. kolanci, kol.nci, kol.ci id. (Kor.)(DEDR 1829). [Mensuration: cf. kol.age measure of capacity = 4 bol.l.a (Ka.)(DEDR 1827).] kuracu, kuraccai horse's hoof (Ta.); gorasu, gorase, gorise, gorusu hoof (Ka.); gorija, gorise, gorije, korije id. (Te.)(DEDR 1770). khura hoof (Ka_tyS'r.Pali.Pkt.Or.); khur (Wg.Phal.Mai. L.P.Ku.N.B. Bhoj.H.); heel (G.); foot (Gaw.Kal.Bshk.WPah.); ku_r hoof, foot (Ash.); kurka_ heel (Ash.); kyur foot (Kt.); kyurkete heel (Kt.); khuri_ hoof, heel (Pas'.); xu_r foot (Pas'.); xurem my foot (Shum.); khu_ foot (Tor.); khu_ri heel (Sh.); khu_ru hoof (Sh.Konkan.i): khor foot (esp. human)(K.); kho_r foot of any living being; foot (K.); khu_ru leg of a bed, etc. (K.); heel (K.); hoof, foot of bed (M.); khuru hoof (S.); khura_ hoof (A.); hoof, leg (Or.); foot of bedstead (B.); foot track (L.); hoof print (P.); heel of shoe (H.M.); khuri_ heel (L.); small hoof, heel of shoe (P.H.); hoof (Mth.); forepart of hoof (M.); khu_r hoof (Mth.); hoof print (H.); khari_ hoof (G.); kuraya hoof (Si.); khuluha ankle (Pkt.); xur hoof (Gypsy); khur.i_ heel (S.); khu_r. foot (WPah.)(CDIAL 3906). khura_t.i dust raised by the hoofs of cattle (Or.)(CDIAL 3909). khurin hoofed (VarBr.S.); khin heel (Bshk.); khunik (Gaw.); khunike (Sv.); khun.yo back-strap of a heel fixed for raising it (S.)(CDIAL 3911). Ankle: gulpha ankle (AV.); guppha, gompha, gubbha id. (Pkt.); gopphaka id. (Pali); gro_pa, das-gro_pa wrist (Dardic); gopha_ ankle (M.); gopu ankle (Si.)(CDIAL 4216). gla_vah round lump of flesh (AV.); gu_lus wrist (Bshk.); gulucu ankle (Dardic); gulu_cu wrist (Dardic); gulu forearm above wrist (K.); giryo ankle (S.)(CDIAL 4214).

2791.Raft: kol, kolu (a joining), a raft; ko_l a raft, a float (Ka.Ta.Te.); ko_la (Skt.) (Ka.lex.) par-ugol, har-ugol a round basket boat lined with leather, a boat made of wicker work covered with hides (Ka.); arigo_lu, harigo_lu (Te.); paracal, paracai, paricu (Ta.); por-e a boat = do_n.i (Ta.); par-u, por-a, har-a flying (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Float, raft: ko_l, ko_lam float, raft (Ta.); ko_lam raft (Ma.); ko_l raft, float (Ka.); ko_lamu id. (Te.); kola- boat, raft (BHSk.Skt.); kulla id. (Pali)(DEDR 2238). cf. o_t.am boat, raft, float, vessel (Ta.); boat (Ma.); o_t.a_vi shipwright, boatbuilder (Ta.); o_t.a_yi shipbuilders; o_t.i a large seaboat (long and narrow, chiefly from the Laccadives)(Ma.); o_d.a boat (Ka.Tu.); ship, vessel (Te.); boat, trough (Pa.); boat (Go.); o_r.a, oda (i.e. o_d.a) donga (Go.)(DEDR 1039). o_d.i a large, long and narrow seaboat (M.)(Ka.lex.) Raft, float: ko_l-valittal to propel boat with oars (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ko_l, kal, kol, ko_la a raft, a float (Ka.Te.); ko_la (Skt.); kalam (Ta.Ma.); kalamu (Te.); kala_, kale a ship (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kala a pot, vessel (Ka.); kalam (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) har-a, par-a flying etc.; har-agal, har-akal, har-agalu, par-ugol a round basket boat lined with leather, a boat made of wicker work covered with hides; har-agalu-kad.a a ferry for such a boat; har-agol, har-ako_l, har-a-go_lu id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kalam ship, boat (Man.i. 16,120); kalam id. (Ma.); kalamu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kala-p-par-r-u calking of a boat; kala-p-par-r-ukka_ran- one whose occupation is the calking of ships, boats, etc., calker; kala-p-par-r-u-t-to_n.i calked boat, surf-boat, the seams of which are formed by joining planks without lapping (W.); kala-p-par-r-ul.i calking-iron (Ta.); kalavar navigators, sailors (Na_n-man.i. 16); passengers in a ship (Tiv. Periyati. 11,8,2); inhabitants of a maritime tract (Ta.lex.) kala_si a khalassy; a seaman, lascar etc. (Ka.M.); khala_s'i_ (H.); kal.a_suva_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2792.Boat: ku_t.a a ship, a boat, bhaitra, had.agu (Ka.lex.) ud.upa also known as kot.t.imba was a raft used for crossing a river; a medium-sized raft; identified with cotymba mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea (Jain.Skt.) ku_t.t.u-ppat.aku boats provided with movable tops, to carry about 16 passengers or cargo varying from 3 to 7 tons (M.M. 915)(Ta.lex.) Ship: cf. cotymba cited in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea; loc. cit. Moti Chandra, Trade and trade routes in Ancient India, 1977, p.49). kot.t.imba medium-sized ship (An:gavijja_, p.166; loc. cit. Jagdishchandra Jain, Life in Ancient India as depicted in Jaina Canon and Commentaries, p.156). ud.upa raft (MBh.); ul.umpa raft (Pali) ud.uva boat (Pkt.); ur.u boatman (Or.); or.vu~ small boat (G.); od.i boat (Si.); oruva boat, canoe (Si.)(CDIAL 1695). cf. tut.uppu oar (Ta.); tut.ippu boating stick (Ta.); tut.uppu paddle (Ma.); tud.upu oar (Ka.)(DEDR 3299). Image: ladle; paddle: tur..a-ttal to stir, as with a ladle (Pur-ana_. 26,188); tol.asu id. (Ka.); cf. dul swing, wander (CDIAL 6453); to shake to and fro (Skt.lex.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tur..avu (tur..avi-) to stir with a ladle; to paddle or row a boat (var..aiyamai ca_ral kamar..at tur..ai-i : Malaipat.u. 181); tur..a_vu (tur..a_vi-) to paddle or row a boat (Kampara_. Kukap. 60); tur..a_ to paddle or row a boat (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 35); tur..avai split bamboo used as a rudder to steer a small boat (J.); tur..avai-tot.uttal to paddle a raft or boat (W.)(Ta.lex.); tur..ai (-v-, -nt-) to propel by oars (Na_.)(Ta.); tur..a paddle, rudder (Ma.); tur..ayuka to paddle, steer (Ma.); tor..asu to row (Ka.); sulayi rudder; sula_vuni to row a boat; tul.apini, tul.a_vuni to row, paddle, steer (Tu.)(DEDR 3356). cupi rudder of boat (Santali.lex.) sukha_n.e rudder (Kon.lex.) aritram rudder (Skt.lex.) ho_d.a raft, boat (Skt.); hor.i_, hola_ canoe, raft (H.); hor.i_ boat (G.); hod.i_ canoe made of hollowed log (M.)(CDIAL 14174). o_t.am boat, raft, float, vessel (Ta.); boat (Ma.); o_t.i a large seaboat (long and narrow, chiefly from the Laccadives)(Ma.); o_d.a boat (Ka.Tu.); ship, vessel (Te.); boat, trough (Pa.); boat (Go.); o_r.a, oda (i.e. o_d.a) donga (Go.)(DEDR 1039).

2793.Basket-maker: kuluvara, kuluyara basket-maker, worker in straw (Si.); kulyaka_ra basket-maker (Skt.)(CDIAL 3351). cf. kulla boat (Pali); ko_l raft, float (Ta.Ka.)(DEDR 2238). Image: winnowing basket: kor..ittal to sift in a winnowing fan (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 29); kor..iyalarici, kor..iyal ill-cleaned rice (Perumpa_n.. 275, Urai)(Ko_yilo. 62)(Ta.lex.) Receptacle: kol.-kalam receptacle (Kur-al., 1029); basket made of palm leaf or bamboo (Ta.lex.) kulya receptacle for burnt bones of a corpse (MBh.); winnowing basket (Skt.); kulla raft of basket work, winnowing basket; kullaka crate (Pali); kullad.a packet (Pkt.); kula_ winnowing fan, hood of a snake (A.); kul, kula_ winnowing basket or fan (B.); kula_ winnowing fan; kula_i small winnowing fan (Or.); kulla, kulu winnowing basket or fan (Si.)(CDIAL 3350). Image: round basket: kulukkai, kuluppai, kulumai circular earthen bin for storing grain (Ta.); kulukka receptacle for rice, made of bamboo mats or twigs (Ma.); kolki_ a big basket to store grain, kept on a terrace below the roof (Kond.a); kolki receptacle for storing paddy (Kuwi)(DEDR 1805). curki, curki_ a small basket (Go.); surki id. (Kond.a.Kuwi); curki id. (Pe.); curiyal a round rattan basket (Ma.)(DEDR 2691). Nest: kuda_m nest (Bal.); kula_ya woven texture, web, nest (AV.); kula_vaka nest (Pali); ku_d.e basket; ku_d.uva nest, cage (Si.)(CDIAL 3340). ghol nest (Ku.N.); gho_la nest (Skt.)(CDIAL 4525). kula_yam < kula_ya bird's nest (Kaivalya. Can. 124); bird's cage (Pin..) (Ta.lex.) cf. kula_ya woven texture, web, nest (AV.) < ku_t.ai (Ta.); ku_t.a (Ma.); gu_d.e (Ka.Tu.); gu_d.a basket (Te.); ku_t.u (Ta.); ku_d.u (Ma.); gu_d.u nest (Te.Tu.Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

2794.Sandal-wood: kulavari sandal-wood; red sandal; kulavuri id. (W. Malai.); cecantan-am (Ta.lex.) kulavu-tal to lie heaped as sand (Ain:kur-u. 153)(Ta.lex.)

2795.Mountain range: kulakiri chief mountain ranges in Jambu_-dvi_pa (Pin..); kulaparuvatam id.; kulavarai id. (Tiva_.); kulam mountain (Iraku. Ci_taiva. 32); kulavarai lofty mountain (Kampara_. Varaik. 35)(Ta.lex.)

2796.An ancient cart: kolla_-p-pan.t.i < prob. khula_ + (U.) a car-like vehicle drawn by bullocks, used in ancient times by persons of rank (Cilap. 6,120, Urai); ko_la_rvan.t.i (Ma.); kolla_van.t.i id. (Ci_vaka. 858, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) (Ta.lex.) kolla_ru, kolla_ra, kolla_ri, kolla_ru (kol = kolike-a_ru) a cart to which oxen etc. are yoked (Ka.); kola_ruban.d.i, kolla_ruban.d.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2797.Image: pudendum muliebre: koyil pudendum muliebre (Tu.); golli pudendum muliebre (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 2138). ku_ti (Ta.Ma.);kur-icci (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

2798.Taxes: ko_- : koyil-va_s'i minor taxes payable to the palace (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ko-mur.ai revenue due to the king (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ko-pada-va_ram tax due to the king (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) kol.u tax on ploughs (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) kol.vari tax in kind (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)

2799.Reaping: koyl. harvest, reaping (Ko.); koy- (koc-) to cut (Ko.); to reap, harvest, cut, pluck (flowers, etc.)(Kond.a.-t-); to cut (grass, weeds, etc.)(Pe.); to reap, harvest (Pa. ko-); to cut, to reap (Go.Ga. kod-, kon-); to cut, crop, reap (Ka.); to cut, harvest (Kod.. koyyuv-, kojj-); koilu reaping, harvest (Tu.); koyyelu harvest (Tu.); koyilu reaping, harvest (Tu.); cutting, reaping, plucking (Ko.); kuyilu id. (Ko.); koyika man who cuts (Ko.); koyka to cut, reap, crop, mow (Ma.); koyyal, koyttu reaping (Ma.); koyil the hire of a fruit-gatherer (Ma.); koia_na_, ko_iya_na_ harvest wheat or crops; to gather berries, mangoes, etc. (Go.); koida_na_ to reap (Go.); ko_va (ko_t-) to reap, cut off; n. reaping, harvesting (Ku.); ko_eri harvest, reaping (Kui); koiyali (ko_t-) to pluck (Kuwi); xoyna (xoss-) to cut down grass and the like with the sickle, mow, reap (Kur.); qoye to reap (Malt.); qoytre to have the crop reaped (Malt.)(DEDR 2119). kol.ake, kol.ke the third crop of rice (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 2154). [Many etyma semant. 'barley and the great millet', perhaps the life-sustenance of the proto-Indus civilization, indicate a Proto-Indus > Dravidian > Dardic > Aryan flow of phonetic transformations: the principal changes are: kor.l > co_l. followed by the dropping of the prefix particle: co_l.. cf. the paucity of morphemes with initial consonant l-/r- in the Drav. stream.] Reaping, cutting: lunna_ti cuts, reaps (TBr.Pa.); lunana id. (Pa.); lun.ai id. (Pkt.); lun id. (Bshk.); lu_n., lu_n id. (Dardic); lonun, lo_nun id. (K.)(CDIAL 11082). lu_na cut, reaped (MBh.Pa.); lu_n.a id. (Pkt.); lu_n.adu_ has been cut (of wheat)(Dardic); lu_nu to reap (K.)(CDIAL 11094). atha-lo_n reaping crops by hand (K.)(CDIAL 11095). la_bu to be reaped (S. [> la_b harvesting (Brah.)]; la_b, la_bo leaf (Ku.)(CDIAL 11036); la_ba_ro harvest (S.)(CDIAL 11037). luban.u to be reaped (S.)(CDIAL 11038). la_van. row of 40 sheaves in harvest field (one of which is the reaper's wage)(L.); la_uni_ harvest (H.); la_n. reaping (M.Ko.); la_n.i_ reaping (M.Ko.); sickle (M.); la_hn.i_ reaping, rice or other grain (< la_bhana)(M.); la_yana cutting X da_yana (Pa.)(CDIAL 11035). [cf. la_van.ya loveliness (Skt.); la_vana charm (OG.)(CDIAL 11034).] la_vaka reaper (Skt.Pali); la_yaka id. (Pali) (X da_ti); la_wa_ hired reaper (P.H.)(CDIAL 11032). la_v reaping (K.); la_i_ wages for reaping (S.); reaping, wages for reaping (L.); la_vi_ id. (L.); a day's labour at reaping (P.); la_u reaping (H.)(CDIAL 11031).

2800.Images: hunter; to kill: kol (kolv-, kon-r--) to kill, murder; n. act of killing (Ta.); kolli killing (Ma.); kula killing, murder (Ma.); kol act of killing (Ko.); kolga.rn murderer (Ko.); kol, kolu, kollu (kond-) to kill, murder (Ka.); kole killing, murder, slaughter (Ka.); koll- to kill (Kod..); kole murder (Tu.); koru, kori, korru to kill (Kor.); kollu id. (Te.); kola murder (Te.); xalling to strike, kill, fire (gun), throw (stone)(Br.)(DEDR 2132). kolaivan- murderer (Man.i. 25,174); hunter, one who lives by chase (Kalit. 12); S'iva as destroyer (Kalit. 103,14); kolaian- hunter (Na_lat.i, 331); Can.t.a_l.an- whose profession was to kill animals (Tiva_.); kolainan- id. (Ci_vaka. 2770)(Ta.lex.)

2801.Image: tail: xola_ tail (Kur.); qoli tail (Malt.)(DEDR 2135). Images: tail; monkey: ku_lam tail of a quadruped; monkey (Ta.lex.) ko_kilam monkey: ko_la_n:ku_lam < go_-la_n:gu_la langur, white-bearded ape, presbytis entellus (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Image: lizard: ko_kilam wall-lizard: cf. ko_ka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: tail, drooping: rum tail (Kho.); lu_, ru_, lo_man, lu_man tail (Skt.); lime_t. tail (Dardic); lumat., lume_t.i, li_m tail (Dardic)(CDIAL 11096). lembe_ tail (Dardic); lumbi_ bunch (Pkt.); lu_mna_ to droop (H.); lumba hanging (Skt.)(CDIAL 11089). jo_l(u) (jo_ld-/jo_t-) to hang down, swing, oscillate; to let hand down (Ka.); jo_l(u) hanging down (Ka.); jo_li, jo_le hanging, swinging, dangling (Ka.); jo_lu pendent, flapping (Tu.); jo_la_t.a hanging, oscillation (Tu.); jo_la lullaby, cradle song (Te.); ho_l to shake (GO.)(DEDR 2889). kol.ai melody, song (Ta.); kol. tune, song (Ko.); kon. words of songs, words used in dance-song (To.)(DEDR 2155). Image: body hair, wool: lo_man hair on body of animals or men (RV.); body hair (Pa.Pkt.); lum a single hair (Dardic); lu_m hair, wool (Dardic); down on body (of men or animals), single hair of down (K.); lu~a, lu~_ body hair (S.); lu~_ body hair (L.P.); lu_i~_ id. (L.); body hair, down (P.); nom body hair (A.); lom id. (G.); hair, wool, fur (Si.); lo~v, lo~, la~v id. (M.)(CDIAL 11154). so_r.a a hair (Kui); hora a single hair of the beard (Kuwi); ho_d.anga beard (Kuwi); so_n.ayya~_, so_r.a ba_n.aa~_ beard (Kuwi); horana beard, moustache (Kuwi); ho_r.a (pl. ho_r.aya~_) id. (Kuwi); sorkoo man with a beard (?Go.)(DEDR 2894).

2802.Ficus: ko_l.i banyan, fig, tree bearing fruit without outwardly blossoming (Ta.); an epidendron, grasping plant (some figs are of this nature)(Ma.); ko_n.i fig (Ta.); go_l.i all kinds of fig trees which bear no apparent flowers; banyan; ficus elastica (Ka.); go_n.i ficus elastica, ficus religiosa (Ka.); go_l.ida mara banyan tree, ficus indica (Tu.)(DEDR 2254). gullhar, gullar ficus glomerata (P.); gullar a particular kind of fig tree (N.); gu_lar ficus glomerata (H.); gular, guler, gulro (G.)(CDIAL 4218). kur-u-v-a_l jointed ovate-leaved fig (Ta.); kurivi-y-a_lan- a common avenue-fig having stout air-roots, ficus (B. 91)(Ta.lex.)

2803.Lion: ko_l.ari lion (Ta.Ma.); ko_l.ari-k-kot.iyo_n- Bhi_ma, as having a lion-banner (Ta.lex.)

2804.Red powder; festival: kula_l < gula_l (U.) redness; red powder thrown about at the Ho_li festival; kulikam vermilion (Kampara_. Varaik. 25); redness; cf. hin:gula (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Beauty: ko_lam beauty, colour, form, shape (Ta.); form (Ma.); idol, body, beauty (Ma.); ko_la ornament, decoration, form (Ka.)(DEDR 2240). hulai rubs, cleans (Pkt.); hol.n.e~ to wash (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 14178). ho_la_ spring festival (Skt.); ho_la_ka (Skt.); ho_li_ (Skt.); ho_liya spring festival (Pkt.); hu_li spring festival (K.); hori_ (S.P.); holli_ (P.); holi_ (Ku.Bi.H.); holi (N.B.); hori (N.Mth.); hli (A.; hul.i (Or.); hori_ pile of wood for burning at the spring festival (OAw.); hori_ the festival (H.); hol.i_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 14182). cf. ol.i light, brightness, splendour, star, fire, lamp, beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 1016). Festival: For semant. 'good, clean' and 'festival' cf.: ho_l- (-t-) to be beautiful, fine, good, excellent (Pe.); hu_lpa to be fine, beautiful (Mand..)(DEDR 2890). cf. ol.i excellence, fame (Ta.); ol.y, ol.yd good (Ko.); wil.y good (To.); ol.(u), ol.itu, ol.atu, ol.l.it(t)u that is good, handsome, excellent; ol.(u)pu, ol.uhu, ol.tana, ol.l.etana, ol.l.e goodness; ol.l.ida a good man (Ka.)(DEDR 1017). Crowd: hullar. riot (P.); hul mob, crowd (N.); hul riot (A.); hullar. crowd, noise (H.); hular. riot (G.); hulad. (M.)(CDIAL 14141). hud.ati, hun.d.ati collects (Dha_tup.); hur-hur blazingly (N.); hur.a_ to grow luxuriantly; hur. crowd (B.)(CDIAL 14136). cf. oli (-v-, -nt-; -pp, -tt-) to shoot forth, be luxuriant, prosper, thrive (Ta.)(DEDR 997). go_l., go_r.. roaring, sound of howling lamentation (Ka.); go_la loud outcry, howl; go_lu loud noise or outcry (Te.)(DEDR 2252). cf. oli (-pp-, -tt-) to sound, roar; sound, noise, roar (Ta.)(DEDR 996). gullu loud noise, hubbub (Ka.); a great noise, shout, uproar (Tu.); gollu noise, hubbub, uproar; kolakola noise, tumult; golagola a confused noise; go_lu loud noise or outcry; gulgu to grumble (Te.)(DEDR 1813). cf. ku_l. (kul.v-, ku_n.t-) to crowd together, assemble, muster; ku_l.i company, multitude, family (Ta.); gu_l.e, gu_l.evu, gu_l.ya, gul.e, gul.ya people leaving a place en masse from invasion or famine (Ka.); gul. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1915). Costume; dance: ko_lam costume, attire as worn by actors, ornament (Ta.); figure (chiefly of masks, dresses)(Ma.); ko_la figure (chiefly of masks, dresses, etc.)(Ka.); a devil-dance (Tu.); ko_lamu a dance, dancing (Te.); ko_la the d.and.ar dance (i.e. stick dance)(Go.); ko_la pa_t.a kind of song associated with the d.and.ar dance (Go.)(DEDR 2240). Image: masquerade dance: kor-r-i a masquerade dance (Cilap. 3,13, Urai.); kot.t.amu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ku_l.i devil, demon (Ta.); demon, ghost (Ma.); kole ghost (Ka.); kul id., apparition (Tu.); kol.nari devil (Kor.); cf. pe_nkul.i demon, madness, fury (Ka.)(DEDR 1918). eka gut.ia one-legged demon (Santali.lex.) cf. alar-al loud cry, great sound (Ta.)(DEDR 245).

2805.Bright colour: ke_r..al bright colour, hue (cem. ke_r..ar-r-a_marai : Patino. Tirukkaila_. ula_, arivai,1). kal.ai beauty, splendour, glow, lustre (mukamun. kal.aika l.in-ru)(Ta_yu.van.n.am)(Ta.lex.) ke_r.. light, lustre, brilliance (nayam. ke_r.. peruval.a nalku nallu_ra: Tacaiva_. 392); bright colour, hue (on:ke_r.. nur-r-ita r..alarin : Pur-ana_. 27)(Ta.lex.) ke_r..tta bright-hued; abundant (Ta.lex.) Colour: ker..u colour (kuruvum. ker..uvu nir-ana_ kumme_ : Tol. Col. 303); brightness, luminosity, brilliancy (Ta.lex.) = ? ghat.t.ayati rubs, touches, shakes (Sus'r.); ghot.nu to rub, polish, wear away (N.); ghot.t.a_ a paper-polishing instrument (P.); ghot.o rub with a pestle (S.); gho~t.iba to mix by stirring (A.); gho~t.n.e~ to grind, rub, polish (M.)(CDIAL 4417).

2806.Wild rice: ke_r..al wild rice (Ci_vaka. 1422); bright colour (Patin-o. Tirukkaila_. Ula_. Arivai, 1); ker..tta bright-hued (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,96); ke_r..tta abundant (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,1,7); ke_r.. bright colour, hue (Pur-ana_. 27); light, lustre, brilliance (Tacaiva_. 392)(Ta.lex.)

2807.Millet: ke_r..-varaku ragi, a millet, eleusine coracana (Pata_rtta. 1394)(Ta.lex.)

2808.Image: vine: kor-r-avan- balloon-vine (Malai.); kor-r-a_n- parasitic leafless plant, cassytha filiformis (M.M. 230); kor-r-ikko_rai a kind of sedge, cyperus (Ta.lex.)

2809.Image: royal presence: kolu royal presence, durbar, sitting-in-state; presence of the deity in a temple (Maccapu. Naimica_. 5); koluvu (Te.); kolu (Ma.); decoration in a Hindu house at the time of the navara_tri festival; kor-r-am victory, success (Kur-al., 583); kor-r-avan- king, monarch (Ci_vaka. 2544); victor (Maturaik. 88); id. (Ma.); kor-r-avi queen (Ci_vaka. 2609); kor-r-avai Durga_ as the goddess of victory (Tol. Po. 59); kor-r-i id. (Kalit. 89); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ko_lam beauty, colour, form (Ta.); form, figure; idol, body, beauty (Ma.)(DEDR 2240). gulusu:ra:ja:n name of a Sora deity (Sora.) Images: decoration; procession: ko_la ornament, decoration; form, figure, chiefly of masks, dresses etc. (used also in devil-dances)(Ka.M.Ta.Tu.); dance (Te.); public procession, as on the birthday of children, as that of the bride and bridegroom etc. (Ka.Ta.); ko_ppu arrangement, nice order (Ta.); ko_pu a sort, kind or variety; dramatic gestures or attitudes (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_lam-va_tal to go in procession (W.)(Ta.lex.)

2810.Name of a people: go_hilla name of a people (Pkt.); goilwa_la_ a caste of Vais'yas (H.); gohil name of a Rajput clan (G.Marw.)(CDIAL 4300). kulu_ta, kulu_taka name of a people (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 3348). Family; migration: gu_l.e, gu_l.evu, gu_l.ya, gul.e, gul.ya people leaving a place en masse from invasion or famine (Ka.); gu_l. id. (Tu.); ku_l. (ku_l.v-, ku_n.t.-) to crowd together, assemble, muster; ku_l.i company, multitude, family (Ta.)(DEDR 1915). gul.e~, gud.he~ inhabitants of a village in flight from marauders (M.)(CDIAL 4223). kol name of a Mun.d.a_ tribe (B.); ko_la name of a degraded tribe (Pkt.Skt.)(CDIAL 3532). kol-kur-umpu village in a desert tract, as inhabited by murderous tribes (Ir-ai. 1,18); kolli-c-cilampan-, kolli-ver-pan- lit., lord of the Kolli hills, ce_ra king; kolli-p-pa_vai woman-shaped statue in the Kolli hills believed to have been carved by the celestials and to have the power of fascinating all those who look at it (Cilap. 6,61, Urai) (Ta.lex.)

2811.Image: watchman: ko_luka_r-a a peon (Ka.Te.); ko_lka_ra (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kollai-kka_ran- gardener, farmer, cultivator; kollai sylvan tract (Perun.. Ucaik. 49,110); enclosed garden, grove (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Cowherd; slave: go_la widow's bastard (Ya_j.K.); bastard (Pkt.); go_laka (Mn.)(CDIAL 4323). golo slave (S.); gola_ro son of a slave (S.); golla_ slave (L.); golo menial servant in a king's harem (G.)(CDIAL 4325). golla, gollal.a, gollava_l.iga, gollaval.iga (Tadbhava. of go_val.a, go_pa_la) a cowherd (Ka.Te.); the assistant of a cash-keeper; golla-ge_ri a herdsmen's street; gollati, golliti, gollitti a female of the gollas (Ka.); gollal.a ra_ja, gollal.ara_ya a gollala headman; gaval.iga, go_val.iga, gaval.i a cow-herd caste who sell milk etc.; gaval.i-ge_ri a cow-herds street (Ka.lex.) gupi, goala cowherd; goala Hindu caste cowherd (Santali.lex.)

2812.Superintendent; handle money: gol., ghal. work as a cooly; gol.ai superintend, e.g. coolies; cause to work; handle e.g. money; gol.ai-tolo, ghal.ei-tolo superintendent of coolies; gol.ka_r (gol.tolo) workman, labourer (Kon.lex.) golla, golli a slave, a servant; knave; golla hoke kamawe mian. hoke khawe earn as a servant and east as a master (P.lex.) ghal labour; the land revenue; bar chawan wele chan:ga bhala, ghal bharan wele d.ora at harvest-time quite well, at revenue-paying time deaf (Prov.)(P.lex.) golak < golak (Pers.) a money box with a small aperture in the lid, a till, a secret reception for money (P.lex.) go_laka a money-box, a till (Ka.M.H.) (Ka.lex.) Money-pit: galha_ = galle the money-pit in the shop of shroffs and dealers (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Treasurer: kolla_ a trustworthy employee in public treasuries (Ta.); golla (Te.); kollar watchmen at the entrance-gate of a palace (Vir-alivit.u. 1035)(Ta.lex.)

2813.Furnace: kola_ burning charcoal (L.P.); ko_ila_ burning charcoal (L.P.N.); id. (Or.H.Mth.), kolla burning charcoal (Pkt.); koilo dead coal (S.); kwelo charcoal (Ku.); kayala_ charcoal (B.); koela_ id. (Bi.); koilo (Marw.); koyalo (G.)(CDIAL 3484). < Proto-Munda. ko(y)ila = kuila black (Santali): all NIA forms may rest on ko_illa.] koela, kuila charcoal; khaura to become charcoal; ker.e to prepare charcoal (Santali.lex.) kolime, mulime, kolume a fire-pit or furnace (Ka.); kolimi (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.); kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.); kolla a blacksmith (Ma.); kol metal (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kol iron smelters (Santali.lex.) cf. kol working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.)(DEDR 2133). Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.lex.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); kolmi smithy (Go.)(DEDR 2133). kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, kollan-ulai-k-ku_t.am blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) lohsa_ri_ smithy (Bi.)(CDIAL 11162). cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); ulai-k-kal.am smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) Self-willed man: lo_hala made of iron (Skt.); lohar, lohariyo self-willed and unyielding man (G.)(CDIAL 11161). cf. goul.i, goul.ia_ herdsman (Kon.lex.) goil cowhouse, hut, pasture ground (P.); gol drove of cattle sent to another village (P.); go_uliya herdsman (Pkt.); goili_ (P.)(CDIAL 4259). kol brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.) Tool-bag: lokhar bag in which a barber keeps his tools (N.); iron tools, pots and pans (H.); lokhar. iron tools (Ku.); lokhan.d. iron tools, pots and pans (H.); lokha~d. tools, iron, ironware (G.); iron (M.)(CDIAL 11171). lod.hu~ pl. carpenter's tools (G.)(CDIAL 11173). karuvi-p-pai instrument-case; barber's bag (Ta.lex.) cf. karuvu-kalam treasury, treasure-house (Ta.lex.) Cobbler's iron pounder: lohaga~ga_, lahau~ga_ cobbler's iron pounder (Bi.); leha~ga_ (Mth.); luha~_gi_ staff set with iron rings (P.); loha~_gi_ (H.M.); lavha~_gi_ (M.); laha~_gi_, loha~gi_ (M.)(CDIAL 11174). Image: frying pan: lohra_, lohri_ small iron pan (Bi.)(CDIAL 11160). lo_hi_ any object made of iron (Skt.); pot (Skt.); iron pot (Pkt.); lo_hika_ large shallow wooden bowl bound with iron (Skt.); lauha_ iron pot (Skt.); loh large baking iron (P.); luhiya_ iron pan (A.); lohiya_ iron or brass shallow pan with handles (Bi.); lohiyu~ frying pan (G.)(CDIAL 11170). lauhabha_n.d.a iron pot, iron mortar (Skt.); lo_habhan.d.a copper or brass ware (Pali); luha~_d.ir.i_ iron pot (S.); luha~_d.a_ (L.); frying pan (P.); lohn.d.a_, lo~_hd.a_ (P.); luhu~r.e iron cooking pot (N.); lohora_ iron pan (A.); loha~r.a_ iron vessel for drawing water for irrigation (Bi.); lohan.d.a_, luhan.d.a_ iron pot (H.); lod.hu~ iron, razor (G.)[cf. xolla_ razor (Kur.); qole id. (Malt.); hola'd razor (Santali)(DEDR 2141)]; lod.hi_ iron pan (G.)(CDIAL 11173).

2814.Purple indigo: kor..inci, kor..unci purple wild indigo, tephrosia purpurea (Ta.); kor..iil galega colonila (Ma.); koggi, koggid.i, koggili, kogge a very common underbrush, tephrosia purpurea [= galega colonila.](Ka.)(DEDR 2145). Synonym: empali name of a tree (Ka.); vempali tephrosia purpurea, the purple galega (Te.)(DEDR 804).

2815.To dig: kallu-ta to dig out as a hole; to excavate (Na_lat.i, 185); cf. khal (Skt.); kallu-kkompu stake for digging up the earth (Ta.lex.) kil.ai to dig up, stir, scratch up (as fowls), root up (as pigs), burrow into (as roots), excavate (Ta.); kil.aippu digging, scratching, burrowing (Ta.); kil.ar-u (kil.ar-i-) to poke, ransack, dig up, disturb, stir (as with a ladle), probe, disclose (Ta.); kil.l.u to dig out, scoop (Ta.); kil.a digging, dug place, mudwall (Ma.); kil.ekka to dig up, work with spade, raise mud or earth (Ma.); kil.appikka to cause to dig (Ma.); cil.l.uka to scratch (as fowls)(Ma.); kil.y- (kil.c-) to ladle out (food)(To.); kal.a- (kal.ap-, kal.at-) to dig (Kod..); kilekuni to stir, move, irritate, provoke (Tu.); kela_ku, kelan:ku, kelanu to stir, mix (Te.); kellagincu to stir up, loosen, dibble, enrage, exasperate (Te.)(DEDR 1588).

2816.Peg: ki_l joint in animal body, hinge; ki_lam nail, pin, spike; ki_lakam pin, bolt, wedge, joing (Ta.); ki_l joint (Ma.); ki_lam wedge, bolt, nail (Ma.); ki.l hinge of jaw, hinge of door (Ko.); ki.s- handle (of pot, spoon, axe, knife, etc.)(To.); ku.l hinge of box (To.); ki_l, ki_lu pin, peg, joint, device, contrivance (Ka.); ki_la stake, peg, bolt, wedge (Ka.); ki.li a fastening, screw-fastening of necklace (Kod..); ki_lu, ki_l.u joint, hinge, peg, wooden fastening (Tu.); ki_lu joint, hinge, device, contrivance; ki_lincu to fasten, attach, lock, join; ki_lamu wedge, pin; ci_la an iron nail, a wooden pin (Te.)(DEDR App.26). ki_la stake, peg, tumour (MBh.); ki_laka, ki_lika_ (Skt.)[variation of k- with kh- and poss. -l- with -d- suports non-Aryan origin]; ki_la stake (Pali.Pkt.); ki_lia_ peg (Pkt.); kil stake; ki_lo stick, mallet (Gypsy); ki_li peg, small pickaxe (D..); ki_l nail, peg (Ash.); ki_li_ (Shum.); ki_l peg in a loom or cotton gin (Kho.); bullet (Bshk.); ki_li nail (Sh.); kyulu spike; ki_ju wooden peg (K.); ki_ru spike; ki_ro wooden peg; ki_ri_ nail (S.); ki_l, ki_lo peg, tethering peg (Ku.); kilo (N.); ki_l bolt, pin, wedge (B.); ki_l.a, ki_l.a_ stake, peg (Or.); ki_l nail; ki_la_ large nail (H.); ki_li_ key, screw (H.); kill nail; killa_ large iron nail, upright of plough; killi_ small peg (L.); kill small nail; ki_lla_ large wooden pale; ki_lli_ small wooden pale (P.); ki_l linch-pin (Bi.); killi_ door-bolt, wedge (Mth.; killi_ key, bolt (H.); ki_li_ (G.); ki_l pin of a handmill; killi_ key (M.); ker.o peg for fastening ploughshare (Pas'.); kelo tentpeg (Pas'.); khi_la stake; khi_laka having stakes (Pali); khi_la, khi_laya post; khi_liya_ small post (Pkt.); khi_lo pole fixed in ground, projecting teeth (WPah.); khil nail, large pin, sting (of hornet)(N.); khili flat nail (A.); khil peg, wedge (B.); khi_l bolt, nail (H.); khi_l. bolt, peg; khil.a_, khil.i_ spike, bolt (M.); khi_l.o, fil.o bar (Konkan.i); khi_t.o peg; khi~_t.i_, khi_t.i_ stopper (G.); khil peg, wedge (Or.); khila peg, bolt (Or.); khili small packet (Or.); khi_la_ wedge, peg (Bhoj.); khi_l spike on which the upper grindstone turns; khi_lo spike; khi_li_ pin (G.)(CDIAL 3202). ki_lati fastens (Dha_tup.); ki_lita staked, impaled, fastened (Pkt.); ki_lan.a_ to fasten with nails (P.); ki_ln.a_ to nail (WPah.); ki_l.iba_ to bolt, bar; ki_lan.i_ bolt (Or.); ki_lna_ to pin, fasten (H.); killan.a_ to nail (P.); khi_ra loosely sewing two plain edges together (S.); khilnu to stitch together (N.); khila_na to fasten with a pin (B.); khil.n.e~ to nail down (M.); khille_i stops, blocks (Pkt.); khilvu~, khilavvu~ to sew (G.)(CDIAL 3204).

2817.Curd: kir..a_an- curd (Ta.); kar..al buttermilk, curds (Ka.); ka_nu, kra_nu thick buttermilk (Te.)(DEDR 1580). gijr.i toi curdle (of milk)(Santali.lex.) kila_t.a inspissated milk (Sus'r.); ki_la_la a sweet beverage (food of the gods)(AV.); ki_la_la-pa_ (RV.); kila_d.a thickened milk (Pkt.); kiral cheese (Gypsy); khel butter (Gypsy < ghr.ta); cela, cila (Ash.); kilyar (Kt.); kila_ cheese (Wg.); ki_li cheese (Pr.); kila_ri fresh cheese (Dm.); kirar. cheese (Pas'.); kila_r.i_ (Gaw.); kila_r (Kal.); kil.al. (Kho.); kile_r (Bshk.); kila_r.i (Sv.); kroru scum that rises on the top of a vessel containing food (K.); a cake of mixed inspissated milk and buttermilk (K.); kirot.u, kiru~t.u cheese made from skimmed milk (S.)(CDIAL 3181).

2818.Tomtom: xe_l tomtom (Kur.); qele a small drum (Malt.); qelwa a drummer (Malt.)(DEDR 2014).

2819.Society; duties, business: ku_r..aimai duties, business (Te_va_. 11,5); fondling, caressing (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,2,5); ku_l.(l.u)-tal to crowd together, assemble, muster (Iraku. Mi_t.ci. 42); cf. kul (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kur..u-ku_li < kol.- + share of money paid to the village watchman for acting as intermediary and restoring the stolen property to the owner (G.Tp.D. i, 257)(Ta.lex.) kur..u class, society, band, assembly (Tiva_.); assembly or gathering of women (Pin..); flock, herd, swarm, shaol (W.); bundle, heap (Ja_n-a_. 63,11)(Ta.lex.) cf. kula (Skt.) kur..uvu-tal to assemble in large numbers, to crowd (Kur-un. 31); to associate, mingle (Na_lat.i, 137); kur..u_u class, assembly, crowd (Nan-. 211); kur..u_u-k-kur-i conventional term, peculiar to a society or pofession, one of three takuti-var..akku (Nan-. 267); kur..umu-tal to collect in large numbers, as men, animals (Ka_cippu. Pan-n-iru. 134); to gather together, mix (Cilap. 12, Uraippa_t.t.umat.aikkup pin-ceyyul., 10)(Ta.lex.) cf. kul (Skt.) kur..umpu herd, flock, swarm, crowd (Matuarik. 24); kur..u_u-p-peyar collective noun (Nan-. 211)(Ta.lex.) kur..ai jungle; kur..aikka_t.u country, as distinct from city; jungle as distinct from cultivated tract (Ta.lex.)

2820.Image: saddle: kavudi, kavadi, kavidi a quilted cover for the night; quilted rags, used e.g. as a bed or a saddle (Ka.); kavican-ai (Ta.); kaviyan (Ma.) (Ka.lex.)

2821.Lord, master, owner: ka_vanda lord, master, owner (Ka.). kha_vanda (H.M.); ka_mand, ka_mandi (Ma.); ka_vantu (Ta.); ka_van.a (protection); a shade, a shed, a pandal (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

2822.Business: kavvai concern, business, affair (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 63); kavvaipa_rttal to be employed, to attend to business (W.)(Ta.lex.) kewa_r drudgery (A.)(CDIAL 3362). karbar to transact business; karbari, karbaric one who transacts business, a manager; karbaria conversant with the methods of doing business, or the procedure of a court or panchayat (Santali.lex.) kherwar, jharwar the ancient name of the Santals, a tribe of aborigines so called; kherwar a subsept of Ha~sdak sept (Santali.lex.) ka_rpa_r, ka_r-upa_r-u (Ta.) < ka_rba_r (U.) management, domination; ka_rpa_ri < ka_rba_ri (U.) management; ka_rva_ri one who conducts the affairs or business of another; ka_rva_ri-t-tampira_n- a sanya_si superintendent of a S'aiva monastery (Ta.lex.) ka_rba_r administration; affair; tujen ka_rba_r ka_se a_sa_ how is your affair? ka_rba_ri_ superintendent, administrator (Kon.lex.) ka_riyatto_n- agent (Tiruva_lava_. 43,2); ka_riyakka_ran- agent (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 28); a deputy of a village headman (G.Sm.D. i,127); man of business, one clever in business; ka_riyappe_r responsible manager (Ci_vaka. 2110, Urai.); ka_riyam < ka_rya effect, result, issue (Kur-al., 425, Urai.); action, deed (Ci. Ci. 2,84); affair, thing, business, concern, matter, subject (Kampara_. Cu_rppa. 43)(Ta.lex.) ka_rba_ro managemen of affairs, activities (Tu.lex.)

2823.Marriage: ka_rye auspicious occasion (so they call) a dinner; a marriage (Kon.lex.) ka_rya what has to be done, made, performed; ka_ryakartr. an agent, a workman; a friend, benefactor (Skt.lex.)

2824.Sesamum seed: kavvai green sesamum seed (Maturaik. 271)(Ta.lex.)

2825.Anodendron paniculatum: kavali anodendron paniculatum (M.); lamtani (M.); root: said to possess properties like ipecacuanha; habitat: Sylhet, Orissa, N. Circars, Mysore, Konkan, W. Ghats from Bombay and Coorg to Travancore (GIMP, p.20).

2826.Gymnema sylvestre: kavali gymnema sylvestre (M.); meshashringi (Skt.); merasingi (H.); meshasingi (B.); shirukurinja (Ta.); podapatri (Te.); leaves: in diabetes, chewed to reduce glycosuria; root: emetic, expectorant; habitat: Banda, Konkan, S. Mahrata country, W. Ghats, N. Kanara, N. Circars, Carnatic and Deccan (GIMP, p.129).

2827.Ceropegia pusilla: kavl. bulb of ceropegia pusilla (Ko.); kafil. id. (To.)(DEDR 1343). Ceropegia bulbosa: khapparkadu (H.); patalatumbari (M.); galot (P.); palatige (Te.); tuberous roots: tonic, digestive; habitat: Punjab, Upper Gangetic plain, Konkan, S. Kanara, Malabar, Deccan and Carnatic (GIMP, p.50).

2828.Coconut-palm: kevul.ipattiram a kind of ten-n-ai (G.S.A.D. i,214); kevul.i a species of cocnut-palm bearing yellowish fruit (W.); kaul.i-pa_ttiram id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. -ke_la in: na_ri-ke_la coconut (Skt.lex.) na_l.ikera coconut (Pali.lex.)

2829.Bengal currant: kaval.e, kaval.i, kaval.a, kal.ava a spinous shrub, bearing eatable black berries, carissa carandas (Ka.lex.) karan.t.a cassia carandas (Ma.); karan.d.e id. (Ka.Tu.); karan.d.e-pul.i-mara id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1269). karamarda the tree carissa carandas (MBh.); karamadda, karamanda (Pali); karamadda, karamam.da, karavam.di (Pkt.); karno a tree with a sweet-smelling white flower (S.); karau~da_ carissa carandas (P.); karan.d.a (B.); karanda_ (Or.); karona_ (Mth.); karau~da_ (H.); karamdi_ the tree (G.); karamdu~ the fruit (G.); karva~d, karva~di_ the tree (M.); karva~d, karva~du~ the fruit (M.); karamba (Si.)(CDIAL 2799). kal.a_ carissa spinarum (also kal.avu); large Bengal currant, carissa carandas; vaccinium nilgherrense; vaccinium leschenaultii; Nepal barberry, berberis nepalensis (Ta.); kal.a_vu carissa carandas (Ma.); kal. a thorny plant (To.); kal.ave, kal.ivi spinous shrub bearing edible black berries, carissa carandas (Ka.); kalivi, kalive, kaligi, kalimi, kal.ive, kale_-kampa carissa diffusa (Te.)(DEDR 1377). Carissa carandas: karaunda (H.M.); karamcha (B.); kanachuka (Skt.); kalakkay (Ta.); vaka (Te.); karakka (Ma.); fruit: antiscorbutic; unripe fruit: astringent; ripe fruit: cooling, acid; root: bitter, stomachic, anthelmentic; decoction of leaves: given at the commencement of intermittent fever; habitat: wild throughout India (GIMP, p.52). Carissa spinarum: karamadika (Skt.); karaunda (H.); garna (P.); kalivi (Te.); chiru (Ta.); garaunda (K.); root: ground and put in worm-infested sores of animals; enters into the composition of purgatives; habitat: throughout India in dry regions, especially in Punjab, Kashmir and NW Frontier province (GIMP, p.52).

2830.Image: bamboo lath across the shoulder: ka_vad.i, ka_gad.i a bamboo lath or pole, provided with slings at each end, for the conveyance of pitchers, etc. across the shoulder (Ka.Te.); ka_, ka_vat.i, ka_vuttat.i (Ta.); ka_vu, ka_vad.i (M.); ka_vad.a (M.); ka_vu to carry burdens by a ka_vad.i (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

2831.Protection: ka_ppu watching, preservation, defence, guard, protection (Ta.Ma.); that which serves as a protective (Kumara. Pira. Maturaik. 101); ka_pu (Te.Ka.Tu.) that which serves as a protection; watching, vigilance, preservation, protection; invocation of deities at the commencement of a poem to facilitate its successful completion (Ilak. Vi. 806); sacred ashes, as an amulet (Tiruva_lava_. 38,56); bangle, bracelet, anklet (Kalaicaic. 53); fence, hedge; surrounding wall, fortification (Pat.t.in-ap. 41); mound within a fort; door; royal seal (Kalit. 94); place of special protection (Te_va_. 971); village, as in a pastoral region (Kalit. 110); guardian deities of the eight points of the compass (Cilap. 28,231); objects of enjoyment by a king (Ta.lex.) ka_ppu amulet (Ma.)(DEDR 1416). ka_ppu-k-kat.t.u to tie an amulet, a yellow string on the arm in token of a vow and as a pledge of its fulfilment; ka_ppit.utal to tie a string round the wrist of a person on occasions like marriage, with mantras to ward off evil; to provide a newborn baby with bangles and anklets on the 5th, 7th or 9th day after its birth; to impress documents with the royal seal (Ta.); ka_ppu-na_n., ka_pppu string tied round the wrist of a person with mantras to ward off evils, as an amulet, in times of marriage, illness, etc. (Tiv. Na_yc. 6,4); ka_ppu-c-cey to tie up, as a cadjan bundle (Ta.lex.) ka_ppu-kat.avul. Vis.n.u, as preserver (Ta.lex.) ka_pparici rice mixed with treacle generally distributed on the occasion when a new-born baby is provided with bangles, etc.; rice held in the hands of a person on his marriage occasion, when a string is tied round his wrist, with mantras to ward off evil; ka_ppa_l. one who defends, guards (Ain:kur-u. 206); ka_ppa_r-r- utal to preserve, guard, watch, take care of, protect, save (Ta.); ka_pa_d.u id. (Te.); ka_ppi_t.u safeguarding, protection; that which is protected (Can.. Aka.); ka_ppu-mar-am military guard (Patir-r-up. 90, Pati.); ka_ppu-ma_lai a poem of three, five or seven verses in which the protection of deities is implored (Ilak. Vi. 832); ka_pan.an.-kat.t.utal to tie up a coin in a piece of cloth dyed in saffron, as a vow to a deity in any temple (Ta.lex.) ka_-p-pon a weight of gold = 1 tula_m (Patir.r.up. 60, Pati)(Ta.lex.) Image: to guard: ka_ to watch, guard (Ta.Ka.); to be awake, watch, wait (Mand..); to be awake, watch over (Kuwi); ka_ppu, ka_val watching, caution, defence, guard, protection, that which serves as a protection, amulet, fence, fortification (Ta.); qpe to wait for, watch (Malt.); ka_val guard (Ma.Ka.); ka.v to watch, guard (Ko.); ka.vl act of watching (Ko.); ko.fil id. (To.); ka.- to wait (Kod..); ka.pa.d. to protect (Kod..); ka_pu watching (Tu.); protection, a guard (Te.); ka_pele watchman (Tu.); ka_cu to guard, watch (Te.); ka_p to wait (Pa.Ga.); ka_p ki to wait for, look for (Pe.); ka_cali to wait for (Kuwi); ka_pna_ to protect, wait, wait for (Kur.); ka_hila cowherd (Pkt.)(DEDR 1416). kavan-am attention, care; kavan-i (-pp-, -tt-) to be attentive, attend to, heed, observe; gavana attention, care, heed; gavanisu, gavisu, gamanisu to heed (Ka.); gava sense, sensation, consciousness (Tu.); gamanamu attention; gamanincu to bear in mind, pay attention to (Te.)(DEDR 1328). Wrist amulet during marriage: ka_pparici rice held in the hands of a person on his marriage occasion, when a string is tied round his wrist, with mantras to ward off evil; ka_ppit.utal to tie a string round the wrist of a person on occasions like marriage, with mantras to ward off evil; ka_ppu that which serves as a protective (Kumara. Pira. Maturaik. 101); sacred ashes, as an amulet; guardian deities of the eight points of the compass (Cilap. 28,231); ka_ppu-k-kat.t.utal to tie an amulet, a yellow string on the arm in token of a vow and as a pledge of its fulfilment; to commence a temple festival; ka_ppu-k-kat.avul. Vis.n.u, as preserver; ka_ppiri < ka_fir Kaffir, Negro of South Africa (Ta.lex.)

2832.Image: sacrifice, oblation: ka_vu sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities (Ta.lex.); gha_ta killing (Mn.Pali); blow, bruise (MBh.); gha_ya wound (Pkt.); ga_l wound, hurt (Sh.); gha_u wound (S.P.N.OAw.H.); beaten (OG.); gha_ wound (A.B.); stroke, cut (g.); cut, sore (Or.); gha_w wound (Bhoj.); gha_y wound (H.M.); ghau wound (Ku.); gha_ya slaughter (OG.); gha_v stroke, cut (G.); wound (M.); gha_yu, gha_vu wound (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4460). gha_yan.a slaughter (Pkt.); gha_tana killing (MBh.); gha_n.i_ calamity (S.); gha_n. great slaughter in battle (P.); gha_n.i slaughter (N.); gha_n. ruin, destruction (G.)(CDIAL 4462).

2833.Distance of ten miles: ka_vatam distance of about ten miles (Cilap. 10,36); ka_tam Indian league, about 10 miles (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,3,4); ga_vada id. (Ka.); ga_vuda id. (Ka.Tu.); ka_tam (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ga_vu_ta, gavyu_ta 2 kros'as; 1 kros'a (Skt.); go_yuta frequented by cattle (R.); 2 kros'as (MBh.); go_yu_ti a measure of distance = 2 kros'as (MBh.); ga_vuta a measure of distance = 1/4 yojana or about 1 3/4 miles (Pali); ga_u_a, ga_u 1 or 2 kros'as (Pkt.); ga_u_ one kos (S.); gau four kos (H.); ga_u one kos (G.); gavuva, pl. gav 3 1/2 miles (Si.)(CDIAL 4150). ga_vuta a linear measure, a quarter of a yojana = 80 usabhas, a little less than two miles, a league (Pali.lex.) cf. Vedic gavyu_ti pasture land, district (Pali.lex.) ga_vada, ga_vuda (Tadbhava of gavyu_ta) an Indian league, containing 10 to 12 English miles (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) keviyu_ti a distance of 2 Indian leagues = 4 1/2 miles (Tan.ikaippu. Akat. 443)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kuval.ai a large number (Paripa_. 2,13)(Ta.lex.) ku_vil.i long continuous roar or trumpet, as of an elephant (Man.i. 7,67); calling distance (Tiruvil.ai. Ya_n-ai. 29)(Ta.lex.) cf. kro_s'a a measure of distance (as far as a voice carries)(Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 3611).

2834.Pandanus odoratissimus: kevd.a_ pandanus odoratissimus (M.); kevd.o (G.); ker.o (S.); kevr.a_ (H.); ke (Si.); ketaka (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 318). kekat pandanus odoratissimus; kekta_d. type of palm (M.); ketak (G.); ketki_ (S.P.H.); ketaka (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 318). ke_taka the tree pandanus odoratissimus (MBh.); ke_taki_ (Skt.); keda (Savara); ke_taki_ (Pali); ke_aya the tree; the flower; ke_agi_ the tree (Pkt.); keya_ (B.); kia_ (Or.); ke_ (Si.); keur.a_ pandanus odoratissimus (P.); dud-ke~wara_ hedychium coronalium (N.); keor.a_ pandanus odoratissimus (B.); ke~wara_ a partic. flower; sun-ke~wara_ hedychium gardneriana (N.); keur.a_ the tree and its essence (Or.); keur.a_, kewra_ (H.); kevr.o (G.); kevd.a_, kevd.i_ (M.); ker.o, kero, kelo (S.)(CDIAL 3462). kaital, kaitai fragrant screwpine, pandanus odoratissimus (Ta.); kaita id. (Ma.); ke_dage, ke_dige id. (Ka.); ke_dai, ke_dayi, ke_da_yi flower of the tree pandanus odoratissimus (Tu.); ge_da_gi pandanus odoratissimus (Te.)(DEDR 2026).

2835.A fragrant grass: ke_vat.a, kaivarti, kaivarti-mustaka the fragrant grass cyperus rotundus (Ka.lex.)cf. kaseru_ scirpus kysoor, edible root of cyperus tuberosus (H.); kas'eru, kas'ed., kas'et., kasai_ the grasses scirpus kysoor and cyperus tuberosus (M.)(CDIAL 2966). ko_rai cyperus (Ta.)(DEDR 2235).[cf. muttu pearl (Ta.)(DEDR 4959)]. t.an.d.i sur.a cyperus rotundus; sur.a cyperus tegetum (Santali.lex.) cf. tun:ga grass the root of which is a fragrant bulb and is imagined to contain a pearly substance (Ka.); cyperus rotundus (Te.)(DEDR 3287). ko_rinde a kind of fragrant plant (Ka.); ko_rinda a prickly shrub, the bramble (Te.)(DEDR 2234). Cyperus esculentus: chichoda (H.); kaseru (P.); kaseruka (Skt.); tuber: stimulant, aphrodisiac; tubers yield 20-28% oil with pleasant taste and flavour; due to high oil content of tubers, the flour made from them is a high calorie food; habitat: upper Gangetic plain, from the Punjab to the Nilgiri hills and Annamalais, scattered (GIMP, p.88). cf. eruvai a species of cyperus (Ta.)(DEDR 819). Cyperus esculantes (Ancient Egyptian: plant giw; rhizome w'h or s'ni-t3; Coptic bikxi; Modern Egyptian Arabic: plant su'd; rhizome habb el-aziz) 'Cyperus grass is distinguished by its pale spikelets and fibrous root system and ovoid tubers. It grows in moist soils or on sandy sea-shores. In Egypt it is now cultivated for its edible tubers ('tiger nuts') which are first dried, then soaked in water... Theophrastus said that the plant was called mnasion by the Egyptians and that it was sweet and only used for food. The tubers were consumed by the earliest inhabitants of the Nile valley, and remains of them have been found in the stomach contents of prehistoric bodies.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.98).

2836.Widow: ke_tal, ke_t.al widow (Pa.); ke_tub widower (Pa.); ke_tub cind orphan (Pa.); ke_t.al widow (Ga.); kai-pon.javu a single woman (Tu.); kaintalai, kayin-i, kain-i widow; kaimmai widowhood, widow, lovelorn condition; kai-kkil.ai unreciprocated love (Ta.)(DEDR 2028).

2837.Image: white betel: kaul.i-pattiram white betel-leaf; cf. gaura yellowish (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kaval.i, kavul.i bundle (Ta.); kavalika_ (Skt.); kaval.i pack of betel leaves (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) White: gaura white, yellowish, pale red (RV.); go_ra white (Pali.Pkt.); go_ro_ non-Gypsy married to a Gypsy, halfbreed (Gypsy); guru red (Pr.); go_ra white (Dm.); go_ra (Kal.); gu_r, gu_' khaki-coloured, yellow (Bshk.); gu_ro_ yellow; gu_ro_ maharu_cu an inferior kind of mulberry (Phal.); kis.in.u maharu_cu black mulberry (Phal.); gu_ru brown, grey, self-coloured; gurilo yellow, withered (Sh.); goro fair-complexioned (S.); gora_ white, pale, red (of cattle)(L.); white, pale (P.); white, fair (Or.); fair (H.M.); goro fair-skinned (N.Ku.); go_ra_ white (A.); gora, gora_ white, fair (B.); gori_ adj. light-coloured (of soil)(Bi.); gora fair (Mth.); go_r (Bhoj.Aw.); goru~ white, fair, lovely (G.); gori_ adj. fair, beautiful (OMarw.); goro pale, white (Konkan.i); gora white (Si.)(CDIAL 4345).

2838.Red ochre: ka_vi red ochre (Ta.); ka.yv sannya_si's dress of orange cloth (Ko.)(DEDR 1490). Cloth: kha_rva_ coarse red cloth (P.)(CDIAL 3877).

2839.Image: the hinder part of an animal: kabuli the hinder part of an animal; kapalam (Vedic) a half, a part; kabila the tawny animal; kapila a brown cow (Skt.lex.) cf. gava (in cmpd.) cow or bull (Pali); cattle (Pkt.); go_ bull (Bshk.)(CDIAL 4093). kapilebasava a brown bull stamped with a lin:ga and left to roam about at liberty; kapile, kavale, kavile a brown cow; a fabulous cow of the Pua_n.as (Ka.lex.) kavale an ox that has been taught to execute various clever performances (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: thigh: ka_van- thigh (Man.i. Pati. 27)(Ta.); kaunu waist (Te.)(DEDR 1331). kava_n-cer-i an ornament worn on the thigh (Cilap. 6,86, Arum.); kava_n-a-k-kavut.t.i punishment by which defeated party in the game of kit.t.i-p-pul.l.u takes to the post the stick thrown by the winner between his thighs in one breath (Ta.lex.) Groin: kavun:kur.., kavun:kur..u, kan:kur.. the armpit (Ka.); kaks.amu_la (Skt.); kamukat.t.u (Ta.); kidkl (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) gavi_ni_ du. groin (AV.); gavi_nika_ (AV.); gai_n waist; sana_-ge_ni_ side of waist, back [sana_ < sam.nata-, bent, stooping (Mn.); bent towards (VS.)(CDIAL 12922)](CDIAL 4103).

2840.Image: dewlap: kambala dewlap (VarBr.S.); kam.bala dewlap of an ox (Pkt.); kamari dewlap (S.); ka~_bal. (M.)(CDIAL 2772). Metath. galma_ dewlap of cattle (L.)(CDIAL 4071). Bull: kambalin, ka_mali (EI 24.IEG.) a bull; prob. a levy on prize bullocks; yamali-ka_mali, yamala-kambalin, yamalikambali, yamalika_mbali a tax known from the Ga_had.ava_la records (HRS.IEG.); yamala-patra treaty of alliance (LP.IEG.); yamala two (IEG.); cf. vara-balivarda (EI 12,33.IEG.) tax on choice bullocks for bull-fights. cf. valadi_ (Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII, p.17, text line 21; IEG.) = ?bali_varda a pair of bullocks (which the villagers were obliged to provide for the cart of the royal officers when they camped or toured in their villages = a-parampara_-bali_varda (IE 8-5.IEG.)

2841.Image: hunter: kabal.a, kabbila, kabbeya, kobbila a fowler, a huntsman; kabbilapad.e a crowd of kabbilas; kabbiliga, kabbeya a boatman, a fisherman, a seller of chunam (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

2842.Image: shrub: kal.a_ a low spreading shrub (Pur-ana_. 177,9); kal.ave (Ka.); kal.avu (Ma.); kal.a_ large Bengal currant; small lance-crenate-acute-leaved whortle-berry, vaccinium nilgherrense; Nepal barberry; Farkleberry; whirling-nut, tan.akku; kal.avam low spreading shrub (Tiv. Periyati. 11,6,4); kal.avu id. (Ta.); kal.a_kka_y a circular piece of gold or silver in the shape of a carissa fruit attached to the necklace or ta_li worn by women; kal.ampar..am the black fruit of the kal.a_ tree (Tol. Col. 79, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: creeper: karuvil.am mussel-shell creeper; karuvil.ai id. (Ain:kur-u. 464)(Ta.lex.)

2843.Image: blind: kabo_ji a blind man (Ka.); kabo_di (Te.); kam, kan. eye; kammani an eye-drop; a tear (Ka.lex.) kapo_ti blind person, silly fellow (Ta.); kabo_di a blind creature (Te.)(DEDR 1226). akkhi eye (Pali.lex.) kabarda_r attentive (Kon.lex.)

2844.Chameleon; lizard: ko_mpi chameleon, chamoeles vulgaris; bloodsucker, lacerta cristata (Ta.); go_sumbe chameleon, gecko (Ka.)(DEDR 2223). go_ha_ iguana (Pkt.); go_ lizard (Pas'.); go_wo, gho_wa (Gaw.); goha iguana (S.); go_h, goh (L.); goh (P.); go_ chameleon; go_h a long insect with two horns in front and able to contract itself (WPah.); go-sap iguana (B.); goh (H.); gho (G.); goya_ (Si.); gogikilo lizard (Gaw.); go_hia_ iguana, a kind of water-animal (Pkt.); go_he_ra an animal like a snake (Pkt.); gohi_ro a kind of lizard (S.); gohi_ra_, guhi_ra_, guhi_r.a_ male iguana (L.); gohro iguana (N.); guhera_ a venomous lizard (H.); ghorpad. iguana (M.)(CDIAL 4286). Image: alligator: go_dhika_ a kind of lizard or alligator (Skt.); gohi, guhi crocodile (N.); gohi crocodile (M.); gohi alligator (Mth.)(CDIAL 4286). ko_tikai a big lizard; crocodile (Ta.lex.) cf. ko_t.i-k-karai sacred sea-bathing ghat at Calimere, Dhanus.ko_t.i, etc. (Ta.lex.)} go_lika_, go_dhika_, gauli_ lizard (Skt.)(CDIAL 4234). go_laka lizard (Skt.); (CDIAL 4324). go_dha_ a big kind of lizard (VS.); go_dha_ iguana (Pali.Pkt.); go_ha_ (Pkt.); go_ lizard (Pas'.); chameleon (WPah.); go-sap iguana (B.); go_wo, gho_wa lizard (Gaw.); goha iguana (S.); go_, go_hi_ (L.); goh (L.P.H.); gho (G.); goya_ (S.); salagu_ a large lizard (Kho.); go_hia_ iguana, a kind of water-animal (Pkt.); go_h a long insect with two horns in front and able to contract itself (WPah.); gu~i iguana (A.); gohi, goi, gui (Or.); gohi_ro a kind of lizard (S.); guhi_r.a_, gohi_ra_, guhi_ra_ male iguana (L.); gohro iguana (N.); guhera_ a venomous lizard (H.); ghorpad. iguana (M.); go_he_ra, go_he_raya an animal like a snake (Pkt.)(CDIA 4286). Image: house lizard: gr.hago_laka (Skt.); gr.hago_dha_ (Sus'r.); gharago_li_, gharako_ila_, gharo_ila_, gharago_hia_ (Pkt.); gharol.i_, ghar.oli_ (G.)(CDIAL 4431). giha-ko_ila_, gharako_ila_, gharo_ila_ house lizard (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4324). Image: lizard: kaul.i lizard (Ta.); gaul.i lizard, esp. lacerta gecko (Ma.); gavul.i, gaval.i house lizard (Ka.); gavl.i big lizard (Kod..); gaul.i a kind of lizard (Tu.); lizard (Te.); gu_wha_l a poisonous lizard smaller than the monitor (Go.); goyhal iguana (Go.); glu_nt., gulo_nt., klo_nt. rough lizard (?Br.)(DEDR 1338). {ghat.t.a landing place, quay (Skt.Pkt.)(CDIAL 4414) + kavul.i = ghar.ia_l.a alligator (Or.)(CDIAL 4422)}. kavul.i lizard (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Kur-a. 11)(Ta.lex.) cf. kabara_ a large spotted lizard, hydrosaurus salvator (Si.); kabar-ranga spotted (Si.)(CDIA 2883).

2845.Image: long coat: kava_y < kaba_y (U.) a kind of turkish garment (W.); kapa_y < qaba_ (U.) frock, a kind of long flowing tunic reaching to the ankles such as that worn generally by Muhammadans (Mi_n-a_t.. Pil.. Ka_ppu. 10)(Ta.lex.) kapa_yi, kaba_yi, kava_yi a gown reaching to the ankles (Ka.H.); a dress for idols (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kavva_ < kaba_ (U.) long coat, tunic (Ta. Paravar usage)(Ta.lex.) kavayam < kavaca armour, coat of mail (Tiruvil.ai. Pan-r-ikkut.t.ikal.ai. 12)(Ta.lex.) kapa_yi, kaba_yi, kava_yi a gown reaching to the ankles (Ka.H.); a dress for idols (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_val coat of mail (Ci_vaka. 793)(Ta.lex.) cf. karpat.a patched garment, rag (Skt.); kappat.a dirty torn rag (Pali); ka_pur.iya_ cloth-seller (B.)(CDIAL 2871). Cloth: karpat.am a piece of cloth; karpa_sa the cotton tree (Skt.lex.) To cover: *khappa cover; kha_pnu to put one thing on another, make overlap (N.); kha_p layer (A.)(CDIAL 3816). kavr.i saddle (Pe.)(DEDR 4578). cf. kavc to cover with a garment (Ko.)(DEDR 1221). khappa- cover (Skt.); khappa_ cover (Mth.); kha_p cover (Mth.); sheath (H.); kha_pa sheath (Or.); khipa scabbard (S.)(CDIAL 3816). ka_val coat of mail; (va_n-pulan. ka_val kon.t.a_r : Ci_vaka. 793)(Ta.lex.) cf. an.d.ige one pannier or pack, half a bullock load (Ka.); an.d.emu, ad.igamu a sort of pannier (Te.)(DEDR 127). kha_pa_ to become adjusted (B.); kha_pa sheath (Or.); kha_p cover (Mth.); sheath (H.); khappa_ cover (Mth.); khapa_na to fit into (H.); khipa scabbard (S.)(CDIAL 3816). Armour for the body: kavaca coat of mail (S'Br.); jacket (Skt.); kavasa id. (Skt.); kavas.a shield (Skt. < Drav.); kavaca, ko_ja coat of mail (Pali); kavaj'i some article of dress < kavacika_ (NiDoc.); kavaya armour (Pkt.); kavada (kavasa < Pali)(Si.)(CDIAL 2957). kavaca-ja_lika_ a mail coat (Pali.lex.) kavacam lute, clay composition with which chemists close vessels; kavaci-ttal to coat with clay over the mouth of a pot; to lute for calcining medicine (Ira_cavait. 89, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kavacam, kavayam armour, mail, coat of mail; (puli nir-a-k-kavacam pu_mpor-i citaiya : Pur-ana_. 13,2); amulet, charm worn as a protection against evil; lute; Image: to coat with clay over the mouth of a pot: clay composition with which chemists close vessels; kavaci to coat with clay over the mouth of a pot; to lute for calcining medicine; cf. cilai-man. (Ta.) kavippu covering, canopy, umbrella (Ta.)(DEDR 1221). kappu to overspread (Ta.); kavican-ai sheath (Ta.)(DEDR 1221). To cover: kappu to cover, overspread, cover over (as an arch)(Ta.); kavican-ai wrapper, cover, sheath (Ta.<Te.); kappuka, kammuka to cover, overspread (Ma.); kaviyan wrapper, pillowcase (Ma.); kavc-to cover with a garment (Ko.); kofc- to cover (To.); kappu to cover, spread, overspread (Ka.); kavi to cover, overspread (Ka.); kavicu, kavacu, kavucu to put upon (Ka.); gavasan.i, gavasan.ike, gavasan.ige a cover, wrapper, case (Ka.); gavasan.ige case of a fiddle, etc. (Tu.); gausan.ige a bag, case, cover (Tu.); kappu to cover, overspread, envelope (Te.); kappud.u a cover or covering (Te.); gausena, gavisena a cloth case or cover (Te.); kammu to cover, surround, overspread (Te.); kapp- to cover, overspread (Pa.)(DEDR 1221). kavar-r-u-mat.i a kind of silk used in ancient times (Cilap. 14,108, Urai)(Ta.lex..) Muslin, to cover the head: kaun.i muslin (Ta.); fine cloth to cover the head (Ma.)(DEDR 1323). kavan.am bandage for wound (Ta.lex.) kavan.i muslin (Ta.Ma.); kavin.i id.(Ma.)(DEDR 1323). caval.i cloth, piecegoods (Ta.)(DEDR 2394).

2846.Image: stone beams covering the sanctum: kapur-a_lu the stone beams covering the sanctum (Te.inscr.); gavisena a cloth case or cover (Te.); kappud.u a cover or covering (Te.); gavasan.isu to cover, wrap (Ka.); gavasan.i, gavasan.ike, gavasan.ige a cover, wrapper, case (Ka.)(DEDR 1221). For semant. 'stone' cf. ar-ai rock, ledge, grinding stone (Ta.); ar flat rock (Ko.); ar- id. (To.); ar-e stone, rock, slab; ra_yi stone (Ka.); r-a_yi, ra_yi (stem r-a_-, ra_-) stone, rock; r-appa a small stone (Te.)(DEDR 321). ra_l.l.u pl. stones (Te.lex.) cf. aralai stone broken for roads (Ta.)(DEDR 209).

2847.Images: arch; to invest with a crown: kavi-ttal to cover over, as an arch (Cu_l.a_. Araci. 213); to invest with, as a crown (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 145)(Ta.lex.)

2848.Matted gate; mat; hut: ca_ppai mat made of grass or rushes (Ta.); ca_ppa hut, shed of leaves (Ma.); so.py sleeping mat (To.); ca_pa, ca_pe, sa_pe mat (Ka.); ca~_pa id. (Te.); ca_pa (Nk.Go.); ca_p (Pa.); sa_pa (Kond.a); sa_pe, ca_pe (Kuwi)(DEDR 2452). talpa bed (i.e. framework with woven string?)(AV.); tarpa seat of a carriage (MBh.); t.a_po basket to carry poultry in (N.); t.a_p, t.a_pa_, t.a_pi_ (Bi.); t.a_pi_ bamboo fishing net (Mth.); t.a_p, t.a_pa_ bamboo trap for fish (H.);--Extension -d.-: t.rapar.u sack-cloth (S.); trappar. mat, cloth of goat's or camel's hair (L.); tappar. coarse cloth of goat's hair (P.); t.a_pr.u~ coarse jute cloth (G.); ---r-: t.rapura saddle cloth (S.); t.apri_ hut (WPah.); t.appar sackcloth, mat (P.); t.appara_, t.appari_ thatch, shed (P.); t.apariyo hut (Ku.); t.aparyu_n.o to thatch, roof (Ku.); t.aparo plate made of leaves (N.); t.a_pra_ thatch, thatched house (H.); t.a_par muffler (M.)(CDIAL 5725). cf. capparam canopied car-like vehicle in which idols are carried during festivals (Ta.) < cappar (U.); tcapparamu (Te.); cappara (Ka.); capparam (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cha_par. chullha_ a cover for a fireplace; cha_par. a cover or lid of the clay vessel called bhar.ola_, bhar.oli_ (P.lex.) ca_pa_ cover (B.)(CDIAL 4696). jham.pai covers (Pkt.); jhamman. cover of a cart (P.); jha~_pnu to cover (N.); za~_p cover (A.); jha_mpa big basket with a lid (Or.); jha~_mp basket-lid (Bi.); jha~_pab to cover (Mth.Aw.); jha~_pna_ (H.); jha~_pn.e~ to cover (M.); jha~_pan. lid (M.)(CDIAL 5337). jha~_p mat-door (B.); jha~_pi small wickerwork box (B.); jha~_p bamboo frame, matted shutter (H.);[tappai bamboo splits for roofing (Ta.); dabbe, debbe strip of bamboo (Ka.); dabbe slip of bamboo (Tu.); dabba piece of wood, thin rafter (Te.)(DEDR 3076); capa bamboo cane (Ka.); capam, cavam bamboo, bambusa arundinacea(Ta.); tef sp. bamboo used in building (?To.)(DEDR 2330); amai bamboo; a_mal spiny bamboo; a_mpal bamboo (Ta.); ama a reed, saccharum sara (Ma.); a bamboo (Ma.); teme a kind of bamboo (?Ka.); came tender bamboo (Kor.); a_mupa the cane bambusa spinosa (Skt.)(DEDR 170)]; jha~_po matted gate (G.); jha~_p thatched hut (M.); jha_pro little shed (N.); jha~_pa_ matted shutter (M.); jha_mbh matting shelter (P.)(CDIAL 5338).

2849.To throw; touch: kappna_ to cover or press gently with hand, throw the hand or claws upon in order to catch, feel with the hand or feet for knowing (Kur.); kappar e_rna_ to feel, touch (Kur.); kape to touch, meddle (Malt.)(DEDR 1225). ks.apayati destroys (MBh.); throws (Dha_tup.); khave_i destroys, throws, pours; chave_i touches (Pkt.); khon.a_ to lose, waste, throw away (P.); khuya_na (B.); khowal (Bhoj.); khowab (Aw.); khona_ (H.); khoai (OMarw.); khovu~ (G.)(CDIAL 3651). cf. kavvu to seize with claws (Ta.lex.) Rapid movement; throwing: ks.ipra springing (of a bow)(RV.); quick (S'Br.); ks.ipram quickly (AV.); khippa, adv. khippam. (Pali.Pkt.); chippa (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3688). ks.ipan.i rapid movement, stroke of a whip (RV.); khipana act of throwing (Pali); khivan.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3682). cf. kaivarta fisherman (Skt.lex.) ks.ipati throws, strikes (RV.); puts on (Ya_j.); khipati throws (Pali); khivai throws, sends, pours (Pkt.); kwar throws; khevp (Gypsy); khevan. throws (L.); kheun.a_ (P.); chimpnu_ to crush and clean rice (WPah.); kuiar falls (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3683). Lightning; flash; throw: ks.ipa_ act of throwing (Pa_n..)[gan.a bhida_di); khi_a lightning (S.); kheo flash (L.); khia, khi one throw with a fishing net (Or.); khipa a throw, anything thrown (e.g. a fishing net)(Pali)(CDIAL 3684). ks.ipta thrown (RV.); khitta thrown (Pali); thrown, sent; khittaya uselessness, loss (Pkt.); chito set apart for oneself (Sh.); khitn.o to throw away; khitin.o (Ku.); khitinu to be snatched away (N.); khi_da_ to move (OMarw.); khi_na_ to move (OMarw.)(CDIAL 3685). khipa spittle ejected when chewing betel, pressed betel dregs left in mouth (Or.)(CDIAL 3686). Cloak of antelope hide: khipa (from ks.ip) a throw, anything thrown over, as ajina-khipa a cloak of antelope hide; thrown out as a fishing net (= kumina) eel-basket; khippa (Vedic ks.ipra to ks.ip) quick, literally in the way of throwing; a sort of fishing net or eel-basket. (Pali.lex.) capat to be thrown (Santali.lex.) kuppa_ the bag forming part of a shore-net (Ta.); kuppasamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

2850.Flinging; casting: khipana fling; sahasa_ khipati to fling (Pali.lex.) cimmu to discharge by means of two fingers, shoot with the finger, push forward by means of the foot or a stick, cast, fling, push away, butt or toss with the horns, squirt, sputter; break forth, flow forth, burst forth, gush out; brandish a weapon, shake, swing; cimmisu to cause oneself to spring out, gush forth; come forth suddenly; shake, swing; cimaku, cimiku, cimuku, civuku, cimakisu, cimikisu, cimukisu, civukisu to sprinkle; simpin.i sprinkling; simpisu, simpad.isu, simbad.isu, simmad.isu to sprinkle, besprinkle; cigi to discharge with or from the fingers (Ka.); cimki to splash; cimci to sprinkle (Kor.); cimmu to throw, cast, fling, toss, spurt, squirt, thrust, butt as with the horns; n. a spurt, thrust, butt; cimmud.u throwing, flinging, casting; cippil(l)u to gush, flow, overflow, well forth, rise; cimmanamu spurting, squirting (Te.); simpai, sippai to sprinkle (Pkt.); s'i~pn.e~ (M.)(DEDR 2548). To gush: kumur-u (kumur-i-) to gush out, as milk from the breast (Ta.); kummarincu to pour out; kummaril(l)u to flow out, gush out; gumma one spirt, jet or gush (of milk from the teat of a cow, etc.)(Te.)(DEDR 1745). Blink; wink: icimik blink (Bshk.)(CDIAL 4822). imai to wink, glitter, twinkle, shine; n. eyelid, winking of the eye, time spent in winking; cimir.. to wink, blink; cimit.t.u to wink, blink; to make a signal with the eyes; n. blinking of the eyes, significant wink; cimil.i to wink; nimai to wink; n. eyelid (Ta.); ima eyelash; imekka to blink, twinkle; cima eyelash; cimpuka, cimmuka, cimpuka to twinkle with the eyes (Ma.); ime, eme, eve eyelash, eyelid; kenjeme eyelid; cimut.u, civat.u, civut.u to twinkle or wink with the eyes (Ka.); cimm to twinkle (Kod..) cimm blinking of the eyes (Kod..); ime, sime, simme eyelash (Tu.); cimut.u to wink (Te.); s'mi_l to wink, twinkle (Skt.)(DEDR 2545). cim closing the eyes (N.); cimlanu to blink (N.)(CDIAL 4822). Sparkle; startle; glitter; glare: camatka_ra, camatkr.ti surprise (Skt.); cmak winking (Orm.); camakka surprise; camakke_i startles (Pkt.); cau~kna_ to be startled (P.); cau~ka_ to glitter (B.); cahan:kiba_ to glitter, be startled (Or.) caum.kai to be startled (OAw.); cau~kna_, cau~k sudden start (H.); camaka glittering; cimko glitter (S.); camakn.a_ to shine (P.); camakn.o to shine, be mad (Ku.); camak gleam; camkanu to shine, be startled, be insolent (N.); samakiba to be startled (A.); camak flash; camka_na to glitter, be startled (B.); camakiba_ (Or.); camak glitter (Mth.); camakab to sparkle (Mth.); camakai (OAw.); camakna_ to glitter, be startled (H.); camakvu~ (G.); camakn.e~ to glitter (H.); camcam glare (N.); camcama_na_ to glare (H.); camcam burning (G.); camcama_t. dazzle (M.); camka_r, camka_ra_ flash (P.)(CDIAL 4676). Flash: jhamjham glittering (P.); jhamjhama_na_ to sparkle (H.); jhamakn.a_ to glitter (P.); jhamkanu (N.); jhamakiba_ to flash (Or.); jhamakna_ to glitter (H.); jhamaka_li_yo shining (OMarw.); jhamakn.e~ to glitter (M.)(CDIAL 5341). Jingle; tingle: chamacchamita crackling (Ma_rkP.); chamakn.a_ to fry (P.); chamchamnu to tinkle (N.); chamkanu to sprinkle, flash, be insolent (N.); chamcham startling (B.); chamchama_na_ to tinkle (H.); chamcham jingling, simmering; chamakvu~ to jingle, walk with airs (G.); samsam harassing care (M.)(CDIAL 4997). jhamjhama_unu to tingle (N.); zamzama_iba to cause a burning sensation (A.); jhamjham jingling (B.); with a jingle, with a burning sensation (G.); with a jingle (M.); jhamka_ clanging (H.); jhamak rhyme; jhamka_r tingling, tinkling (G.)(CDIAL 5342). jamkanu to look bright (N.); jamak brilliance (B.H.); jamaka_ to be bright, flourish (B.); jamakna_ to be bright (H.)(CDIAL 5140).

2851.A pigmy: kharvika_ pigmy (AV. xi.9.16); mutilated (Vedic.lex.) kharva short, low; a dwarf; kharva-s'a_kha dwarfish (Skt.Ka.lex.) kharva mutilated, maimed (Ka.lex.) karv decayed tooth (N.Pers.); kho_ra lame, limping (KS'S. xxii.3.19(Vedic.lex.) khavva hunchbacked, dwarfish (Pkt.); khabira_ limping (Or.)(CDIAL 3832). kabb crookedness (P.); kabba_ left-hand (L.); crooked, perverse, obstinate (P.); ko_r left-hand (Bshk.); kavva_d.a right hand (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2994). kharvaka bald (AV.); khalva_t.a bald (Skt.); kaurva bald (Av.); karve decayed teeth (Pers.); khavva, khava left hand (Pkt.); kawe left-hand (Kt.); kha_vi (Kal.); koh (Kho.); khabu, kha_, khai_, khabinu (Sh.); khabo (S.); khabba_ (L.P.H.); kawal left-hand (Ash.); kha_uli (Kal.); kawr.i_ (Wg.); ko~_war (Bashg.); xo_r.i (Pas'.); xaur.i (Shum.); kha_uri (Kal.); kho_woru (K.); kha_baru left-handed (S.); khaba_d.iba_ to do a thing clumsily (Or.); kura_ dwarf (Si.)(CDIAL 3832). ka~_wa~_t do_s't left hand (Wg.)(CDIAL 3833).

2852.Image: small pony: ka_rva_ a kind of small, strong pony (Ka.lex.) cf. kharva pigmy (TS. ii.5.17)(Vedic.lex.)

2853.Collyrium: kharpari_ka_, kharpari_ a kind of collyrium (Skt.lex.) karpari, kappari a collyrium extracted from the amomum zanthorhizon; blue vitriol (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kappu, karpu blackness; black; collyrium (Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.Tu.) (Ka. lex.) kap black dot (soot between eyes or on temples, or tattooed on woman's chin)(To.); kar-u (-pp-, -tt-) to grow black, darken (Ta.); kar-uppi black woman (Ta.); karpu, kappu blackness, collyrium (Ka.); karapi blackness (Kod..); kappu blackness (Tu.); karpari_ collyrium (Skt.)(DEDR 1395). kab, kad blackness (Ka.lex.) Hair-dye: kappu fastness of colour of the dye used for dyeing cloth (Ta.Te.); a kind of red tint (G.Tj.D.i,121); hair-dye (Ta.lex.) Night: kappu darkness, blackness; kappiri duskiness, partial darkness (Te.); kap- (-t-) (clouds) to overcast the sky (Kond.a); kammu (kammi-) to be overcast, dark (Ta.); kammal cloudiness, haziness (Ta.)(DEDR 1221). ks.apa, ks.ap night (RV.); khava_ (Pkt.); cu_, cuai last night (Ash.); sh night (Kt.); chui (Kho.)(CDIAL 3652). ka_val.a, ka_vul.a, ga_val.a darkness (Ka.); ka_viri blackness (Te.)(DEDR 1489). cf. karukkal twilight, dusk (Ma.); darkness, twilight, cloudiness (Ta.); karikkal twilight, dusk (Ma.); karukkuka to be dusk (Ma.); karuku to become dark in evening (Ta.); kan.n.al darkness (Ma.); kagutm darkness (Ko.); kaga.r-f darkness (To.); karipu blackness (Ka.); ganga darkness, mist (Go.); katal, katalg darkness (Ko.); kas'tal, katal id. (To.); kartale, kar..tale, kattale, kattala, kattal, kastale id.; kattalisu to become or be dark (Ka.); kattale, kartale darkness; kattal(i)yuni to get dark, set (as the sun)(Tu.); kartale darkness (Kor.); ka_r darkness (Ta.Ma.Ka.); ka_ru, ka_ri dark (Tu.)(DEDR 1278).

2854.Dalbergia sissoo: kapile a tree, a kind of dalbergia sissoo, or the dalbergia sissoo itself (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

2855.Olive: kaya olive (Pas'.); ko_u olive (Shum.); kou (Gaw.); kau wild olive, olea cuspidata (L.); kau_ olive tree, olea ferruginea (P.)(CDIAL 2747). Olea cuspidata: kau (H.P.); khau (M.); kaphlainj (Almora); bairbanj (Garhwal); oil from fruit: rubefacient; leaves and bark: bitter astringent, used as antiperiodic, in fever and debility; leaves: considered as a cure for gonorrhea; gum: used mixed with antimony in applications to the eye; habitat: NW Himalayas and Kashmir, 2,000 - 6,000 ft., Salt Range, Trans-Indus, Baluchistan and Waziristan (GIMP, p.180).

2856.Pill, bolus: gavuli a paste of wheaten flour, made into threads and cut into small bits (Ka.); gahval.a_, gahval.i_ related to gahu_, wheat (M.)(Ka.lex.) kavya a class of manes; an oblation of food to deceased ancestors (Ka.Skt.lex.) kabala, kabal.a, kavala, kaval.a a mouthful; a bolus, a pill (Ka.lex.) kaval.am ball of rice or other food for an elephant (Tiv. Periyati. 4,8,1)(Ta.lex.)

2857.Fear: kili fear, fright (Ta.); killu doubt (Ma.); gil.y extreme fear (Ko.); gili fear (Ka.); fear, terror (Te.); gilku, gilki fear, trembling (Tu.)(DEDR 1572). klav fear (Skt.); klavate_ fears (Dha_tup.); ka fear, dread (S.)(CDIAL 3616). klavita uttered hesitatingly (Sam.hUp.); ka_vn.e~, ka_vhn.e~ to be frightened out of one's wits (M.); ka_vra_ terrified (M.)(CDIAL 3618). cf. kavalai fear (Ta.); kavala perplexity (Ma.); kavali to be distressed, troubled (Ta.)(DEDR 1328). gha_bra_ confused (P.); ghabra_unu to confuse, be confused (N.); ghabra_na (B.); gha_bara_ confused (Or.); gha_bar, gha_bra_ startled (H.); gha_bru~ confused (G.); ghabr.a_n.o to be puzzled (Ku.); gha_bra_ terrified (M.); gha_br.a_ to be confused (B.)(CDIAL 4427). Timid: ko_r..ai bashfulness, timidity; bashful person (Ta.); ko_r..a bashfulness (Ma.); koyed timidity, terror (Ko.); ko_d.u to shrink, fear; n. shrinking, fear; a wonderful thing, wonder (Ka.); ko_d.-a_d.u to be amazed or confounded (Te.)(DEDR 2250). viklavate_ becomes agitated (Dha_tup.); viklava alarmed (MBh.); vikkava agitated (Pkt.); vakkamn.a_, bakkamn.a_ to be in labour (of animals)(P.); vakko~di_, bakko~di_ being near parturition (of animals)(P.) < pres. part. viklavanti_ (CDIAL 11643). cf. vel.ku-tal to be ashamed (Kampara_. Va_livatai. 73)(Ta.); bel.ku (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ku_cu (ku_ci-) to be shy, coy, recoil, shrink back (Ta.)(DEDR 1876). kon- fear (Ta.); kon:ku to be timid or shy, fear, hesitate; n. timidity, fear, shyness, hesitation; koncu, konju, koncincu to hesitate, draw back, be afraid; ko~_ca a coward (Te.)(DEDR 2173). katara which of two? (Skt.); katara (Pali); kayara (Pkt.); kavara which, what? (Si.)(CDIAL 2693). kal.e_varam, kal.aiyavaram < kalavaramu (Te.) confusion (Ta.lex.) cf. ka_tara confused, discouraged, cowardly (Mn.); ka_yara timid; ka_yaria frightened; ka_hara timid, soft, delicate (Pkt.); ka_yoru weak, lazy (K.); ka_iru coward (S.); kair timid (P.); ka_ila_ weak, tired; weariness (Or.); ka_yar coward (Bhoj.); ka_yara (OAw.); ka_yar (H.); timid, indolent, disgusted with; ka_vru~ vexed (G.); ka_vra_ overome by fright, surprise or rage (G.); ka_hara timid, soft, delicate (Pkt.); ka_hla_ weak, cowardly (L.); kaha_li fear on looking down from a height; ka_ha_linu to be startled (N.); ka_hilu~ sick, tired; ka_vlu~ delicate (G.); ka_(h)yu~ timid, tired, delicate, sickly (G.)(CDIAL 3027). ka_yile, ka_hile sickness (Ka.Tu.); ka_hili_ restlessness in fever (M.H.); ka_yalu heat (M.)(Ka.lex.) ka_yccal fever (Ta.); ka_ccil heat, bodily heat (Ma.); ka_vara, ka_vura mental heat, passion, anger, wrath (Ka.); ka_vu heat, warmth; ka_yil sickness (Tu.); ka_ykir fever (Ga.)(DEDR 1459). For semant. 'weary' cf. klam be tired (Skt.); kla_nta wearied (MBh.); kilanta tired (Pali); kilam.ta, kilim.ta (Pkt.); ka~_tn.e~ to waste away (through sickess, worry etc.); ka~_ta_vin.e~, ka_ta_vin.e~ to weary out (M.); kalat exhausted (Si.)(CDIAL 3617). Fatigue: se_de fatigue, weariness, distress (Ka.); se_da, s'a_da fatigue, weariness (Te.); seda- sweat (Pali)(DEDR 2810). Tired; trembling; weary: kal.aikan. support as relieving distress (Te_va_. 645,1); kal.ai weariness, exhaustion (Kantapu. Tati_ciyut. 55); kal.ai-ttal to be fatigued or exhausted; to be languid; to flag, faint, swoon (Ira_mana_. Pak. 20)(Ta.lex.) cal.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to grow tired, become weary (Ta.); cal.ikka, cal.un.n.uka to shake, be frightened (Ma.); cal.i to fear, succumb, be deprived of one's power or high sprit, become tired (Ka.); calipuni to shake (Tu.); jal.uka trembling, tremor, fear (Te.)(DEDR 2407). dan.u, dan.ik fatigue, weariness, exhaustion; dan.iyuni, dan.ipuni to be fatigued, tired, exhausted, satisfied, satiated; dan.ipa_vuni to fatigue, weary, satiate (Tu.)(DEDR 3045). jad.i to use threatening language, frighten, blame (Ka.); jad.u fright, shyness (Tu.); jad.iyu to fear, be afraid; jad.ipincu to frighten; jad.upu fear, fright, dread, alarm (Te.)(DEDR 2297). cat.ai (-v-, -nt-) to become weary, dispirited, be stunted in growth (as trees, plants); cat.aivu wearisomeness, depression of spirits, dejection (Ta.); cat.ekka to grow thin, lean, weak (Ma.); cad.pu leanness, thinness (Tu.); carmna_, car.mna_ to become flaccid, flabby (as a plant cut off from the stem), feel or look weak, enervated (through heat, exertion, illness, cares); carm ta'a_na_ to weaken, debilitate, unnerve (Kur.); car.me to wither, be scorched (Malt.)(DEDR 2301). Difficulty: kacati difficulty (Tiruppu. 149)(Ta.); kasti (Te.); grief (Ta.); difficulty, trouble (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 60); kacutti id. (Tiruppu. 552)(Ta.lex.) cf. kas.t.a difficulty (Skt.lex.) kasa_la_ (U.); kaca_la_ affliction, distress; difficulty, trouble (Ta.lex.) kas.t.a bad, evil, wrong; trouble, misry woe; khe_t.a bad, vile, inferior (Ka.lex.) Pain: ka_ci difficulty, straits (Ta.); ga_si, gha_si trouble, fatigue, pain (Ka.); ga_si id. (Tu.Te.); ga_sincu to harass, vex, fatigue, exhaust; ga_sil(l)u to labour, be wearied, be harassed (Te.)(DEDR 1430). cf. kasan pain, torture (H.)(CDIAL 3443). ka_can-am killing, slaying (Ta.lex.) kas.t.ountso wearisome (Kon.lex.) kasn.i_ distress (G.)(CDIAL 2971); cf. kas.an.a rubbing, testing (Skt.)(CDIAL 2971).

2858.Image: creeper; gadelupa indica: ko_ve the climbing plant bryonia grandis with beautiful red fruit (Ka.Ma.); ko_vai (Ta.); kro_vi, go_vi (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ko_vai a common creeper of the hedges, coccinia indica (Tiruccen. Pu. 8,56); a climbing shrub, bryonia epigoea (Pata_rtta. 421)(Ta.lex.) kovvai a common creeper of the hedges, coccinia indica (Tiruva_ca. 6,2)(Ta.lex.) ko_mala, ko_val., ko_val.a, ko_mal.e, ko_hal., ko_l.e (Tadbhava of ko_mala) tender, soft; unripe, unripe fruit (Ka.lex.) kovvai-kka_y-ppatam a stage in the growth of paddy when it is tender and green as a kovvai fruit (J.)(Ta.lex.) ko_va bryonia grandis [= coccinia indica = cephalandra indica; corallocarpus epigaea = bryonia epigaea](Ma.)(DEDR 2247). ko_mal.am < ko_mala softness, tenderness (Tiruva_ca. 5,68); youthfulness, juvenility (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,4,5)(Ta.lex.)

2859.Tube: ko_vi, kor..avi a tube, a flute (Ka.); ko_vi, kro_vi, gro_vi (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2860.Thorn; stubble; stick: ko_val stubble (Pa.); koyal stubble (Go.)(DEDR 2119). koyya stalk of jowar (Nk.); stick, rod, staff, ship's mast, wood; wooden (Te.); stick, drum-stick, thorn, sting (Pa.); quill of porcupine (Ga.); koyye id., thorn (Go.); koya a wooden piece, log (Kond.a)(DEDR 2130). Image: cleat, wooden pieces: koyya_kkat.t.ai cleat (C.E.M.); wooden pieces placed on either side of the axle supporting the cart-frame (Ta.); koyya (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Reaping: kuyam sickle, reaping-hook, curved knife (Cilap. 16,30); razor (Ci_vaka. 2500)(Ta.lex.) koyl. harvest, reaping (Ko.); koy- (koc-) to cut (Ko.); to reap, harvest, cut, pluck (flowers, etc.)(Kond.a.-t-); to cut (grass, weeds, etc.)(Pe.); to reap, harvest (Pa. ko-); to cut, to reap (Go.Ga. kod-, kon-); to cut, crop, reap (Ka.); to cut, harvest (Kod.. koyyuv-, kojj-); koilu reaping, harvest (Tu.); koyyelu harvest (Tu.); koyilu reaping, harvest (Tu.); cutting, reaping, plucking (Ko.); kuyilu id. (Ko.); koyika man who cuts (Ko.); koyka to cut, reap, crop, mow (Ma.); koyyal, koyttu reaping (Ma.); koyil the hire of a fruit-gatherer (Ma.); koia_na_, ko_iya_na_ harvest wheat or crops; to gather berries, mangoes, etc. (Go.); koida_na_ to reap (Go.); ko_va (ko_t-) to reap, cut off; n. reaping, harvesting (Ku.); ko_eri harvest, reaping (Kui); koiyali (ko_t-) to pluck (Kuwi); xoyna (xoss-) to cut down grass and the like with the sickle, mow, reap (Kur.); qoye to reap (Malt.); qoytre to have the crop reaped (Malt.)(DEDR 2119). kol.ake, kol.ke the third crop of rice (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 2154). Field: xo_ir cultivated field, meadow (Dardic)(CDIAL 3876). Harvest: koy to cut, reap (Ta.); koyka to cut, reap, crop (Ma.) kuvil reaping, cutting (Ta.); koyyal, koyttu reaping (Ta.); koy to cut (Ko.); koy (koyd-, ko_d-), kuy to cut, saw, crop, reap; n. cutting, etc. (Ka.); koy to harvest (kod..); koipini, koyipini, koyyuni to cut, reap, mow (Tu.); koyilu, koilu reaping, harvest, a small paddy field (Tu.); ko_yu to cut, reap (Te.); ko~_ta cutting, reaping (Te.); koy to reap, harvest (Pa.Kond.a); ko_val stubble (Pa.); koy to reap, cut (Ga.Go.); koyal stubble (Go.); koy to cut (Pe.); ko_va to cut, reap; n. reaping, harvesting (Kui); ko'eri harvest, reaping (Kui); koiyali (ko_t-) to pluck (Kuwi); xoyna_ to cut down grass, mow, reap (Kur.); qoye to reap; qoytre to have the crop reaped (Malt.); koyta_ grass-sickle (M.)(DEDR 2119). kayi_pen to cut (?Kol.)(DEDR 2119). cf. ko_vil temple (Ta.lex.)

2861.Cochineal: ko_vam < indra-go_pa cochineal, tampalappu_cci (Cir-upa_n.. 71)(Ta.lex.)

2862.To oppose: ko_-ttal to oppose, resist (Ci_vaka. 1290)(Ta.lex.)