8095.Eight forms of marriage: man.am marriage, of which there are eight kinds, viz., piramam, teyvam, pira_ca_pattiyam, a_rit.am, ka_ntaruvam, a_curam, ira_kkatam, paica_cam (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

(1) piramam marriage consisting in the gift by a father of his daughter, aged twelve, before her second menstruation, adorned with jewels, to a bachelor of forty-eight, learned in the ve_das (Tol. Po. 92, Urai); piramam potter's wheel < bhrama whirlwind; giddiness (Ta.lex.)

(2) teyvam < daiva a form of marriage in which the sacrificer gives away his daughter to an officiating priest before the sacrificial fire, as the latter's fee; teyvaman.am id. (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.); teyvakkil.avi divine speech (Man.i. 7,97); Sanskrit, as the language of the gods (Man.i. 21,46)(Ta.lex.)

(3) pira_ca_pattiyam a form of marriage which consists in the gift of a girl by her father to the bridegroom without receiving bride-price from him; a form of marriage which consists in the gift of a girl with property or other valuables worth double the bride-price received (Tol. Po. 92, Urai); a form of marriage which consists in the gift of a girl to a proper person of her maternal uncle's or paternal aunt's family, when a proposal is made (Ir-ai. 1, Urai); intervention; pira_ca_tam < pra_sa_da temple; top story of a lofty building; the sanctum sanctorum of a temple (Cukkirani_ti, 239); oppu (Ir-ai. 1,22) (Ta.lex.)

(4) a_rs.o_d.ha_ a wife married according to the a_rs.a form of marriage (Skt.lex.) a_rit.am < a_rs.a that which relates to or is derived from the R.s.is (Tol. Po. 145, Urai); marriage in which the bride and bridegroom are placed between a cow and a bull both well decorated (Tol. Po. 92, Urai); marriage in which the fater gives away his daughter according to the rule before the sacred fire, after receiving from the bridegroom for the fulfilment of the sacred law a cow and a bull or two pairs as a present (Nampiyakap. 117, Urai); a_rit.ar < a_rs.a R.s.is, sages (Kantapu. Me_rup. 17)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_rs.a a form of marriage derived from the rs.is; one of the eight forms of marriage in which the father of the bride received one or two pairs of cows from the bridegroom (Skt.lex.) cf. r.s.i inspired singer (RV.)(CDIAL 2460). r.s.i, ris.i, risi, rus.i, rusi an inspired poet, a particular sage, a saint; r.s.i vadhu a wife of any of the principal r.s.is (Ka.lex.) a_rs.e_ya relating to r.s.is; very ancient (Ka.lex.) r.s.ya s'r.n:ga name of a personage whose story is told in the first book of the Ra_ma_yan.a (Ka.lex.) r.s.yamu_ka a mountain in the Dekhan, temporary abode of Ra_ma_ and Sugri_va (Ka.lex.) r.s.abha, vr.s.abha a bull; best, excellent (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: antelope: r.s.ya the painted or white-footed antelope (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bull: a_rs.abhya (fr. r.s.abha) a steer sufficiently full-grown to be used; hareyada ettu, ho_vi; a steer fit to be castrated; hid.i ho_ri (Ka.lex.)

(5) ka_ntaruvam < ga_ndharva a form of marriage which results entirely from love and which has no ritual whatever, as common among Gandharvas (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.); ka_ntarppam id. (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.a. 54); ka_ntaruppam id. (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 182); ka_ntiruvam id. (Ta.lex.)

(6) a_curam < a_sura that which belongs or relates to Asuras (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-vatai. 97); a form of marriage in which the bridegroom obtains the bride by bedecking her with jewels and by paying what is known as bride's price to her father and paternal kinsmen (Nampiyakap. 117, Urai.); acuram acquirement of a bride by the successful performance of some valiant deed enjoined by her father, as the seizing of a wild bull (Tol. Po. 93, Urai.); acuraman.am id. (Ta.lex.)

(7) ira_kkatam < ra_ks.asa a form of marriage in which the bride is carried away by force without her consent or the permission of her relatives, a form characteristic of Ra_ks.asas (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.); ira_t.cacam ancient form of marriage in which the bride was carried away by force (Ta.lex.)

(8) paica_cam < pais'a_ca a form of marriage in which a man embraces a sleeping or intoxicated woman or a woman older than himself or of a lower caste, as prevailing among the Pis'a_cas (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

8096.Celestial hosts: patin-en-kan.am are eighteen classes of celestial hosts (Pur-ana_. 1, Urai.); kan.am < gan.a group; collection; class; tribe; clan; clock; herd; series (Na_lat.i, 25); company, assembly, concourse of people (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) The 18 classes of celestial hosts, kan.am are given in (Pin..): (i) amarar, (ii) cittar, (iii) acurar, (iv) taittiyar (daitya), (v) karut.ar, (vi) kin-n-arar, (vii) nirutar, (viii) kimpurut.ar, (ix) kantaruvar, (x) iyakkar (yaks.a), (xi) vicaiyar, (xii) pu_tar, (xiii) pica_car, (xiv) antarar, (xv) mun-ivar, (xvi) urakar, (xvii) a_ka_cava_ciyar, and (xviii) po_ka-pu_miyar (Ta.lex.)

8097.Occupations of a ks.atriyya: The six occupations of a ks.atriya are: o_tal, ve_t.t.al, i_tal, pat.ai-k-kalam payir-al, palluyiro_mpal, pakai-t-tir-an terutal (Kur-al.. 384, Urai): reciting (as the ve_da), sacrificing, giving gifts, training in the use of weapons and arms, protecting the many lives, punishing the enemies (Ta.lex.)[pat.ai-k-kala-k-kur-avan mi_n.t.u po_tarumal.avil (Tiruvil.ai. An:kam.12) weapons, arms; missile; steel].

8098.The insignia of a king: The insignia are 21: mut.i (crown), kut.ai (umbrella), kavari (yak-tail fan), to_t.t.i (sharp weapon planted in the ground), muracu (war-drum, tabour), cakkaram (wheel), ya_n-ai (elephant), kot.i (flag), matil (fortification), to_ran.am (ornamented gateway surmounted with an arch; ni_rkut.am (water-pot), pu_ma_lai (flower-garland), can:ku (conch), kat.al (sea), makaram (crocodile), a_mai (tortoise), in.ai-k-kayal (brace or carp (a tank-fish, cyprinus fimbriatus ) in gold or silver, an auspicious object carried before kings), cin:kam (lion), ti_pam (lamp), it.apam (< r.s.abha bull), a_can-am (throne)(Ta.lex.)

8099.Ornamental curves of a crown: Five ornamental types of crowns are identified by their shapes (mut.i-y-ur-uppu): ta_mam (wreath-shaped), mukut.am (cock's comb-shaped), patumam (lotus-shaped), ko_t.akam (tapering, curved), kimpuri (shaped like the mouth of a shark)(Ta.lex.)

8100.Terms related to war:cf. Srinivasa Aiyangar, P.T., Pre-Aryan Tamil Culture, Repr. Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, 1985.

kat.t.il throne; a construction of boards tied together to form a seat

ka_l.ai, erutu, vit.ai, ir-a_l, e_r-u, kun.t.ai, ku_l.i, kot.t.iyam, ko_, ce_, pagat.u, pa_n.t.il, pa_ral, pullam, pu_n.i, per-r-am, po_ttu, mu_ri bull.

ya_n-ai, kal.iru, ar-uku, a_mpal, immat.i, umpal, uva_, er-umpu, oruttal, o_n:kal, kat.ivai, kal.van-, kar-ai-y-at.i, kaippuli, kaimmalai, kaimma_, ko_t.t.uma_, cun.t.a_li, cu_kai, tin.t.i, tumpi, tu_n:kal, tel.l.i, to_l, na_lva_y, nu_r..il, pakat.u, pukarmukam, pur..akkai, pu_t.kai, peruma_, pon:kat.i, marun.ma_, mar-amali, moy, vayama_, vallilan:ku, var..uvai, ve_r..am elephant

mut.i crown; band; mummut.i triple crown {Warlike operations were of five types or sub-divisions of pur-am: vet.ci preliminary lifting of the enemy's cattle and confining them in a pen in one's own country, a method of declaration of war; vaci expedition into the enemy's country; tu-ur..ir..ai (ur..iai) siege of the forts; tumpai fierce fighting; va_kai final victory; these correspond to names of flowers which symbolize the events called -tin.ai subdivided into tur-ai: kur-ici (hilly region), mullai (wooded country surrounding the lower river valleys), marutam (capital in the heart of the agricultural tract), neytal (maritime tract), pa_lai (desert tract).

karo_t.ikai garland for the hair-knot

po_r war

can.t.ai war

ceru war

muran. war

tevvu war

amar war DEDR 162

a_rppu war

ikal war DEDR 413

ur-ar..vu war

kan.aiyam war DEDR 1166

katan-am war

kali war DEDR 1308

kurampu war DEDR 1772

ku_t.t.am war DEDR 1882

camar war

ja_t.pu war

ta_kku war DEDR 3150

tir-al war

tummai war DEDR 3327

nikam war DEDR 3660

nikarppu war

pan.t.an-am war

malaippu war

malaivur-al war

muyal war DEDR 4967

moy war

vir-appu war DEDR 5439

vin-ai war DEDR 5445

mar-po_r wrestling

kal.am field of battle

kal.ari field of battle DEDR 1376

par-antalai field of battle

mutunilam field of battle

pat.ai army

ta_n-ai army

an.i army group

un.t.ai army group

ot.t.u army group

a_kkam front rank of army

kot.i-p-pat.ai front rank of army

ta_r front rank of army

tu_ci front rank of army

nirai front rank of army

ku_r..ai back rank of army

mar-ali god of death

pa_kan- mahout

kantu post to which elephant is tied

tar-i post to which elephant is tied

a_lai elephant-house

o_t.ai face-plate of an elephant

sur..i face-plate of an elephant

tat.i club

erar.. club

tan.t.u club

kun.il short club

vil bow

kokkarai bow

cilai bow

tat.i bow

tavar bow

mun-i bow

kot.umaram bow, bent-wood

va_l. sword

uvan.i sword

e_ti sword

kat.uttalai sword

tuvat.t.i sword

navir sword

na_ttam sword

vacam sword

val. sword

kur-umpit.i short sword

curikai short sword

katti short sword

ko_n.am bent sword

i_t.t.i spear

it.t.i spear

kar..ukkat.ai spear

kar..umul. spear

ve_l lance, javelin

eyil javelin -- implement of Murukan- DEDR 808

aran.am javelin -- implement of Murukan-

e(h.)kam javelin -- implement of Murukan-; cf. e(h.)ku sharp; steel

kundam javelin -- implement of Murukan-

ja_n:kar javelin -- implement of Murukan-

ut.ampit.i short javelin

vit.t.er-u short javelin

kar..u trident

ka_r.. trident

mar..u battle-axe

kan.icci battle-axe

kunda_l.i battle-axe

kul.ir battle-axe

tan.n.am battle-axe

ampu arrow

kan.ai arrow

katiram arrow; cf. katir ray; spike

ko_ arrow

ko_l arrow

tot.ai arrow

to_n.i arrow

pagar..i arrow

pal.l.am arrow

put.ai arrow

van.t.u arrow

va_l.i arrow

na_n. string of the bow

na_n.i string of the bow

pu_ram string of the bow

a_vam string of the bow

tot.ai string of the bow

na_ri string of the bow

narampu string of the bow

pu_t.t.u string of th ebow

ut.u point on the string where the arrow was placed

ke_t.akam shield

kit.uku shield

kat.akam shield

tat.t.u shield

paricai shield

palakai shield

mar-ai shield

vat.t.an.am shield

vat.t.am shield

to_l shield made of hide

tor-param shield made of hide

tan.t.ai shield made of cane

val.l.i shield made of cane

me_r..akam coat of armour

aran.i coat of armour

a_cu coat of armour

kantal.am coat of armour

kaipput.ai the hands

kappal, o_t.am, ampi, to_n.i, teppam, parical, pat.aku, kalam, ut.upam, ko_lam, tol.l.am, pakat.u, pat.uvai, pat.t.i, puruvai, pun.ai, mitavai, val.l.am, timil boat; cf. arimuka-v-ampi boat with head shaped like a lion; karimuka-v-ampi boat with head shaped like an elephant; kutirai-muka-v-ampi boat with head shaped like a horse

teppam float made of logs bound together

timil a catamaran for fishing

to_n.i a wicker work boat or construction covered with hide

valam a dugout canoe

pat.aku, kappal sailing boats

o_t.am boat rowed with oars

ku_mpu mast of a sailing boat

pa_y, itai sail of a sail-boat

ampi, o_n:kal, kalam, cata_, con:ku, timil, tol.l.ai, to_n.i, navvu, pa_h.ri, pa_tai, para_ti, pa_r-u, pun.ai, po_tam, matalai, van:kam ship

kalappai, itai, ur..upat.ai, kalan-ai, a_cil, tot.uppu, pat.ai, pat.aiva_l. plough

va_l., uvan.i, e_ti, kat.uttalai, tuvat.t.i, naviram, na_t.t.am, vacam, kuya, kul.ir knife

kur-umpit.i, curikai short knife

cu_ri short knife that could be bent at the handle

e_r-r-am, kapilai, ir-ai-ku_t.ai water-lift

ampi, it.a_r, ir-aivai, ka_ra_mpi, kir..a_r, pir..a_r, put.t.il, pu_t.t.ai water-lift

mat.ai sluice

korampu partial dam

8101.Seven continents: er..u-ti_vu the seven continents or divisions of earth which according to Pura_n.a_s are said to exist in the form of concentric circles with the mountain Me_ru as their centre, each being surrounded by one of seven ring-shaped seas, viz.: na_valanti_vu, ir-alitti_vu, ilavanti_vu, kiravucatti_vu, kucaitti_vu, te_kkanti_vu, put.karatti_vu, as islands; kantapu. varies the order thus: (1) na_valanti_vu: na_val jamoon-plum, eugenia jambolana (Tirukko_. 191); arnott's mountain black plum, eugenia arnottiana; na_valanti_vu (Man.i. 22,29); a shout of joy made while heaping grain on the threshing-floor (E_rer..u. 59); a shout of driving the oxen while treading sheaves on the threshing-floor (Nan-. 101, Urai); na_val-ku_r-u to shout na_valo_-na_val (Ya_p. Vi. Pak. 45); na_valnel a kind of paddy; na_valakalit.am = na_valanti_vu (Pu. Ve. 8,17) the central annual continent surrounded by the ocean of salt-water; (2) te_kkanti_vu: te_kku teak, tectona grandis (Akana_. 107)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); te_ku (Te.); te_gu (Ka.); te_kkam champak; areca-nut palm (Ta.); te_kkanti_vu an annular continent named after the tree called te_kku (Ta.); (3) kucaitti_vu: kucai, kucam < kus'a darbha grass (Pirapulin.. Ko_rakkar. 1); kucaikkiranti knot in a finger-ring made of darbha grass; kucaitti_vu the fourth annular continent believed to have sprung from Brahma's kus'a grass and to be surrounded by the ocean of ghee (Tiva_.), or ocean of curds (Kantapu.); kuce_cayam < kus'e_-s'aya lotus; kucam pertaining to the potter's class; (4) kiraucatti_vu: kiraucam < krauca Indian love bird, an-r-il [(cakrava_ka; annal a bird of stately walk (Ma.)(DEDR 331)]; distance measured by a single flight of a fowl; kiravuca-kiri the eastern part of the Hima_laya range, in Assam, as split by Skanda (Pu.Ve. 6,9, Urai); (5) ilavanti_vu: ilavam red-flowered silk-cotton treee, bombax malabaricum (Ta.Ma.); ilavu id. (Ta.); ilavanti_vu (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 19); ilavantikai a big tank provided with machinery for filling as well as emptying (Man.i. 3,45); royal park encircling a large tank (Cilap. 10,31); ilavam clove < lavan:ga (Te_va_. 353,2); (6) ir-alitti_vu: ir-ali white fig; cassia; myrobalan; ir-al bivalve shell-fish, mussel; ir-al.i cassia (Ta.); re_la id. (Ka.); re_la-cet.t.u purging cassia, cassia (cathartocarpus) fistula (Te.inscr.); re_la_, re_rka_ cassia fistula (Go.)(DEDR 477); irul. ironwood of Ceylon, mesua ferrea; irumpukam ironwood (Ta.); irimpakam, irul. id. (Ma.); irul. id. (Ka.); ayiro_l. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 482); (7) put.karatti_vu: put.karam lotus flower; cyrus crane, grus antigone; a celebrated place of pilgrimage; put.karin.i lotus tank; sacred tank near a temple = put.karatti_vu (Civataru. Ko_pura. 69); pus.karam a festival of ceremonial bathing in the Godavari at Rajahmandry, occurring once in twelve years; a celebrated place of pilgrimage, now called Pokhar in Ajmer; pus.kara blue lotus (AV.); pukkhara lotus (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8298a)(Ta.lex.){The sub-continent spanning from Assam to the Indus river, skirting Sri Lanka, crossing the Palk straits or large rivers such as the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Jamuna, Godavari and the Indus.} The world of seven continents: In Agni Pura_n.a (108.1-3) the list of seven concentric island-continents, sapta-dvi_pa_ are listed as: (i) jambu (with Mt. Me_ru at the centre and surrounded by the lavan.a ocean of salt); i.e. na_valam (Ta.lex.); (ii) plaks.a (surrounding the ocean of salt and surrounded by the ocean of iks.u, sugarcane juice); i.e. ir-ali (Ta.lex.); (iii) s'a_lmali (surrounding the iks.u ocean and surrounded by the ocean of sura_, wine); i.e. ilavam (Ta.lex.); (iv) kus'a (surrounding the sura_ ocean and surrounded by the ocean of sarpis, clarified butter); i.e. kucai (Ta.lex.); (v) krauca (surrounding the sarpis ocean and surrounded by the ocean of dadhi, curds); i.e. kiravucam (Ta.lex.); (vi) s'a_ka (surrounding the dadhi ocean and surrounded by the ocean of dugdha, milk); i.e. te_kkam (Ta.lex.); (vii); pus.kara surrounding the dugdha ocean and surrounded by the ocean of jala, water; i.e. put.karam (Ta.lex.) The term, sapta-dvi_pa_ vasumati_ occurs in Patajali's Maha_bha_s.ya (c. 187-151 B.C.); loc. cit. Sircar, D.C., Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p.1]. Kantapu. varies the order thus: na_valanti_vu, te_kkanti_vu, kucaitti_vu, kiravucatti_vu, ilavanti_vu, ir-alitti_vu, put.karatti_vu (Ta.lex.) The seven principal mountains (sapta-kula_cala) of each division of a continent or vars.a are: mahe_ndra, malaya, sahya, s'uktimat, r.ks.a, vindhya and pa_riya_tra (Ka.lex.) The seven seas (sapta_bdhi) are that of salt-water (lavan.a), sugar-cane juice or syrup (iks.u), wine (sura_), clarified butter (ghr.ta), curds (dadhi), milk (dugdha), and fresh water (jala)(Ka.lex.)

8102.Nine continents: In an apparently later classification, nine continents are named: navakan.t.am: ki_r..pa_l-vite_kam, me_lpa_l-vite_kam, vat.apa_l-vite_kam, ten-pa_l-vite_kam, vat.apa_l-ire_patam, ten-pa_l-ire_patam, vat.apa_r--paratam, ten-pa_r--paratam, mattimakan.t.am; these terms use vite_kam [(name of a country north east of Magadha, capital Mithila_ or Janakapur in Ne_pa_l north of Madhuva_n.i_ (Skt.lex.)], ire_patam (?dravid.a or ?ila_vr.ta), paratam as classifiers with directional (east, west, south, north and centre) sub-categories. Nine divisions of the earth: nava-varut.am nine divisions of the earth according to ancient Indian geography: kuru-, iran.iya-, iramiya-, il.a_viruta-, ke_tuma_la-, pattira-, ari-, kimpurut.a-, pa_rata- (Ta.lex.)The regions have principal mountain; they are 7 or 8: (a) list of seven (Skt.lex.): mahe_ndra, malaya, sahya, s'uktima_n, r.ks.a, vindhya and pa_riya_tra, collectively termed: kulaparvata (kula_cala, kula_dri, kulaparvata, kulas'aila); (b) list of eight (Pin..): (i) imayam (hima_laya); (ii) mantaram Mt. Mandara (Tiv. Periyati. 11,4,5); Mt. Me_ru (Te_va_. 1232,5); (iii) kaila_cam (Mt. Kaila_s); (iv) vintiyam (vindhya_); (v) nit.atam < nis.adha a country in the N.E. of India (Nait.ata. Na_t.. 25); (vi) e_maku_t.am (e_mam < he_ma gold (Perun.. Vattava. 1,28); e_ma-man.al gold alluvium (Mu_. A.); e_maku_t.am name of a mountain to the north of the Hima_laya (Kantapu. As.t.ako_. 34); Mt. Me_ru (Ta.lex.); (vii) ni_lam ni_la-kiri mountain range north of il.avarut.avarus.am; the nilgris, north of Coimbatore district (Cilap. 26,85); (viii) kantama_tan-am < gandha-ma_dana a mountain believed to lie to the east of Me_ru (Cu_t.a_)(Ta.lex.); id., renowned for its fragrant forests (Skt.lex.)

8103.Division of the world; a continent: vars.am a division of the world, a continent; (nine such contients are enumerated: kuru, hiran.maya, ramyaka, ila_vr.ta, hari, ke_tuma_la_, bhadras'va, kim.nara and bha_rata; Mountains which divide the world: vars.a-girih., vars.a-parvatah. a Vars.a mountain, i.e. one of the mountain ranges supposed to separate the different divisions of the world from one another; (they are seven: himava_n, he_maku_t.a, nis.adha, me_ru, caitrah., karn.i_, s'r.n:gi_ (Skt.lex.) cf. virut.a_n:kam the region of the river Ta_miraparn.i (Na_mati_pa. 503)(Ta.lex.)[The phonetic concordance, varut.am ~~ virut.am re-inforces the concordance of semant. 'region': varut.am ~~ vars.a ; and semant. 'bull': virut.am ~~ vr.s.a > vars.a; cf. phonet. vr.s rain; vr.s.t.a rained (AV.); vars.a rain (RV.)(CDIAL 11392) virut.t.i rain (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Civapu_cai. 46)(Ta.lex.)]. s'r.n:ga-virut.am, s'rn:ga-varut.am the region along the Indus river spanning both kuru vars.a and hiran.maya vars.a; Image: unicorn: s'r.n:ga horn; virut.am bull calf. A sub-region and means of subsistence as sub-categories in defining locus, may be connoted by vr.tta; cf. il.a_virutavarut.am (Ta.); ila_vr.ta (Skt.lex.)

8104.Twelve Tamil regions: kot.untamir..na_t.u regions where kot.untamir.. (tamil dialect or lingua franca; Nan.. 273, Urai.) is spoken, 12 in number: (i) ten--pa_n.t.i; cf. ten--pa_li an ancient division of the Tamil land (ten--pa_limukattukku vat.avellaiya_kiya pah.rul.i : Cilap. 8,1,Urai.); ten--pa_r South India (Tamir..na_. 239); the Pa_n.d.ya country, as the sourhtern part of the earth (Tiruvil.ai. Ukkirapa_n.t.iyan-. 20); ten--pa_n.t.i-na_t.u the southern Pan.d.ya country identified with Na_ci-na_t.u (Nan-. 273, Urai.)(M.M. 888); ten--pa_n.t.i id. (ten--pa_n.t.i kut.t.an. kut.an:kar-ka_: Nan-. 273, Urai.); the Pa_nd.ya country as being in the south (Tiruva_ca. 19,2)(Ta.lex.) The significance of ten--pa_li as an ancient division linked with '-ire_vatam' which perh. relates to the lands indicated by the seventh region called aira_vata in the seven regions of Jambu_dvi_pa (cf. Kirfel, Die Kosmographie der Inder, p.215); the list adopted by Jain writers for the seven-fold division are: bharata, haimavata (for Kimpurus.a), hari, videha (for Me_ru or Ila_vr.ta), ramyaka, hairan.yavata (for Hiran.maya); and aira_vata (for Uttara-Kuru). This synonym for Uttara-Kuru is consistent with aira_vatam which, in mythology, is linked to the eastern region. According to Ma_rkan.d.eya Pura_n.a, chapter 54, the divisions are listed as follows: na_bhi (hima- or bha_rata-vars.a), kimpurus.a (hemaku_t.a or kimpurus.a-vars.a), harivars.a (hari- or nais.adha-vars.a), ila_vr.ta (Meru or Ila_vr.ta-vars.a), ramya (ni_la- or ramyaka-vars.a), kuru (s'r.n:gavad or uttara-kuru-vars.a), bhadra_s'va (bhadra_s'va- or ma_lyavad-vars.a) and ketuma_la (ketuma_la or gandhama_na-vars.a). loc.cit. Sircar, D.C. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p.21); (ii) kut.t.am the region full of lakes, corresponding to the modern towns of Kottayam and Quilon in Travancore; kut.t.ana_t.u id. (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,9,1); kut.t.am tank, pond (Pur-ana_. 243,9)(Ta.lex.) (iii) kut.am western region; prob. a portion of modern Malabar; kut.ampulam western region, me_lna_t.u (Cir-upa_n.. 47); kut.ana_t.an- Che_ra king (Ta.lex.); (iv) kar-ka_ rocky portion of Coimbator district on the eastern side of the Western ghats (Tol. Col. 400, Ce_n-a_.)(Ta.lex.); (v) ve_n.a_t.u < ve_l. + the region comprising the major portion of modern Travancore; ve_n.a_t.t.ikal. ruler of Ve_n.a_t.u (T.A.S. ii,184); ve_l. one belonging to the ve_l.ir class (Pur-ana_. 24); Ca_l.ukya king; petty ruler; chief; title given by ancient Tamil kings to Ve_l.a_l.as (Tol. Po. 30; cempiyan- tamir..ve_l. en-n-um kulappeyarum : S.I.I. iii,221)(Ta.lex.) (vi) pu_r..i a region; cf. pu_r..iyan- Che_ra king (Tiva_.); Pa_n.d.ya king (Ce_kkir..a_r Pu. Pa_yi. 6)(Ta.); pu_r..iya_n- S'iva as wearing sacred ashes (Tamir..na_. 78); pu_r..il eaglewood (Patir-r-up. 87,2); earth; pu_r..ai mountain pass; crevine, opening (Na_lat.i. 282); pu_r..i (perh. bhu_ti) powder (Kalla_. 25,28); dust (Cir-upa_n.. 134); sacred ashes (Kantapu. Yut. Varavu. 13); soft mire or mud (Ta.lex.); (vii) pan-r-i the region around the Palani hills (Tol. Col. 394, Il.am.)(Ta.lex.); (viii) aruva_ poss. a large portion of South Arcot district (Tol. Col. 400, Urai.)(Ta.lex.); (ix) aruva_-vat.atalai poss. the Chingleput district (Ta.lex.); (x) ci_tani cf. ci_ta_ri town, city (J.)(Ta.lex.); (xi) mala_t.u < malaiyama_n-a_t.u the region around Tirukko_yilu_r; Occupation of war: malai occupation of war (Malaipat.u. 331); Image: hill: malai hill, mountain (Kur-al., 124); malaiyama_n- Ce_ra king, as lord of the hill country (Tiva_.); a sub-division of the Ut.aiya_r caste (E.T. vi,206); malaiyan- chief of a hilly tract; Image: four-horned antelope: malaiy-a_t.u four-horned antelope, tetraciros quadricornis (Ta.lex.); (xii) pun-an-a_t.u; Ce_n-a_varaiyar: pon:kar-na_t.u and ol.i-na_t.u instead of ve_n.a_t.u and pun-an-a_t.u (Nan-.273, Urai.; Tol.Col.400, Ce_n-a_.)(Ta.lex.)

8105.Mythological places: Eight places are celebrated as the scenes of S'iva's exploits (at.t.av-vi_rat.t.am): 1. atikai (S. Arcot district, tiri-puram); 2. var..uvu_r; 3. par-iyalu_r; 4. ko_valu_r (Tirukko_yilu_r in S. Arcot district (Pur-ana_. 99)(Ta.); ko_val (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,86); ko_valar men of the sylvan tract, herdsmen); 5. kur-ukkai 6. vir-kut.i (cf. vir-ko_t.i Dhanus.ko_t.i (Ce_tupu. Kanta. 79)(Ta.); 7. kan.t.iyu_r (cf. Conde (Si.) an ancient capital of Sri Lanka; Tanjore district; also noted for its Vis.n.u shrine (Tiv. Tirukkur-un. 19); 8. kat.avu_r (Ta.lex.)

8106.Seven clouds: The seven celestial clouds under the control of Indra, catta-me_kam < saptan + are (Ta_yu. Paripu_. 9): (i) camvarttam; (ii) a_varttam; (iii) put.kala_varttam; cf. put.kalam continent (iv) can:ka_rittam; cf. can:ka_ri (prob. sam.-ha_ri_) horse-tail millet (Ta.lex.) (v) turo_n.am teak; turo_n.i-talam < dro_n.i_-dala fragrant screwpine; cf. synonym: te_kkam continent (Ta.lex.); (vi) ka_l.amuki; (vii) ni_lavarun.am (Ta.lex.) Land of Punt: "In year 8 of Sankhkare Mentuhotpe (2009-1998 BC) -- the year of Henkanakhte's trip south -- an expedition of 3000 men, recruited from... Upper Egypt and led by the Chief Steward Henenu, left the Nile valley near Koptos and headed east across the desert toward the Red Sea, 90 miles away. Their orders were to re-establish commerce by sea with the fabulously rich land of Punt on the Somali coast, unvisited by Egyptians since the days of the Sixth Dynasty... During the Fifth Dynasty (of Sahure c. 2501-2515 BC), expeditions went to Byblos for cedar wood. The Palermo stone mentions of produce brought from 'turquoise land' in Sinai and from Punt on the Somali coast... voyages to Byblos and Punt seem to be regular in the Sixth Dynasty (2345-2181 BC)... with references to building ships for an expedition to Punt... in the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1786 BC), ships sailed southwards from Red Sea ports to the incense-land of Punt..." (E.S.Edwards et al (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. I, Pt.2, 1971, Cambridge, University Press, p.491; p.183; p.194; p.495).

8107.Nine grains: nava-dha_nya the nine grains: go_dive, bhatta, uddu, hesar..u, kad.ale, togari, hural.i, avare and el.l.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_tumai, nel, tuvarai, payar-u, kat.alai, avarai, el., ur..untu, kol. (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

8108.Harappan wood: Products imported from Meluhha into Mesopotomia included: timber, mesu-wood, gisa.ab.ba = kus'abku = sea wood (common mangrove used for certain parts of boats and for house posts; or tectona grandis, teak used for ships and furniture) mes'.s'agan wood, gis.esi = us'u_ wood (ebony), gis.mes = sulum meluhhi = black wood (ebony of south India, Konkan to Madras, diospyros; according to Periplus, Barygaza exported ebony to Ommana). Diospyros ebenum: ebony (Eng.); tendu (H.M.); acha (Ta.)... Diospyros melanoxylon: tumvuru, kenduka (Skt.); tumbi (Ta.)... a species found on the Coromandal coast... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 452). Meluhha is perhaps favourably identified as western India... Among some timbers identified at Harappan sites are: acacia (used for buildings, carts, agricultural tools, furniture, ship parts), saccharum arundinaceum a reed [cf. na_n.al saccharum arundinaceum (Ta.)(DEDR 2909). 'The oldest record of use of wood, in the Indian region, is from Harappa proper and from sites of Harappan culture in Gujarat. In the former two woods were found to have been used from a coffin, namely deodar (cedrus deodara) and rosewood (dalbergia latifolia). Both are well known for the scent they give off. Other wood remains found here and examined by Chowdhury and Ghosh were used for a wooden mortar (zizyphus mauritiana; jujuba) for pounding grains. Choice of these woods for specific purposes shows not only knowledge of where the trees grow but also of the characteristic qualities of the woods used. Here is a strong evidence to show that Harappan culture was based on years of experience on the use of this botanical product. The charred timbers recovered from Lothal in Gujarat and studied by Rao and Lal were acacia sp., albizzia sp., tectona grandis, adina cordifolia, soymida febrifuga. This is a clear indication that the Harappans knew of the quality of these timbers nearly as much as we know of them today... Kadamba (anthocephalus cadamba) was closely connected with the life of S'ri_kr.s.n.a, and its abundance in the past near Mathura_ and Brinda_ban is perhaps an evidence of more humid climate prevailing in this area in those days... tulasi (ocimum sanctum) had the pride of place and is still grown in many Hindu homes. Lotus (nelumbo nucifera) is referred to in the Pura_n.as... In the days of Mohenjo-daro, lotus blossoms were wreathed over the head of the Sun-god. madhu_ka madhuca indica (Car. Su. 4.32,41,44). Sidhu was prepared from the flowers of mahua_ (madhuca indica; madhu_ka bassia latifolia the mahua_ with the flowers of which wine is scented) a tree, kharjura from juice of date-palm (phoenix sylvestris) and sura_ from cereals. Cannabis fibre (cannabis sativa) was known and bha_n:g prepared from its leaves was often used as an intoxicant... Ka_lida_sa refers to plants featured in personal adornment and beautification at the home, e.g. ta_mbu_la or pa_n (piper betle), supa_ri (areca catechu), cardamom (elettaria cardamomum), campaka (michelia champaca), sandal paste (santalum album) etc. The Br.hatsam.hita_ contains references to various types of toothpicks, hair-oils, perfumes and recipes for dyeing the hair... China and the Far East used to import at least a part of the sandalwood (santalum album) from India even up to the eighth or ninth century A.D... pepper (piper nigrum) from India was well known to the Greeks...' (D.N.Bose, S.N.Sen and B.V. Subbarayappa (eds.), A Concise History of Science inIndia, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 1971, p. 374).

8109.Five trees; five barks: vilvam bilva tree (Ta.lex.) paca-vilvam the five trees, viz., vilvam, nocci (vitex negundo, nirgun.d.i_) (Ta.); ma_vilan:kai, mut.kil.uvai, vil.a_ (feronia elephantum)(Ta.); (vilvanocci ma_vilan:kai mut.kil.uvai vel.l.il pacavilvamen-pa_r: Civara_t. Pu. Civama_n-. 37); pacavar-kalam bark ofthe five trees atti, aracu, a_l, pu_varacu, ve_l (Malai.); pacavar-kam id. (Pata_rtta. 510)(Ta.lex.) pacapattra having five feathers (R.); a species of bulbous plant (Skt.); psati_ya_ the shrub vitex negundo (A.)(CDIAL 7667). cf. va_vili vitex negundo (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 5371).

8110.Orris (Iris): Iris germanica: padma-pus.kara (Skt.); keore-ka-mul (Indian bazaars); grows in Kashmir and Persia. Root is alterative, aperient, diuretic and cathartic. Contains an essential oil. Used in gall-bladder diseases. Hakims use the root as aperient and diuretic and in liver complaints (Indian Materia Medica, p. 695). Synonyms: orris root; veilchenwurzel (Ger.); iris de florence (Fr.); botanical origin: iris florentina, iris germanica, iris pallida; part used: the peeled and dried rhizome; habitat: Mediterranean region; uses: in dentifrices, toilet powders and sachets, and as a constituent of Breast Tea. The volatile oil is used in perfumery. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 218-220).

8111.Myrobalans: "The following trees yield the myrobalans of commerce: (1) terminalia bellerica, the 'belleric myrobalan', the Sanskrit tusha and baheruka, and Arabic heleyluj found throughout India and Burmah; (2) terminalia chebula the 'chebulic (i.e. Cabul) myrobalan', the Sanskrit haritaka, the Hindustani hurda, the Mahratti hulda, the Pesian helilah, and Arabic helilah-cabuli, found all along the slopes of the Himalayas, and in Central India, of the fruit of which seven varietis are recognised, including helilah-asfar or 'yellow-helilah' or 'nigger' black helilah etc.; (3 and4) terminalia citrina, 'citrine myrobalans' and 'Indian myrobalans' -- its unripe fruit; and (5) phyllanthus emblica, the 'embelic myrobalan', a spurgewort, the Sanskrit amalaka, the Hindustani amlika, and Mahratti aonla. The myrobalans, or 'glan-aegyptia' of the older pharmacists, was the seed of the leguminoid moringa pterygosperma, the ben-nut of the Arabs." (Note in G. De Orta, p.320). Emblic myrobalan: usirika emblic myrobalan (Te.); usurka_ gooseberry (Kol.); usirka a tree (Go.); usrika maran, su_rika mra_nu, su_rika maran aonla tree, emblic myrobalan (Kond.a); hu_rka mar id. (Pe.); ju_rka id. (Mand..); jura id. (Kui); jur'o id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 574). cf. ta_n-r-i, ta_n.i belleric myrobalan, terminalia bellerica (Ta.)(DEDR 3198). Terminalia belerica: bahira (Skt.); bahera (H.P.B.); behara (M.); akkam (Ta.); tandra (Te.); tusham (Ma.); tandi (Ta.Ka.Te.); hulluch (A.); fruit: bitter, astringent, tonic, used in piles, dropsy, leprosy; kernel: narcotic; fruits contain about 17% tannin substances; habitat: throughout the forests of India, below elevation of about 3,000 ft., except in the dry and arid region of Sind and Rajputana (GIMP, p.241). bibhi_taka terminalia belerica (Car. Su. 4.25,39).

8112.Ivory: At Barbar temple II (Mesopotamia) two small pieces of ivory were found, sawn off from larger ones, and part of a flat object was also found decorated with dot-and-circle motifs. It is unclear if the ivory came from Syria or Egypt or from India. Ivory tusks had been found at Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal and Surkotada; ivory was used for objects such as containers, combs, kohl-sticks, pins, awls, hooks, toggles, gamesmen, batons, rods, scales, plaques, dice, inlay, furniture fittings and personal ornametns... ivory exports by Barygaza in the 1st century AD are attested in the Periplus... (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, pp. 113-115). palla elephant (Ka.); pal tooth (Ta.)(DEDR 3986).

8113.Furniture: The trees used for s'ayana_sana or s'ayya_sana (or sena_sana (Pali)[s'ayana lying; a_sana sitting; s'ayana or s'ayya bed and bedstead; khat.va_ cot; paryan:ka couch or high seat; a_sana a seat; bhadra_sana or bhadrapi_t.ha throne; pi_t.ha a seat or stool; upadha_na pillow; s'ayana_ccha_dana or s'ayana_staran.a bed-sheet] bedstead and seats were: asana (pentaptera tomentosa)[cf. asana pterocarpus marsupium (Car.)], spandana or syandana (dalbergia onegeinensis, bignonia indica, ougeinia dalbergiodes used in making images; synonym: atimuktaka, aganosma caryophyllum), candana (pterocarpus santalinus), haridra [mesua ferrea, na_kakes'ara (Car. Ci. 28.154)], surada_ru (pinus deodaru), tinduki_ (diosperos glutinosa), s'a_la (shorea robusta), ka_s'mari_, ajana (micheelea champaka), padmaka [a Nepalese timber tree yielding a red wood; padmaka prunus cerasoides (Car. Su. 4.8,47)], s'a_ka (teak, tectona grandis), and s'im.s'apa_ (dalergia sisu). Other trees used were: s'ri_parn.a, kadamba, amba (ambataru was a timber tree recommended for furniture). Ivory was used to decorate the furniture made of these trees. Seat, paryan:ka of sandal was for royal use covered with gold and decked with variegated jewels, width ranged from 21 to 37 an:gulas. Throne, bhadra_sana or bhadrapi_t.ha placed over the skins of certain animals, was a royal seat made of gold, silver, copper of a milky tree, 1, 1 1/4, and 1 12 cubits high respectively, for ma_n.d.alika (feudatory chief), anantarajit (conqueror of adjoining principalities) and samatara_jya_rthin (one aspiring to be a universal monarch).

8114.Mordants; dyes: "The materials used as mordants are many. Alum, lime-water, milk of lime, ironrust and vinegar, alum and vinegar, nutgalls, solution of the roasted phrygian stone, misy, copper and iron vitriols, blood-stone (haematite) and vinegar, the juice of unripe grapes, and juice of pomegranates are among the common mordanting substances. The dyestuffs are numerous. For so-called purples were used alkanna (from anchusa tinctoria), safflower, komari (comarum palustre), orseille, woad, madder, kermes (a coccus from quercus coccifera of Souther Europe), hyacingh, mulberry juice, pomegranate blossoms, the root of the henbane [hyoscyamus koheebhang hyoscyamus muticus used as intoxicant (Baluchi); habitat: W. Punjab, Waziristan, Sind and Baluchistan (GIMP, p.138)], 'krimnos' much used but not at present identified... A yellow color was produced by crushing together safflower blossoms and oxeye (buphthalmum), soaking in water, immersing the wool and drying... To what extent these chemical arts originated in Egypt or to what extent they were dependent upon Asia Minor, Persia or perhaps India, it is difficult to determine... It is quite certain that both in China and in India the chemistry of the metals and alloys, methods of dyeing and the use of certain chemicals in medicine were practised in ancient perids, but their chronology is difficult to determine with certainty." (John Maxson Stillman, The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry, New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1924, p. 95).

8115.Plants in alchemy: Rasa_rn.ava (5, 1-25) and Rasapraka_s'a-sudha_kara of Yas'odhara (9, 1-39) refere to a number of plants used in alchemical and iatro-chemical operations to purify, fix mercury and other minerals and in transmutation of metals. Some of these are: agasti, amlavetasa, an:kola, apa_ma_rga, a_suri_, bhr.n:gara_ja, br.hati_, citraka, dhattu_ra, eran.d.a (ruvaka), haridra_, kadali_, kuma_ri_ (ghr.takuma_ri_), kulattha, musali_, nimba, s'igru, pala_s'a, vis.n.ukra_nta_.

8116.Painting media, varnishes, and inks: Acacia: Synonyms: gum arabic, gum senegal, gum acacia, galam gum, Egyptian thorn; gummic arabique vraie (Fr.); arabisches gummi (Ger.); gum arabic has been reported by Herodotus (5th century BC) as being used by the ancient Egyptians as an adhesive. Its use in medicne is mentioned on several of the Egyptian papyri. Hippocrates refers to it in medical works published between 450-350 BC. It was carried from the Gulf of Aden to Egypt in the 17th century BC. Botanical origin: acacia senegal or verek or some other African species of acacia. Part used: the dried gummy exudation from the stems and branches; habitat: Africa... it is called verek by the natives of Senegambia and hashab by those of Kordofan. Its leaves are bipinnate. Its inflorescence is a spike of yellow regular flowers. Its fruit is a broad legume containing 5 or 6 seeds; Production and commerce: Most of the official gum, representing the variety known as kordofan gum is yielded by cultivated trees of acacia senegal which form forests known as geneinas that are owned by Arab sheiks. Only a very small amount is collected from wild untapped trees. These trees are usually tapped from February to May when the fruits called arad are ripe... the natives pick the tears and place them in leather bags which, when full, are emptied on a heap. The gum is subsequently bleached by the sun's rays and garbled by native girls, who remove pieces of bark and sieve out the sand. In the cleaned state the Kordofan gum is packed into sacks, carried on the backs of camels to Khartoum, El Obeid and Omduram and consigned by rail to Port Sudan and Cairo from whence it enters the world's commerce... Allied drug: Gummi indicum, also called ghatti gum or Indian gum is an exudation from the stems of anogeissus latifolia, a tree indigenous to India and Ceylon. Uses: in the textile, confectionery, mucilage, paste and polish industries. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 451-456). "Casein, prepared from curd of milk, forms a strong glue, and was used for centuries in Egyptian woodwork. Hebrew texts also speak of the use of curd for house-painting and decoration. Gum arabic (from the bark of acacia arabica) was imported in Egypt from Punt and southern Arabia, and was also known in Mesopotamia. Starch prepared from grain was used in Egypt. Gelatine and gum tragacanth (from the bark of astragalus spp) were available. Lac, the resin prepared in India from the lac insect, is not mentioned in ancient times... The gum arabic from the Red Sea coasts was satisfactory for varnishing wood, and for making gummed layers of linen for mummy cases. The gum prepared from acacia nilotica was used in making papyrus... From about 1500 BC, the Egyptians used a natural black varnish that forms a black lustrous surface. It may be related to, or identical with, the black dammar resin produced from canarium strictum in western and southern India." (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, pp.243-244). Acacia farnesiana = mimosa farnesiana... the flowers are yellow and fragrant... Brown reports that a gum which resembles gum arabic exudes from the bark of the plant. The flowers are known commercially as cassie flowers. This tree is grown extensively in France for the fragrant perfume obtained from the flowers. The odor of this perfume resembles that of violets, but is more intense. Cassie perfume is used in preparing the best handkerchief bouquets and hair pomades.. The oil itself is never sold commercially, but is mixed with other substances and sold as perfumes, fixed oils, pomades, or extract of cassie. Safford reports that in some parts of India, the bark and the pods are used as a dye-stuff and for tanning... According to Nadkarni, in India a decoction of the bark (1 in 20) together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth... (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 362-364). {Acacia nilotica: (Ancient Egyptian sndt; Coptic: tree wonte; juice akakia; Modern Egyptian Arabic: tree sant.; pod juice a_qa_qi_ya). The acacia (cf. wall painting in Theban Tomb no. 19, Ramesside, 1320-1085 BC) is a tall tree with dark stems and branches and bright yellow flowers. The pods with their characteristic indentations are upto 15 cm. long and contain 30 % tannin... Theophrastus mentions that the Egyptians used acacia for tanning. Pliny adds that the best gum was that of the Egyptian acacia. In pharaonic times the wood was used for timber, the bark for tanning and the leaves, flowers and pods found multiple use in medicine... The Copts used acacia as part of preparation for the eyes... Acacia flowers mixed with eggwhite were used as a mask for people suffering from the skin disease called psora.(Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp.65-67)}.

8117.Spices, herbs and flavourings: '... merchandise moved over coastal sea routs in both directions between Arabia and southern Cathay (China) in very early times. Cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric were known and employed by Eastern peoples thousands of years ago... Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 2,000 years before the Christian Era. There are many references to spices in the Bible, including four to cinnamon and three to cassia... Part of the immense yearly income of King Solomon came from the "traffic of the spice merchants" (1 Kings 10:15). From time immemorial, southern Arabia (Arabia Felix of antiquity) had been a trading centre for frankincense, myrrh , and other fragrant resins and gums... (Arabs) artfully withheld the true source of their spices... Strabo (c. 64 BC - AD 20) in his Geography speaks of the extensive trade in spices carried on by the Arabians, of the wealth of the Arabian spice merchants, and observes that even a camell drive "might attain to some sort of wealth" by trading in spices... it was mainly by sea that the spice trade grew. By rudimentary navigational skill, and aided by the winds called monsoons, Arabians were making direct sailings before the Christian Era... Ceylon was a central trading point... With the advent of the Ptolemies, Egyptian trade with India began and was developed by the Romans who succeeded them... (Strabo) says that on a visit to Syene he found that about 120 ships sailed regularly from the Red Sea port of Myros-Hormos to India... (in 80 BC) Alexandria became the greatest commercial centre of the world and the emporium for the aromatic and pungent spices of India hat found their way to the markets of Greece and the Roman empire ... The most notable uses of spices and herbs in very early times were in medicine, in the making of holy oils and unguents, and as aphrodisiacs. Priests employed them in worship, incantations, magical rites and rituals ... Seasame seems to have been known and employed as food, for making wine, and for its oil from time immemorial. Garlic and onions were employed as part of the diet in very early times... (In 1982, India and/ Ceylon were important export sources of: celery seed, chili peppers, cinnamon, casia, coriander seed, cuminseed, dillseed, fennel seed, fenugreek seed, garlic, ginger, mace, nutmeg, pepper, sesame seed, turmeric.)' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 22nd edn., Vol. 17, pp. 502-508.) Ancient Near East: natural perfumes and flavours, eye-paint; incense: Perfume or flavour, source; parts used: bitter almond seeds, prunus amygdalus; calamus, acorus calamus, rhizomes; cassia, cassia tora, flowers and bark; cedar, cedrus libanotica, wood; cedar, abies cilicica, wood; cinnamon, laurus cinnamomum, bark; citron, citrus medica, fruit; ginger, zingiber officinale, rhizome; heliotrope, heliotropaeum europaeum, flowers; mimosa, acacia nilotica, flowers; peppermint, mentha piperita, flowers and leaves; rose, rose sancta, flowers; rosemary, rosmarinus officinalis, flowers and leaves; rushes, cyperus rotundus, flowers; rushes, cyperus esculentus, flowers; sandalwood, santalum album, wood; gingergrass, cymbopogon schoenanthus, roots... The Old Testament mentions both male and female ointment-compounders. They had formed a guild of apothecaries by the time of Nehemiah, and lived in a special alley in Jerusalem... Mineral ingredients for eye-paint... galena (lead sulphide)... Until the later stage sof Egyptian history the custom persisted of painting the upper eyelid black with galena, and the lower one green with malachite (basic copper carbonate)... Malachite... has been found in graves dating from the remote prehistoric period (fifth millennium BC) to Dynasty XIX (c 1300 BC). The earliest finds of galena are slightly more recent (Badarin, early fourth millennium BC)... Both ingredients were obtainable locally, though we sometimes read of imports from 'the Asiatics', or again from Punt... The Mesopotamian name for eye-paint, guhlu, usually translated as stibium powder, appears from both archaeological finds and records of the original mines to have denoted either stibnite (antimony trisulphide) or galena. The word guhlu passed into Arabic as kuhl, and later gradually changed its meaning from a definite black eye-paint into a finely divided powder, then to a subtle spirit, and finally (in the hands of Paracelsus) gave birth to our word alcohol, an extraordinary evolution of meaning... Later... burnt almond-shells, soot, or manganese dioxide came to b used instead of galena and malachite... the paste was applied to the eye-lid with the finger or the end of the kohl (kuhl)-stick -- a bone, wooden or ivory rod often found in tombs... In Egypt, lips and cheeks were coloured with red ochre. A red pigment often applied to palms, soles, nails and hair was derived from henna, obtained from the root and leaves of lawsonia ineremis. The inhabitants of Mesopotamia used red ochre, asafoetida, and henna, but the Sumerians seem to have preferred yellow ochre for colouring the cheeks. It is referred to as gold clay or face-bloom... Incense. Gum-resins and oleo-resins were used not only as vehicles for perfumes, but for incense. In Egypt, the use of incense goes back to the Pyramid age, from which incense-burners have been recovered... In some cases, imported incense was called by a name derived from a foreign original, such as kedret, corresponding to the Hebrew ketoreth, the usual word for incense and perfume in the Old Testament. In the case of certain semi-liquid gums or oleo-resins the fragrant liquid components seem to have been obtained by expression, as with myrrh, the liquid part of which, the stakte of the Greeks, was added to cosmetics... the reliefs show disks and cakes of incense... On the walls of the temple of Deir el-Bahri there are reliefs showing the Egyptians bringing incense trees from Punt so as to grow them in their own country and thus become independent of the long and dangerous expeditions down the Red Sea. This experiment seems to have failed. They also traded for such products with the coastal range of the Lebanon, Asia Minor in general, Palestine, Syria, and Nubia. Incense was imported in the form of heaps of small grains, such as the dry myrrh of the texts, or as semi-liquid plastic resins, e.g. 'the fragrant liquid myrrh'. (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press,1967, p.288; pp.292-295). For concordance of kedret, cf. kautika a fragrant gum, bdellium, a synonym of guggulu (Skt.) Galbanum; balsamum: Metopion is an Egyptian ointment. According to Dioscorides, the Egyptian name of the plant from which galbanum was derived was metopion. It consisted of oil from bitter almonds and unripe olives scented with cardamom, sweet rush, sweet flag, honey, wine, myrrh, seed of balsamum, galbanum and turpentine resin. Dragon's blood: Sanguis draconis is a resin prepared from the scale covering the surface of the ripe fruits of doemonorops draco and other species of doemonorops, climbing palms, native to the East Indies. It occurs as dark red cylindrical sticks up to 3 cm. in diameter and 30 cm. in length which are covered with leaves of a licuala palm, bound with strips of cane (reed dragon's blood), or in small, dark red, oval, homogeneous masses, covered with palm leaves and connected in a row (tear dragon's blood) or, as flattened or rounded masses (lump- or saucer-dragon's blood)... the red resin is used in mahogany varnish stains, for colouring marble red, in incenses, and in preparing gold lacquers. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 175-176).

8118.Sandal: vet.t.am. and sukvad.i = two varieties of s'vetacandana or white sandalwood from Malayaja (identified with the southern portion of the Western Ghats)(Ra_janighan.t.u of Narahari (c. AD 1450); loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p. 321). tagara-candanam = pa_n.d.hra_ candana or white sandal (Skt.); yaks.akardama a cosmetic prepared by mixing up karpu_ra, aguru, kakkola, kastu_ri_ and candana (Hemacandra (AD 1088-1172), Abhidha_nacinta_man.i, III, martyaka_n.d.a, Verse 302; the comm. replaces kakkola with kum.kuma for the same cosmetic). Cilappatika_ram (c. 2nd or c. 5th century AD) Book I (Song of benediction): 'Lovely maidens bringing spices and flowers spoke and sang and looked bewitching. Women with full breasts and lovely treesses took with them sandal-paste (cantan-am), frankincense, perfumes and powders,'to distribute these at the marriage of Ko_valan- and Kan.n.aki.

8119.Types of plaster: "... Ch. 56 of the Br.hatsam.hita_ describes four kinds of plaster -- two vajralepas, vajratala, and vajrasan:gha_ta. Vajralepa was composed of the precipitate of unripe tinduka and kapitthaka fruits, blossoms of the silk-cotton tree, seeds of s'allaki, skin of dhanvana and vaca_ boiled in a dron.a of water and reduced to 1/8th of its original volume and finally mixed with s'ri_va_saka (resin of a tree), rasa, guggulu, bhalla_taka, kunduruka (resin of devada_ru), resin of sarja, linseed and bilva fruit (LVI. 1-3). Another plaster of the same name was prepared in the above manner from lac, resin of devada_ru, guggulu, gr.hadhu_ma (Utpala: ga_radhu_mah- s'ya_m eti prasiddhah-), kernel of the kapittha and bilva fruits, fruits of na_ga, nimba, tinduka and madana, resin of sarja and myrobalan fruit (LVI. 506). A paste called vajratala was prepared in the above manner from the horns of cows, buffaloes and goats, hair of donkeys, skins of buffaloes and cows, nimba and kapittha fruits and rasa (LVI. 7). A plaster compound of eight parts of lead, two of bell-metal, and one of iron-rust was known as vajrasan:gha_ta (a paste attributed to Ma_ya). These pastes were applied hot to temples, mansions, windows, lin:gas, images, walls and wells and are said to adhere for 'a crore of years)(LVI. 4)." (Ajaya Mitra Shastri, India as seen in the Br.hatsam.hita, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1969, pp. 391-392).

8120.Olibanum or frankincense Olibanum (frankincense) is an oleo-gum-resin obtained by incision from the bark of boswellia carterii and other species of boswellia (Fam. burseraceae), small trees indigenous to north-eastern Africa and Arabia. The drug occurs in more or less ovoid tears, 5-25 mm long, which are sometimes stuck together. The surface is dusty and of a yellowish, bluish or greenish tint. Fracture, brittle; inner surface, waxy and semi-translucent. Odour, characteris-tic, especially when burned; taste, slightly bitter. The drug contains 3-8 per cent of volatile oil consisting of numerous terpenes and sesquiterpenes, about 60-70 percent of resin and 27-35 percent of gum. It is used in incense and fumigating preparations. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, p. 469). Myrrh contains 7-17 percent of volatile oil, 25-40 percent of resin, 57-61 per cent of gum and some 3-4 per cent of impurities. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, p. 469). "It is generally agreed, that the Gum-resin, called Olibanum, is the Frankincense which was used by the Ancients in their religious ceremonies. But there is not the same agreement as to the plant supposed to produce it. Linnaeus has referred it to a species of Juniper: and accordingly botanists of his school, and the Chemical writers, concur in affirming, that Olibanum is the produce of the Lycian Juniper. But this tree is a native of the south of France, as well as the Levant and Siberia: and the French Botanists deny, that it yields the resinum Gum in question; and remark, that Linnaeus made the assertion without proof. Their remark is, I believe, well founded. No proof appears to have been alleged; and both Niebuhr and Bruce considered it as an undecided question, which they endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to investigate. (Niebuhr says, 'We cou'd learn nothing from the tree, from which incense distils; and Mr. Forskal does not mention it. I know, that it is to be found in a part of Hadramaut, where it is called Oliban.')... A great degree of obscurity has always hung over this subject. We learn from Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. 9.2) and from Pliny (12.14), that the Greek writers differed in their description of the tree; Pliny adds, that the information contained in the volume addressed by King Juba to C. Caesar, grandson and adopted son of Augustus, was inconsistent with other accounts; and further remarks, that the Ambassadors, who came to Rome from Arabia in his own time, had rendered the whole matter more uncertain than ever... Olibanum is named Luba_n and Cundur by the Arabs. But, Benzoin having been introduced into general use, as incense, in place of Olibanum, the name Luba_n has been appropriated to that fragrant balsam, and the Muhammedan writers of India, on Materia Medica, apply only the term Cundur to Olibanum. The author of the Mekhzenuladviyeh, under this head, states Cundur as Arabick, or according to other opinions Persian, and equivalent to the Syriack Labu_niya_. He describes the drug as the gum of a thorny plant, a yard high, with leaves and seed resembling the myrtle. It grows, he says, on the mountains of Shahar and Yemen. He, however, adds, that the plant is said to be found in some parts of India. The Tohfut ul muminin gives a similar description (excepting the remark last quoted;) and so does the Arabian author Abulfadli cited by the French translator Pliny (Poinsinet, Paris, 1771, tom. 4. p. 532). From the Hebrew lebonah or Arabick luba_n, the Greeks obtained their names for the tree and the gum, libanos and libanotos. They seem likewise to have been acquainted with the term Cundur, from which xondpG is probably derived. The Hindu writers on Materia Medica notice a fragrant resinous gum, under the name of Cunduru, which their grammarians consider as a Sanscrit word, and accordingly state an etymology of it from a Sanscrit root. They concur in declaring it to be the produce of the Sallaci_, a tree which they affirm to be vulgarly called Sa_lai. The tree, which is known by that name, was examined by Dr. Hunter on his journey to Ujjayini; and by me on a journey to Nagpur: and it has been figured and described by Dr. Roxburgh, who has named it Boswellia Serrata. His description follows: Boswellia serrata, Roxb. Gen. Char.: calyx beneath, 5-toothed. Corol 5 petaled. Nectary a crenulated, fleshy cup, surrounding the lower part of the germ, with stamens inserted on its outside. Capsule 3-sided, 3-celled, 3-valved. Seeds solidary, membrane-winged; Spec. char.: leaves pinnate; leaflets serrate, downy. Racemes simple, axillary. Petals ovate. Filaments inserted on the exterior margin of the nectary. A large tree, a native of the mountains of India. A most fragrant resin is collected from wounds made in the bark etc. Leaves crowded about the extremities of the branchlets, pinnate with a single terminal one. Leaflets sessile, sometimes opposite, sometimes alternate, in general about 10 pair, obliquely-ovate, oblong, obtuse, serrate, villous; length about an inch, or an inch and a half... Flowers numerous, very pale pink, small... The tree is frequent in the forest between the Sone and Nagpur; on the route by which I travelled to Berar in 1798. The gum, which exudes from it, was noticed by Mr. D. Turnbull, who was then Surgeon to the residency at Nagpur. He judged it to be Olibanum; and so did several intelligent natives who accompanied us... It was in England recognised for Olibanum, though offered for sale as a different gum; and annual consignments of it have been since regularly sold at the East India Company's sales. The experience of several years at a market such as that of London, where a mistake (had any been committed) would have been soon discovered, seems to be conclusive... I shall venture to propose the following statement of synonyms both for the tree and the gum: Boswellia serrata (trivial names of the species might be libanus thurifera); Sansc. sallaci_ or sillaci_, Cunduruci_ (producing conduru) or Cunduri_, Surabhi_ (fragrant), suvaha_; Hindi: sa_lai, sa_le_, sa_la_, or sila_, saji_wan; Greek: libanos; Latin: libanus; the gum: Sansc. cunduru, cunda, mucunda; Arabic and Persian: cundur (anciently luba_n); Syr. labuniya; Heb. lebonah; Greek: libanotos or libanos; Latin: libanus; Mod. Lat. olibanum (quasi oleum libani). (Extracts from H.T. Colebrooke, 'On Olibanum or Frankincense', Asiatick researches, or, Transactions of the society instituted in Bengal, for inquiring into the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences, and literature of Asia, Vol. 9, pp. 376-382).

8121.Myrrh: mura, mure, mule, more a species of fragrant plant, a vegetable perfume (Ka.); mur-al., mu_r-u myrrh (Ma.)], ta_laparn.i, ba_l.ia patri (ba_l.a the cuscus-grass), surabhi (the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera; gum olibanum) Synonym of mura: gandhini, gandha-kut.i a kind of perfume; gandhavati, gandha_ri a kind of perfume (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Notes from Theophrastus' enquiry into plants and odours: {Emphasis added in the following extracts from Theophrastus (born in 370 B.C.) highlights the possible link of some pictographs on Indus seals to the fragrances and fragrant substances traded from India and Arabia. Alexander's followers gave Theophrastus the accounts of such plants as the cotton-plant, banyan, pepper, cinnamon, myrrh and frankincense.} "Of the trees and herbs special to Asia: In different parts of Asia also there are special trees, for the soil of the various regions produces some but not others... that in India ivy appears on the mountain called Meros, whence, according to the tale, Dionysus came. Wherefore it is said that Alexander, when he came back from an expedition, was crowned with ivy, himself and his army... The Indian land (Plin. 12.22 and 23) has its so-called 'fig-tree' (banyan), which drops its roots from its branches every year...; and it drops them, not from the new branches, but from those of last year or even from older ones; these take hold of the earth and make, as it were, a fence about the tree, so that it becomes like a tent, in which men sometimes even live... There is another tree (banana) whose leaf is oblong in shape, like the feathers of the ostrich; this they fasten on to their helmets, and it is about two cubits long. There is also another whose fruit is long (mango) and not straight, but crooked, and it is sweet to the taste. This causes griping in the stomach and dysentery; wherefore Alexander ordered that it should not be eaten. There is also another (jujube) whose fruit is like the fruit of the cornelian cherry... The ebony is also peculiar to this country; of this there are two kinds, one with good handsome wood, the other inferior... Some say that a 'terebinth' (pistachio-nut) grows there also, others that it is a tree like the terebinth... The trees from which they make their clothes (cotton-plants) have a leaf like the mulberry, but the whole tree resembles the wild rose. They plant them in the plains in rows, wherefore, when seen from a distance, they look like vines... In the country called Aria there is a 'thorn' (balsamodendron mukul; Plin. 12,33) on which is found a gum resembling myrrh in appearance and smell, and this drops when the sun shines on it... In other parts there is a white 'thorn' which branches in three, of which they make batons and sticks; its wood is sappy and of loose texture, and they call it the thorn 'of Herakles'. There is another shrub (asafoetida) as large as a cabbage, whose leaf is like that of the bay in size and shape. And if any animal should eat this, it is certain to die of it. Wherefore, wherever there are horses, they kept them under control. In Gedrosia they say that there grows one tree (nerium odorum) with a leaf like that of the bay, of which if the beasts or anything else ate, they very shortly died with the same convulsive symptoms as in epilepsy... (Aromatic Plants:) Among the plants that grow in Arabia Syria and India the aromatic plants are somewhat exceptional and distinct from the plants of other lands; for instance, frankincense myrrh cassia balsam of Mecca cinnamon and all other such plants, about which we have spoken at greater length elsewhere. So in the parts towards the east and south there are these special plants and many others besides.... (Of the various kinds of plant-juices and the methods of collecting them:)... in some (plants) it is of gummy character, as in silver-fir fir terebinth Aleppo pine almond kerasos (bird-cherry) bullace Phonecian cedar prickly cedar acacia elm. For this last also produces a gum, though it does not exude from the bark, but is found in the 'bag' of the leaves; there also the juices from come frankincense and myrrh; for these too are gums; so too are balsam of Mecca khalbane (galbanum; Plin. 12.121; 24.21) and any others of the kind that there may be, such as, they say, the Indian akantha, from which comes something resembling myrrh; and a similar substance forms on mastich and the spinous plant called ixine (pine-thistle), whence mastic-gum is made. All these have a fragrant odour, as in general have those which contain a viscous substance and are fatty; while those that are not fatty have no scent, as gum and the juice which exudes from the almond... tragacanth... is well known to grow also in... Asia in the Median country. In all these plants the gum also occurs in the stems the trunks and the branches, but in some plants it is found in the roots, as in alexanders scammony and many other medicinal plants. In some it is found in the stem and also in the root; for of some plants they tap the stem and the roots as well, as is done with silphium. Now the juice of alexanders is like myrrh, and some, having heard that myrrh comes from it, have supposed that, if myrrh is sown, alexanders comes up from it (cf. Plin. 19.162, where smyrnium is given as a synonym); for, as was said, this plant can be grown from an exudation, like the krinonia (lily) and other plants. The juice of silphium is pungent like the plant itself; for what is called the 'juice' of silphium is a gum... The frankincense and myrrh trees they say should be cut at the rising of the Dogstar and on the hottest days, and so also the 'Syrian balsam' (balsam of Mecca)... (Of frankincense and myrrh: various accounts:) As to frankincense myrrh balsam of Mecca and similar plants it has been said that the gum is produced both by incision and naturally... So too concerning the other fragrant plants; most of these come from places in the south and east. Now frankincense myrrh cassia and also cinnamon are found in the Arabian peninsula about Saba Hadramyta Kitibain and Mamali. The trees of frankincense and myrrh grow partly in the mountains, partly on private estates at the foot of the mountains; wherefore some are under cultivation, others not; the mountains, they say, are lofty, forest-covered and subject to snow, and rivers from them flow down to the plain. The frankincense-tree (Plin. 12.55 and 56), it is said, is not tall, about five cubits high, and it is much branched; it has a leaf like that of the pear, but much smaller and very grassy in colour, like rue; the bark is altogether smooth like that of bay. The myrrh-tree is said to be still smaller in stature and more bushy; it is said to have a tough stem, which is contorted near the ground, and is stouter than a man's leg; and to have a smooth bark like that of andrachne. Others who say that they have seen it agree pretty closely about the size; neither of these trees, they say, is large, but that which bears myrrh is the smaller and of lower growth; however they say that, while the frankincense-tree has a leaf like that of bay and smooth bark, that which bears myrrh is spinous and not smooth, and has a leaf like that of the elm, except that it is curly and spinous at the tip like that of the kermes-oak. These said that on the coasting voyage which they made from the bay of the Heroes they landed to look for water on the mountains and so saw these trees and the manner of collecting their gums (Plin. 12.58-62). They reported that with both trees incisions had been amde both in the stems and in the branches, but that, while the stems looked as if they had been cut with an axe, in the branches the incisions were slighter; also that in some cases the gum was dropping, but that in others it remained sticking to the tree; and that in some places mats woven of palm-leaves were put underneath, while in some the ground underneath was merely level and clean; and that the frankincense on the mats was clear and transparent, that collected on the ground less so; and that that which remained sticking to the trees they scraped off with iron tools, wherefore sometimes pieces of bark remained in it. The whole range, they said, belongs to Sabaeans; for it is under their sway, and they are honest in their dealings with one another. Wherefore no one keeps watch; so that these sailors greedily took, they said, and put on board their ships some of the frankincense and myrrh, since there was no one about, and sailed away. They also reported another thing which they said they had been told, that the myrrh and frankincense are collected from all parts in the temple of the sun; and that this temple is the most sacred thing which the Sabaeans of that regions possess, and it guarded by certain Arabians in arms. And that when they have brought it, each man piles up his own contribution of frankincense and the myrrh in like manner, and leaves it with those on guard; and on the pile he puts a tablet on which is stated the number of measures which it contains, and the price for which each measure should be sold; and that, when the merchants come, they look at the tablets, and whichsoever pile pleases them, they measure, and put down the price on the spot whence they have taken the wares, and then the priest comes and, having taken the third part of the price for the god, leaves the rest of it where it was, and this remains safe for the owners until they come and claim it... Both trees (frankincense and myrrh), it is said, grow in the same region; the soil is clayey and caked, and spring waters are scarce. Now these reports are contradictory to that which says that the country is subject to snow and rain and sends forth rivers. However others make the statement (i.e. the statement quoted of the myrrh-tree) that the tree is like the terebinth; in fact some say that it is the same tree; for that logs of it were brought to Antigonus by the Arabs who brought the frankincense down to the sea, and that these did not differ at all from logs of terebinth... the account derived from those who sailed from the city of Heroes is more to be believed; in fact the frankincense-tree which grows above Sardes in a certain sacred precinct has a leaf like that of bay, if we may judge at all by this; and the frankincense derived both from its stem and its branches is like in appearance and in smell, when it is burnt as incense, to other frankincense. This is the only tree which can never be cultivated. Some say that the frankincense-tree is more abundant in Arabia, but finer in the adjacent lands (Plin. 12.60) over which the Arabians bear rule; for there it is said that they mould the gum on the trees to any shape that they please. And perhaps this is not incredible, since it is possible to make any kind of incision that they like. Some of the lumps of gum are very large, so that one is large enough in bulk to fill the hand and in weight is more than a third of a pound. All frankincense is gathered in the rough and is like bark in appearance. Myrrh (i.e. here the commodity so called) is either 'fluid' (myrrh-oil; cf. Odor. 29) or 'solid' (agglutinated). That of better quality is tested by its taste, and of this they select that which is of uniform colour. Now of frankincense and myrrh these are about all the facts that have come to our notice at present... (Of cinnamon and cassia: various accounts:) Of cinnamon and cassia the following account si given: both are shrubs, it is said, and not of large size, but of the same size as bushes of chaste-tree, with many branches and woody... it is the bark (of cinnamon) and not the wood which is serviceable... Cassia, they say, has stouter branches, which are very fibrous and difficult to strip of the bark; and it is the bark of this tree also which is serviceable... (Of balsam of Mecca:) Balsam of Mecca grows in the valley of Syria. They say that there are only two parks in which it grows, one of about four acres, the other much smaller. The tree is as tall as a good-sized pomegranate and is much branched... the fruit is like that of the terebinth in size shape and colour, and this too is very fragrant, indeed more so than the gum. The gum, they say, is collected by making incisions, which is done with bent pieces of iron at the time of the Dog-star, when there is scorching heat... in a day a single man collect a shell-full; the fragrance is exceedingly great and rich, so that that which comes from a small amount is perceived for a long distance... what is collected is mixed with other things... the boughs cut off can be sold for a good price... Balsam is said not to grow wild anywhere. From the larger park are obtained twelve vessels containing each about three pints, from the other only two such vessels; the pure gum sells for twice its weight in silver, the mixed sort at a price proportionate to its purity. Balsam then appears to be of exceptional fragrance. (Of other aromatic plants-- all oriental, except the iris :) Sweet-flag and ginger grass grow beyond the Libanus between that range and another small range, in the depression thus formed... where the sweet-flag and ginger-grass grow, there is a large lake, and they grow near it in the dried up marshes, covering an extent of more than thirty furlongs... the fragrance is wasted to ships approaching the country... it is said that in Arabia the breezes wafted from the land are fragrant... fragrance... that of khalbane is more oppressive and somewhat medicinal; for this perfume also is produced in Syria from the plant called all-heal. As to all the other fragrant plants used for aromatic odours, they come partly from India whence they are sent over sea, and partly from Arabia, for instance, komakon-- as well as cinnamon and cassia. The fruit called komakon is said to be distinct from this; the komakon of which we are speaking is a perfume which they mix with the choicest unguents. Cardamom and Nepaul cardamom some say come from Media; others say that these come from India, as well as spikenard and most, if not all, of the other spices. Now this is a general list of the plants used for perfumes:-- cassia cinnamon cardamom spikenard nairon balsam of Mecca aspalathos storax iris narte kostos all-heal saffron-crocus myrrh kypeiron ginger-grass sweet-flag sweet marjoram lotos dill. Of these it is the roots, bark, branches, wood, seeds, gum or flowers which in different cases yield the perfume. Some of them grow in many places, but the most excellent and most fragrant all come from Asia and sunny regions. From Europe itself comes none of them except iris... (Concerning odours :)... For tastes and odours alike are derived from these two things: the method of the makers of spices and perfume-powders is to mix solid with solid, that of those who compound unguents or flavour wines is to mix liquid with liquid: but the third method, which is the commonest, is that of the perfumer, who mixes solid with liquid, that being the way in which all perfumes and ointments are compounded. Further one must know which odours will combine well with which, and what combinations makes a good blend... the two senses of taste and small being akin to one another... while some need even to be bruised and broken up, and others to be subjected to fire, as myrrh frankincense and anything that is burnt as incense... frankincense and myrrh, since they are by nature of even closer texture than roots, need a gentle application of fire, which, by gradually warming them, will cause the scent to be exhaled... (Of the oils used as the vehicle of the perfume :)... The oil most used is that derived from the Egyptian (balanites aegyptiaca, balanos) or Syrian balanos, since this is the least viscous; the olive-oil... almond oil... They use spices in the making of all perfumes; some to thicken the oil, some in order to impart their odour... that which is put in last always dominates, even if it is in small qantity... sesame (oil) being specially receptive (has keeping quality)... Sesame-oil however receives rose-perfume better than other oils... (Of the spices used in making perfumes and their treatment :) Almost all spices and sweet scents except flowers are dry hot astringent and mordant... to make kypros they put in cardamom and aspalathos, having first steeped them in sweet wine. To make rose-perfume they put in ginger-grass aspalathos and sweet-flag... Into rose-perfume moreover is put a quantity of salt... twenty-three gallons of salt being put to eight gallons and a half of the perfume... quince-perfume... (Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and of the composition of various notable perfumes :) Perfumes are compounded from various parts of the plat, flowers leaves twigs root wood fruit and gum: and in most cases the perfume is made from a mixture of several parts. Rose and gilli-flower perfumes are made from the flowers: so also is the perfume called susinon, this too being made from flowers, namely, lilies: also the perfumes named from bergamot-mint and tufted thyme, kypros, and also the saffron-perfume; the crocus which produces this is best in Aegina and Cilicia. Instances of those made from the leaves are the perfumes called myrtle and drop-wort: this grows in Cyrprus on the hills... From roots are made the perfumes named from iris spikenard and sweet marjoram, an ingredient in which is koston; for it is the root to which this name is applied. The Eretrian unguent is made from the root of kypeiron, which is obtained from the Cyclades as well as from Euboea. From wood is made what is called 'palm-perfume': for they put in what is called the 'spathe', having first dried it. From fruits are made the quince-perfume, the myrtle, and the bay. The 'Egyptian' is made from several ingredients, including cinnamon and myrrh. Again from several parts of the plant is made the perfume called megaleion, which is made from cinnamon... (missing) and from the myrrh when it bruised flows an oil: it is in fact called stakte (in drops)... Some say that this is the only simple uncompounded perfume, and that all the others are compound, though made from a larger or smaller number of ingredients... the manufacture of stakte (myrrh-oil) is as follows: having bruised the myrrh and dissolved it in oil of balanos over a gentle fire, they pour hot water on it: and the myrrh and oil sink to the bottom like a deposit; and, as soon as this has occurred, they strain off the water and squeeze the sediment in a press. Megaleion, these authorities say, is compounded of burnt resin and oil of balanos, with which are mixed cassia cinnamon and myrrh. They add that this perfume and the Egyptian are the most troublesome to make, since no others involve the mixture of so many and such costly ingredients. To make megaleion, they say, the oil is boiled for ten days and nights, and not till then do they put in the resin and other things... it is desired that the Egyptian and kypros should look white and that quince-perfume should have the colour of quinces... The dye used for colouring red perfumes is alkanet; the sweet marjoram-perfume is dyed with the substance called khroma (dye), which is a root imported from Syria.. (Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes :) Megaleion is believed to relieve the inflammation caused by any wound, and rose-perfume to be excellent for the ears... (Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing of various perfumes :) There is no fixed rule for the combination and mixture of spices in the sense that the same components will always produce a satisfactory and a uniform result... Those which last longest are the Egyptian, the iris, the sweet marjoram and the spikenard perfumes: but myrrh-oil has the longest life of any; for it will keep any time... perfumers seek upper rooms which do not face the sun but are shaded as much as possible... put them into vessels of lead and try to secure phials of alabster (stone) -- a stone of which has the required effect: for lead is cold and of close texture, and stone has the same character... (Of the properties of certain perfumes :) Headache is caused by sweet marjoram spikenard and megaleion among costly perfumes... rose-perfume and kypros... best suited to men... the best for women are myrrh-oil, megaleion, the Egyptian, sweet marjoram, and spikenard... a lasting perfume is what women require... (Of the making of perfume-powders and compound perfumes :)... the custom is to use a mixture made of all kinds... while some perfumes are never added, such as galingale... When they make compound perfumes, they moisten the spices with fragrant wine... these compound perfumes last a long time. They are used to impart a pleasant odour to clothes, while the powders are used for bedding... " (A. F. Hort (trans.), Harvard University Press, Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, I, 1916, Book IV 'Of the trees and plants special to particular districts and positions', pp. 309- 323; Book IX 'Of the juices of plants, and of the medicinal properties of herbs', pp. 217-315; Minor Works 'Introduction to the treatise concerning odours and concerning weather signs', pp.324-435).

8122.Perfume-related products: The numbers in parenthesis () are references to verses: (7) vyo_dha_padi_ suvanha_ musali_ (var. mus.ali_ perhaps anthericum tuberosum) ta_lamu_lika_ ajas'r.n:gi_ (described as a milky and thorny plant, with a fruit shaped like a ram's horn; and used as a medicine for the eyes) vis.a_n.i_ go_jihva_ (go_gi_, a potherb wild in corn fields, perhaps phlomis esculenta) da_rvvike_ (var. darvika_) ta_mbu_lavalli_ (piper betel) ta_mbu_li_ na_gallapa {The following six articles are perfumes of different sorts}: (8) dvija_ hare_n.u_ re_n.uka_ kaunti_ kapila_ bhasma gandhini_. So are the following listed as perfumes: (9) e_lava_lukam aile_yam sugandhi hariva_lukam va_lukam; pa_lankya_ (var. pa_lanki_) mukundah- kunda (var. kundu) kundaru_ (perhaps the resin of boswellia serrata); (10) va_lam (perhaps andropogon schoenanthus) hr.i_ve_ra varhis.t.am divyam (all synonyms of hair and of water, ke_s'a_mbuna_ma); ka_la_nusa_ryya vr.dva_smapus.ya s'i_tas'iva_ni (benzoin); (11) s'aile_yam ta_laparn.i_ de_tya_ gandhakut.i_ mura_; gandhini_ (boswellia serrata) gajabhaks.ya_ suvanha_ surabhi_ rasa_; (12) mahe_ran.a_ kunduruki_ s'allaki_ (var. sallaki_, sillaki_, s'illaki_); hla_dini_ agnijva_la_ subhiks.e_ dha_taki_ dha_tr. pus.pika_ (lythrum fruticosum or grislea tomentosa); (13) pr.thvi_ka_ candra va_laila_ nis.kut.i bad.d.ala_ [large cardamoms (Pkt.)]; kucika_ tuttha_ ko_ran:gi_ triput.a_ trut.ih- (small cardamoms); (14) vya_dhih- kus.t.ha paribha_vyam vya_pya pa_kalam utpalam (perh. a sort of costus); s'an:khini_ co_rapus.pi_ ke_s'inya (andropogon aciculatum); vitunnakah- (bhu_mia_mala_ci_; ?flacourtia cataphracta); (15) jhat.a_mala_ jhat.a_ ta_li_ s'iva_ ta_malaki_ prapaun.d.ari_kam pun.d.aryyam (a small herbaceous plant, with leaves like hedysarum gangeticum; used as a remedy for diseased eyes); tunnah- kuve_rakah- (cedrela toona) (16) kun.ih- (var. tun.i) kacchah- ka_ntalako_ nandivr.ks.o_; ra_ks.asi_ can.d.a_ dhanahari_ ks.e_ma dus.pattra gan.aha_saka_h- (kho_r, a sort of perfume); (17) vya_d.a_yudham vya_ghranakham karajam cakraka_rakam s'us.ira_ vidrumalata_ kapo_ta_ghri nat.i_ natni_ (nakhi_ and other perfumes); (18) dhaman ajanake_s'i_ hanu hat.t.avila_sini_ (these may be synonyms of the preceding list); s'ukti s'an:kha khura ko_ladalam nakham (nakhi_ and these articles, as also the articles before-mentioned are stated as vegetable perfumes; but what is sold under this head, appears to be a dried shell-fish; according to some all these are synonymous with the two preceding lines starting with kun.i kaccha etc.); (19) d.haki_ (tubari_, a fragrant earth) ka_ks.i_ mr.tsna_ tubarika_ mr.ta_laka sura_s.t.rave kut.annat.am da_s'apuram va_ne_yam paripe_lavam (cyperus rotundus); (20) plava go_pura go_nardda kaivartti mustaka_ni granthiparn.am s'ukam varhipus.pam sthaun.e_ya kukkare_ (said to be a perfume) (21) marut ma_la_ pis'una_ spr.kka_ (var. pr.kka_) de_vi_ lata_ laghuh- (piring or asparac, medicago esculenta) smudra_nta_ badhu_h ko_t.ivars.a_ lan:ko_pike_ ; (22) tapasvini_ jat.a_ma_m.si_ jat.ila_ lo_mas'a_ misi_ (spikenard, valeriana jatamansi) tvakapatram utkat.am bhr.n:ga tvaca co_cam vara_n:kam (the first three terms may signify malobathrum and the next three, the cassia bark) (23) karcu_rako_ dra_vid.aka ka_lpako_ ve_dhamukhyakah- (zerumbet or zedoary, curcuma zerumbet)(Amarako_s'a, Book II. IV.4, 8 to 21; H.T. Colebrooke (tr.) Kosha or Dictionary of the Sanskrit Language, Delhi, Nag Publishers, 1807, Repr. 1989, pp.114-118).

8123.Thirty-two fragrant substances: o_ma_likai fragrant substances put in water used for drinking and bathing, of which there are 32, viz., ilavan:kam, paccilai, kacco_lam, e_lam, na_kan.am, ko_t.t.am, na_kam, mata_varici, takko_lam, nan-n-a_ri, ven:ko_t.t.am,kattu_ri, ve_ri, ila_miccam, kan.t.il-ven.n.ai, kat.u, nelli, ta_n-r-i, tuttam, van.n.akkacco_lam, are_n.ukam, ma_ci, cayile_kam, pur..uku, pun-n-ainar-unta_tu, puliyukir, caral.am, tama_lam, vakul.am, patumukam, nun.n.e_lam, kot.uve_ri (Cilap. 6,77, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) The art of ka_cchika (Br.hat. LXXXVI. 41), the cosmetic maker: gandhayuktija_ bahubhir dravyair mis'ritair vis'sis.t.ataram. sugandhadravyam. ye utpa_dayanti (Utpala on Br.hat. XV. 12); gandhayukti is a combination of a variety of ingredients to create exquisite perfumes. Br.atsam.hita_ lists the processes : pakva (dedoction), tapta (heating), sam.yuta (mixing), pradhu_pa, dhu_pya (fumigation), sikta (sprinkling); bodha, prabodha, udbodha (combination of solids or powders). Blending solids, bodha; blending liquids, vedha: Utpala adds purification (dravya-sam.ska_ra) and blending of liquids (vedha). The two-fold mixings involving solids and liquids is echoed in Theophrastus' treatise concerning odours. Mixing of a powder with a liquid is mentioned as bha_vana (Br.hat. LXXV. 5,6). "e_lava_lukam ... tapasvani_ jat.a_ma_m.si_ jat.ila_ lo_mas'a_ misi_ tvakapatram utkat.am bhr.n:ga tvaca co_cam vara_n:gakam karcu_rako_ dra_vid.aka ka_lpako_ ve_dha mukhyakah-" (Amarako_s'a. IV.IV. 9-23: the three first terms tvaca etc. may signify malabathrum; and the three next tvaca etc., the cassia bark; karcu_raka is curcuma zerumbet; variant reading for ka_lpaka is ka_lyaka). The ingredients mentioned in Br.hatsam.hita_ include: tvac, kus.t.ha, ren.u, nalika_, spr.kka_, rasa, tagara, va_laka, kesara, patra (for hair-bath); majis.t.ha_, vya_ghranakha, s'ukti, tvac, kus.t.ha, tila-taila (hair-oil); for perfumes: patra, turus.ka, va_la, tagara (to create a perfume called smaroddi_pana); vya_maka, kat.uka_, hin:gula (to create a perfume called vakula); these with kus.t.ha (a perfume called utpala-gandhika, lotus-scent); these with candana (a perfume called campaka, campaka-scent); these with ja_ti_phala, tvac and kustumburu (a perfume called atimuktaka, jasmine-scent). vakula was the standard bearer of scents; eighty-four perfumes were recommended to match the fragrance of vakula by mixing nine ingredients in a variety of proportions: rodha, us'i_ra, nata_, aguru, musta_, pattra, priyan:gu, vana and pathya_. Any three of these plus: candana, turus.ka, s'ukti, s'atapus.pa_, kat.uka_, hin:gula and gud.a. These eighty four are ke_sara-gandha_h- hair-perfumes. There are also general-purpose perfumes called sarvatobhadra with sixteen ingredients used in a variety of proportions: 2,3,5 and 8 portions of aguru, pattra, turus.ka and s'aileya; 5,8,2 and 3 portions of spr.kka_, tvac, tagara and ma_m.si_; and 7,6,4 and 1 portions of candana (malaya), nakha, s'ri_ka, kunduruka. Four of these substances yielding a total of eighteen portions results in perfumes after bodha combination with nakha, tagara, turus.ka, ja_ti_, karpu_ra, mr.gakr.ta (musk) and fumigated (dhu_pya_) with gud.a and nakha. The last mentioned nakha etc. since they constitute the last additives are the principal dominant scent-yielding ingredients. Incenses: Incenses (dhu_pa) include ingredients such as : (1) s'atapus.pa, kunduruka, nakha, turus.ka, malaya (candana), priyan:gu fumigated haritaki_, then with gud.a and nakha; (2) guggulu, va_laka, la_ks.a_ (lac), musta_, nakha and s'arkara_ (granulated sugar); (3) ma_m.si_, va_laka, turus.ka, nakha and candana yielded pin.d.a-dhu_pa (perfume lump); (4) la_ks.a_, guggula, karpu_ra, ra_la, kun.t.uru, silhaka (turus.ka?), s'ri_khan.d.a, sarala (wood), laghu-kos.t.ha, va_laka, ma_m.si_, kun:kuma (saffron), pathya_, mr.gakr.ta (musk), pu_ti-bi_jaka, s'an:kha-na_bhi, nakha, s'arkara_, madhu (honey), ghr.tam (clarified butter), gud.a [from this list, excluding the liquids, the mixture with laghu-karpu_ra yielded cu_rn.a-dhu_pa (incense powder); mixed with gud.a yielded pin.d.a-dhu_pa (incense lump)]. s'ri_va_saka, sarja, s'an:kha, ghana, drava (rasa), utpala also are ingredients of dhu_pa types which number seventy-two. Other ingredients mentioned are: madanaka, cola. [A commentary refers to the exudation of devada_ru as kunduruka (Br.hat LVI.2; kunduruko devada_ruvr.ks.a-nirya_sah-); devada_ru, cedrus libani grows on the Himalayas at 5000 to 8,500 ft. (F.C. Ford Robertson, Our Forests, pp. 10,37).

8124.Sacred incense: "Sacred incense qetoret was compounded of four aromatic substances: stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense. this fragrant powder, expertly prepared by ancient apothecaries and mixed in equal proportions, was tempered with salt and was forbidden, under the penalty of death, to be used for ordinary or profane purposes (Ex. 30, 34-38)... The usage of incense for religious or cultic purpose was common in ancient times among the Cannanites, Egyptians, Babylonians, etc... From the time of Solomon the temple was considered the sole place where incense might be offered to God... The ascending cloud of an incense-offering had the symbolical significance of prayer." (John E. Steinmuiller and Kathryn Sullivan, Catholic Biblical Encyclopaedia, Old Testament, New York, Joseph F. Wagner, Inc., 1956, p.494). "The three aromatics that were to supplement frankincense (in the tabernacle and in the temple) are named: (1) nataph, 'stacte', an exuding gum, according to some authorities, of the myrrh shrub (elsewhere expressed by the Hebrew mor), according to others, of the storax; (2) sheheleth 'incense nail', 'sea clove', the shell of a mussel, strongly pungent under combustion; (3) helbenah, Lat. galbanum, 'heart resin', abundant in Syria... These substances were to be mingled 'after the art of the perfumer' and salted... Later Jewish observance... added seven additional aromatics as follows: myrrh, cassia, spikenard, saffron, costus, calamus and cinnamon..." (Samuel Macauley Jackson, (ed.), The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, p. 469). Out of the seven additional aromatics, one was called maaleh ashan in the Talmud... this had the property of causing the smoke of incense to rise in a straight column... Spices. (Hebrew besamim) "The use of spices both as condiments and for perfume was widespread in ancient times. The maiden in the Song of Songs was perfumed with 'myrrh and frankincense and with all the powders of the merchant'... it was customary to burn spices after a meal... spices are used in Jewish ritual today in the havdalah service marking the conclusion of the Sabbath, which includes the smelling of the spices together with the appropriate blessing." (R.J. Zwi Werblowsky and Geoffry Wigoder (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion, Jerusalem, Massada, PEC Press Ltd., 1966, p.200; p.365). Perfumery: Gandhayukti or science and craft of cosmetics and perfumery, according to Br.hatsam.hita_ (LXXVI): For hair-bath, the ingredients used are: cassia bark (tvac), costus (kus.t.ha), ren.u, nalika_, spr.kka_, resin (rasa) [rasa commiphora myrrha (Car. Ci. 23.152)], bignonia chelonoides (tagara), va_laka, kesara and patra; for hair-oil emitting the scent of the campaka (michelia champaka) flower, the powders of madder (mjis.t.ha_), vya_ghranakha, s'ukti, cassia bark, costus, resin and sesame oil were used; For perfumes the ingredients were: patra, turus.ka, va_la and bignonia chelonoides (tagara) to create samorddi_pana, 'kindler of passion.' The other composition called vakula included vya_maka, kat.uka_ and asafoetida; costus gave the fragrance of lotus (utpala-gandhika) and sandal powder that of campaka; the addition of ja_ti_phala (nutmeg), cassia bark and kustumburu (spice coriander) gave the fragrance of atimuktaka or jasmine flower. Eighty four perfumes of the fragrance of vakula could be produced with combinations of: rodhra, us'i_ra (root, vetiveria zizanioides (Car. Su. 4.8, 20,28,41,44), bignonia chelonoides (tagara), aguru, musta_, pattra, priyan:gu, vana and pathya_ (also called abhaya_, hari_taki_, terminalia chebula); any three of these substances were taken and mixed with one part each of sandal and turus.ka, a half of s'ukti and a quarter of s'atapus.pa_ and fumigated with kat.uka_, asafoetida and jaggery. Perfume grades called sarvatobhadra could be produced by combining, in different proportions (indicated in parenthesis and in groups of four the proportions add up to eighteen): aguru (2), pattra (3), turus.ka (5) and s'aileya (8); priyan:gu (4), musta_ (1), rasa (7) and kes'a (6); spr.kka_ (4), cassia bark (1), bignonia chelonoides (tagara)(7), and ma_m.si_ (6); sandal (7), nakha (6), s'ri_ka (4) and kunduruka (1); by thus blending four substances in a group, eighteen proportions for each perfume compound could be obtained. Each compound is combined with nakha, bignonia chelonoides (tagara), turus.ka, nutmeg, camphor and musk and fumigated with jaggery and nakha. Mouth-perfumes: The sixteen ingredients used for sarvatobhadra were taken at random and enriched with nut-meg, musk and camphor and sprinkled with the juice of mango fruits and honey to yields several mouth-perfumes with the fragrance of pa_rija_ta flower; they were made into small tablets for chewing. muhava_sa mouth-perfume (Jain.Skt.) Agnipura_n.a (CCXXIV.34) refers to mukha-va_saka formed by combining small cardamoms, cloves, kan:kola, nutmeg, nis'a_kara and ja_ti_-pattra and explains the process of making perfume-tablets called gut.ika_s for chewing. Bath powders: Any of the perfume combinations suggested which include s'ri_va_saka (or s'ri_ is the resin of a tree) and sarja make fine bath-powders by replacing these two by va_laka and cassia bark. In the Na_gara-sarvasva (IV.12), bath-powder is said to include: cassia bark, aguru, mustaka [cyperus rotundus (Car. Su. 4.3,11)], bignonia chelonoides (tagara), caura, sat.hi_, granthi, parn.aka, nakha and musk. According to Agni-pura_n.a the articles for bath, sna_na-dravya_n.i include: cassia bark, na_d.i_, phala, oil, saffron, granthi-parvaka, s'aileya, bignonia chelonoides (tagara), kra_nta, caula, camphor, ma_m.si_, sura_ and costus; bath perfumes are formed by mixing any three of these with musk. Incense: dhu_pa, incense was used for religious worship. 'The mixture of 1/4th of s'atapus.pa_ and kunduruka, 1/2 of nakha and turus.ka, and 1/4th of sandal and priyan:gu yielded an incense which was fumigated with jaggery and nakha. Utpala tells us that the practice among the perfumers was to fumigate first all these ingredients with hari_taki_ before doing so with jaggery and nakha. Another type of perfume was obtained by blending equal quantities of guggulu, va_laka, lac (la_ks.a_), musta_, nakha and sugar. The pin.d.a-dhu_pa (perfume lamp) was constituted by ma_m.si_, va_laka, turus.ka, nakha and sandal mixed in equal proportion. The Ca_lukya king Some_s'vara in his Ma_nasolla_sa (Vol. II, p.144, verses 1697b-1701a) gives a different list of ingredients for the formation of the pin.d.a-dhu_pa. According to him, equal proportions of the powder of lac, guggula, camphor, ra_la, kun.t.uru, silhaka (the same as turus.ka), s'ri_khan.d.a, sarala wood, laghu-kos.t.ha, va_laka, ma_m.si_, honey, clarified butter, and jaggery, except the liquids, when mixed with two parts of laghu-karpu_ra, yielded cu_rn.a-dhu_pa (incense powder), while the same including the liquids (silha, honey, clarified butter) when made into lump with the help of jaggery formed pin.d.a-dhu_pa. The highly prized incense called kopa-cchada was made from four parts each of sugar, s'aileyaka and musta_, two parts each of s'ri_va_saka and sarja, and one part each of nakha and guggulu mixed with the powder of camphor and done into lumps with honey. Many varieties of incense were obtained by combining nine aromatic ingredients, viz., hari_taki_, s'an:kha, ghana, drava (rasa or resin), va_laka, jaggery, utpala (costus), s'ailaka, musta_, inproportions indicated by multiple of 1/9th. Thus each of these substances mixed in different proportions yields eight dhu_pas, the total number being seventy-two.... Perumutations and combinations of the following sixteen ingredients give different kinds of frankincense: ghana, va_laka, s'aileyaka, camphor (karpu_ra), us'i_ra [the fragrant root of andropogon laniger or andropogon muricatus (Jain.Skt.)], na_gapus.pa, vya_ghra-nakha, spr.kka_, aguru, madanaka, nakha, bignonia chelonoides (tagara), coriander (dha_nya), camphor (karpu_ra), cola and sandal (malaya or that which grows in malaya mountains or Western ghats below the ka_ve_ri_ river). In no preparation more than one part of coriander need be added, and camphor should be added in still less proportion, for their smell is too strong, and if used in larger proportions they could diminish the fragrance of other substances. All these substances were first severally fumigated with s'ri_va_saka, sarja, jaggery and nakha and then mixed with musk and camphor." (Ajay Mitra Shastri, India as seen in the Br.hatsam.hita_ of Vara_hamihira, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1969, pp.241-243). [Was the incense silhaka obtained from the Turus.ka country (probably Bactria) and therefore, called turus.ka? cf. Amarako_s. (II.6.128) which sources silhaka from Turus.ka and Yavana countries. Saffron was sourced from Kashmir and Va_li_ka according to Amarako_s.a (II.6.123-4); or on the banks of the Indus (according to Ka_lida_sa (Raghuvam.s'a, IV.67).] Talcum powder (put.ava_sa): The ingredients are: cassia bark, us'i_ra, and pattra in equal proportions, small cardamom in half quantity; these are powdered and enriched with musk and camphor. The product put.ava_sa was applied to the whole body (an:goddhu_lana) and perhaps to perfume clothes. Hair-dye: s'ukla (an acid-gruel), kodrava tan.d.ula (paspalum scrobiculatum), loha-cu_rn.a (iron powder) are washed with kajika (vinegar), bovine urine and then boiled in slow fire, with nakha and gingely oil, and ground into a fine paste to dye grey hair. Myrobalan paste is also applied. The odour of iron is removed by using hair-bath preparations and scented oils. Tooth-sticks (danta-ka_s.t.ha): Tooth-sticks were twigs of creepers, shrubs and trees: vikan:kata, bilva, ka_s'mari, ks.ema-taru, banyan, arka, madhu_ka, s'iri_s.a, karaja, plaks.a, ja_ti, ficus religiosa, jujube, br.hati_ [solanum indicum (Car. Su. 4.9,30,38,44)], teak, s'ri_-phala, jasmine, kadamba, ni_pa, arjuna, karavi_ra, bha_n.d.i_ra, s'ami_, s'ya_ma_, s'a_la, as'vakarn.a, devada_ru, ca_t.uru_s.aka, priyan:gu, apa_ma_rga, rose apple, and pomegranate. The tooth-sticks could also be perfumed after immersing them in bovine urine. Chewing betel: ta_mbu_la preparation was an art according to S'ukra-ni_ti (IV.3.99). The ingredients were: cu_rn.a [lime; s'an:kha-cun.n.a shell powder (Jain.Skt.)], pu_ga-phala (areca nut), and pattra (betel leaf). Additives were spices like kakkola, clove and nutmeg. Va_gbhat.a's As.t.a_n:ga-hrdaya (Su_tra-stha_na, iII. 38; c. 625 AD) adds khadira (acacia catechu). cf. khadira acacia catechu (Car. Su. 3,34,13,43). ta_mbu_la stimulate dlove, added to physical charm, perfumed the mouth, gave strength, dispelled phlegmatic diseases and caused amorous intoxication. Mandasur inscr. of Kuma_ragupta and Bandhuvarman, ll.II-2 (CII, III, No.18) refers to it as an important item of women's toilet. Flowers and garlands: Both men and women used flowers and flower garlands (sraj, ma_la_, ma_lya, da_ma) (e.g. ma_lya-dhara, srag-dhara_, ma_lini_). Toiletries: Girls used tilaka; collyrium (such as bhan:ga_jana or bhinna_jana, srota_jana, saubha_jana) was used in worshipping manes and in religious rites. Unguents (anulepana, vilepana) were used. Women's foreheads were marked with saffron or hin:gulaka. Oil to anoint the body and to worship the manes was abhyajana. A soap used by males was phenaka. A circular mirror (possibly made of polished metals or glass) decorated Indra's banner (darpan.a, a_dars'a). Pliny refers to the superiority of Indian glass made of pounded crystal; Ceylon knew of glass mirror in the third century BC; The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (p.45) refers to the import of crude glass in the firsty century AD at the Indian ports. (Ajaya Mitra Shastri, op cit., fn. p.249). Cosmetics and perfumery: 'Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara (eleventh of twelfth century A.D.)... gives six processes for the preparation of cosmetics as follows: bha_vana_ (infusion of fragrant powders with the desired liquids), pa_cana (digestion of materials probably for curing purposes), bodha (tempering or intensifying the perfume), vedha (further intensification or 'excitation'), dhu_pana (fumigation with aromatic incenses, vapours etc.) and va_sana (preparation of scents utilizing the perfumes of flowers). Details are given of pa_cana process in terms of put.apa_ka, gartapa_ka, ven.upa_ka, dola_pa_ka, kharaparapa_ka, baijayu_ra and ka_lapa_ka... the text also mensions a number of fragrant aromatic substances such as pa_rija_ta, mukhava_sa (perfume to make the breath fragrant), gandhataila (scented oil), yallava_sa (dust of sandal and pollen of lotus in cold water), dhu_pa and varti (an unguent, eye salve, collyrium or any cosmetic in the form of a ball or pill). Further, the aromatic substances are classifed into several vargas (categories) in the following way: (i) patra varga (leaves): ta_lisapatra (flacourtia cataphracta), jhu_la, ra_makarpu_ra (a species of fragrant grass), prata_pa (calotropis gigantea), tulasi (holy basil), murva_ and damana; (ii) pus.pa varga (flowers): lavan:ga (cloves), mucukunda (pterospermum suberifolium), campaka (michelia campaka), surapus.pi_, priyan:gu and s'epha_li; (iii) phala varga (fruits): mari_ca (pepper), kan:kola, su_ks.maila_ (small cardamoms), ja_iphala (nutmeg), ren.uka_, haritaki (terminalia chebula), a_malaki (embelic myrobalan), lata_kastu_ri_ (hibiscus moschatus) and the like; (iv) tvag varga bark): karpu_ratvak, lavan:gatvak, kharjurakaus'a, raktacandana, devada_ru etc.; (v) mu_la varga (roots): pus.kara mu_la, bhadramusta_, gandhamusta_ and the like; (vii) nirya_sa varga (exudations): karpu_ra, silha_rasa, guggula etc.; and (vii) ji_va varga (organic): kastu_ri (hibiscus abelmoschus), nakhi_ [?unguis odoratus; cf. barbara, varvara unguis odoratus (Skt.)(CDIAL 9149)], saya_la, madhu (honey) etc... According to Agnipura_n.a (c. 10th century A.D.)... utpalagandhi (lotus-scented saffron coloured oil) is prepared by intimately mixing equal quantities of cinnamon (tvac), mura_ (a type of fragrant plant), nardostachys jatamansi (nalada) and andropagan (va_laka), and then blending the mixture with oil... The perfume, ambergis (ambara in Sanskrit), was introduced into India by the Arabs probably in the eighth or ninth century A.D. It was used as sugandhadravya or sugandhaka. It was also referred to as ma_tsyika by virtue of the fact that this perfume is obtained from the entrails of the whales. Production of rose water and attar of roses, obtained from the petals of roses (for which Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh is famous), was a well-known chemical practice in the medieval period. It would appear that the rose itself was introduced into India from Persia through the Arabs, and that the method of extracting attar (Arabic word: itr meaning perfume) was discovered by the mother of Nurjehan in A.D. 1612. A_in-Akbari gives a detailed account of the use of rose water in the preparation of perfumes.. and speaks of the regulations of the perfume office of Akbar... the royal baths were noted for an extravagant use of perfumes, both blended and natural, and this is borne out by the references found in the Ma_nasolla_sa of King Somesvara.' (D.N.Bose, S.N.Sen and B.V. Subbarayappa (eds.), A Concise History of Science in India, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 1971, pp. 343-345). Boiling to infuse fragrance: "Some medicinal oils, and especially those used in the treatment of nervous diseases, rheumatism etc., are subjected to a third process (the first two are: tailapa_ka, ghr.tapa_ka) of boiling with various aromatic and fragrant substances. This is called the gandhapa_ka or boiling for rendering the oil fragrant. The following substances, or as many of them as are available, are used for scenting medicated oils, namely, cardamoms, cinnamon, cloves, fenugreek seeds, saffron, leaves of cinamomum tamala, white sandalwood, aloes wood, jata_mansi root, curcuma zedoria (sati), cyperus rotundus (mustaka), kakkola (an aromatic seed), resin of pinus longifolius (gandhaviraja), storax, long pepper root, root of andropogon muricatus (usira), nakhi (unguis odoratus), pouch of civet cat (khatta_si), camphor, musk, permelia perlata (saileya), root of aplotaxis auriculata (kus.t.a = saussurea hypoleuca), seeds of abelmoschus moschatus (lata_kastu_ri) etc." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.15).

8125.Incense: dhu_pa are of three kinds: cu_rn.adhu_pa, pin.d.adhu_pa, vartidhu_pa (Dhu_pabhoga in Ma_nasolla_sa (c. 12th century AD), Vol. II, 1939, G.O. Series, Baroda, pp. 144-145.) The names of dhu_pas are: kauma_radhu_pa, ma_he_s'varadhu_pa, a_gne_yadhu_pa, bhadram.karadhu_pa, raks.asaghnadhu_pa, uttamadhu_pa, das'a_n:gadhu_pa, mohadhu_pa, va_run.adhu_pa, caturan:gikadhu_pa, nandakadhu_pa, kan.adhu_pa, s'ri_dhu_pa, grahaghnadhu_pa, pun.yadhu_pa, s'is'ukadhu_pa, bra_hmadhu_pa, prati_dhu_pa, siddha_rthakadhu_pa, aris.t.adhu_pa, gan.adhu_pa, svastikadhu_pa, gr.hadhu_pa etc. upto forty kinds; Recipe for va_run.a dhu_pa is given: 'smr.tam. s'ri_ves.t.aka_ ... ra la_ks.a_ padmaka-candanam; sadevada_ru surasam. s'a_lajam. ceti yojayet; dhu_po'yam. va_run.o na_ma gri_s.maka_le pras'asyate.' (Page 280): Su_tikopakraman.i_ya--adhya_ya: 'sa_riva_ candanos'i_radra_ks.a_ padmakasa_dhitam; candanasya ca kalkena siddham. sarpirjvara_paham; candana_dyena siddham. pat.ola_dyena va_ ghr.tam. pa_yayet...' (Page 283): 'kalkena sa_riva_ s'un.t.hi_ lodhrada_d.ima-candanaih-.' (Page 290): (kukkun.acikitsita) 'sarpiman.d.am. sura_gram. ca aindri_m. candameva ca.' (Page 297): (visarpacikitsa_) 'gud.u_ci_m. madhukam. caiva candanam. ceti tat pibet; us'i_ram. candam.caiva s'a_d.valam. s'an:khamutpalam; hri_beram. candanos'i_ram....; vida_ri_m. candanos'i_ram. tatha_ candanasa_riva_m.; pat.olanimbamusta_na_m. candanos'i_rayorapi.' (Page 298) 'ta_li_s'am. ... candadvayam; mu_la_ni candanos'i_ram ...; kalkaih- ... candana_na_m. vipa_citam.' Other ingredients mentioned include: s'ukla_, ra_jana_, yas.t.i_, madhuka, bhadra, ka_koli_, abhaya_, haridre, aguru, ba_lhi_ka, raktapus.pa, tvakpatram ... (Ka_s'yapasam.hita_ (ed. by Rajaguru Hemaraja of Nepal, N.S. Press, Bombay, 1938; chapter on dhu_pakalpa, p.135: Siddha_rtha_rtha_s'ceti dhu_pa_ste catva_rim.s'aduda_hr.ta_h; bhis.agsiddhikara_ nr.n.a_m putrada_ rogana_s'anah-; these dhu_pas or different kinds of incense were used not only for medical purposes but also for scaring away ghosts etc. who were supposed to cause ill health. They had also some value as perfumes as some of the ingredients used in them were aromatic. The chapter on dhu_pakalpa is concluded with the story about the origin of dhu_pas: The rs.is were disturbed in their penance by ra_ks.asas. They approached vanhi (fire) for help. Vanhi gave them these dhu_pas as a means to scare away these ra_ks.as-- This is a mythical story about the origin of dhu_pas with a religious back-ground. Then follows a dhu_pa-japa: agnistva_ dhu_payatu, brahma_ tva_ dhu_payatu ... namo devebhya iti japet.); loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.324).

8126.Aloes: elivaka aloes (M.)[cf. Nighan.t.aratna_kara of Pandit Vishnu Vasudev Godbole, 1867; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, p.351); Pliny (AD 70) states: 'The best aloe is brought out of India' (Hobson-Jobson, Article on Aloes, p.16].

8127.Art of betel nut chewing: gan.d.u_s.apa_traka = tasta a tray for washing the mouth in (Skt.); pi_kada_ni_ = patadgraha or pratigra_ha or nis.t.hi_va-pa_tra or nis.t.hi_vana s'ara_va or spittoon (Skt.); pat.iggaha (Pali; Maha_vagga (c. 300-250 BC) Vinayapi_t.akam (ed. H. Oldenberg, London, 1879, Vol. I, p.271) [cf. lexicon of non-Sanskrit terms called the Ra_ja-vyavaha_ra-kos'a, Poona, 1880 by Raghuna_tha Pan.d.ita (AD 1676); loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.184]. tastari_ = hasta-praks.a_laka wash-hand-basin (Pers.Skt.) Betel box: karan:ka = ta_mbu_la a_dha_ra betel box (Skt.lex.) Svastika: cf. brass 'sireh' boxed from Sumatra; some with svastika designs carved on their sides [(Case 5, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Room 8 (metal work); cited in Penzer, 'Romance of Betel-chewing'-- citing Katha_saritsa_gara (Tawney's trans. Vol. VIII, pp. 249-254)]. chimbul areca-nut boxes; bekas sirih betel-leaf holders (Malay.) Seller of betle nuts: ta_mbo_l.i_ seller of betel-nuts (M.); tamboli, tamoli sellers of betel in N. Indian bazars; ta_mbu_la (Pers.); ta_mbu_l (Arab.); tembul (Marco Polo. ii,358)(Hobson-Jobson, pp. 913-914; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.173). 'According to Przyluski the word ta_mbu_la consists of the root-word bu_la and tam, which is a prefix, bu_la corresponds to Austro-Asiatic ba_lu and means 'something that is rolled'; cf. Przyluski, 'Emprunts Anaryens en Indo-Aryen', Bulletin de la Soc. de Linguistique de Paris, Vol. XXIV, 3rd. Fasc. (No.75), 1924, pp. 255-58; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.182). 'Ta_mbu_la was probably introduced sometime before or about the beginning of the Christian era in South India and then spread northwares.' (P.V. Kane, History of Dharmas'a_stra, B.O.R. Inst., Poona, 1941, Vol. II, p.734). Areca nuts: ad.akeya areca-nuts (Ka. inscr. AD 750-770 (EI, IX,22; Ka.lex.); ad.kitta_ nut-cracker (M.lex.) [ad.ake_ = betel nut; ko_yittu = cutting or chopping off (Ka.)[S'abdako_s'a by Date and Karve (M.), p.34); loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.171). [or ad.aki areca nut + ottu to press or crack (Ka.); or ad.ake gatti or areca nut knife (Ka.)] Synonyms: gho_n.t.a_, pu_ga, kramuka, guva_ka, khapura (Amarrako_s.a, 169); su_d.o_, su_d.i_ (G.lex.) carota_ nut-cracker (A.); sarauta_ id. (H.); sa_rapatraka (Skt.)[cf. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp.175-176]. s'an:kula_ nut-cracker; s'an:kula_khan.d.a broken by nut-cracker (s'an:kula_ = kramuka_di bhe_dana sa_dhanam)(Skt.)[cf. s'an:kula_ a cutting instrument inferior to musala: Patajali's Maha_bha_s.ya (c. 150 BC); s'an:kula_ = utpala-patrika_ (S'abda Kalpadruma); broad-bladed knife or lancet (Monier Williams' Skt.lex.); cf. s'an:ku a pin (Skt.lex.); s'an:kula_ a pair of nippers (Siddheshwar Varma); P.K. Gode, op cit., p.179]. seere and penang = betel and areca (Malay). Betel tree: guva_ka tbe betel-nut tree, areca faufel or catechu (Wilson: Skt.lex., p.306: gu to stool, affix a_ka and u converted to ava regularly). cf. ka_t catechu (M.lex.) khadira (Skt. lex.)[cf. Ra_janighan.t.u of Narahari (c. AD 1450) Verse 41 which refers to the dye-producing properties of khadira sa_ra, p.13, A_nanda_s'rama Edn., Poona, 1896; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p. 158). khadira-gut.ika_: ingredients: candana, lavan:ga, kakko_la, ja_tiko_s'a (Car. Ci. 26, 206-214). Catechu, cutch, caut: An astringent extract from the wood of several species of acacia (acacia catechu)(the khair, and acacia suma or sundra)... The extract is called kat.h (H.); kvath to decoct (Skt.)... ka_chu (Ka.); kasu (Ta.); kachu (Ma.)... AD 1585 Sassetti mentions catu as derived from khadira tree, i.e. in modern Hindi khair; Skt. khadira... AD 1813: the peasants manufacture catechu or terra japonica from the keiri (khair) tree (mimosa catechu) which grows wild on the hills of Konkana... (Forbes Or. Mem., i.303, 2nd Edn.; loc. cit. Hobson-Jobson, London, 1903, pp. 173-174; P.K. Gode, op cit. ,pp. 162-163). 'Enclose thee in the heart of khayar (khadira) timber, in the ear wrought of s'im.s'apa_ put firmness' (Griffith's trans. RV. iii,53; note: khayar-timber: the hard wood of khadira or acacia catechu of which the pin of the axle was made; s'im.s'apa_: dalbergia sisu, also a common timber tree). cf. soma-valka white khadira (As.t.a_n:gahr.dayakos'a, edn. K.M. Vaidya, 1936, p.625)... '... catechu or cutch was well known to the Chinese under the names er-ca or hai'r-ca.' (Stuart, Chinese Materia Medica, p.2; and Laufer, Loan words in Tibetan, No.107; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.163). gunda gum (M.); Synonym: kha_yar from khadira tree; khadira gunda; nimbagunda gum from citron tree; babbu_lagunda gum from babul tree (M.)[cf. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.108; 'Ink-Recipes after c. AD 1200.') 'khadira-vidha_na or the method of gathering juice of catechu: a khadira tree growing on good ground and of middle age was selected and ground about its bottom was dug out. A cut was then made in its central root and a pitcher (kumbham) of iron or bronze (ayas) was so placed underneath as to admit the exuding juice. The pitcher was then smeared with a mixture of cow-dung and earth and later kept in the midst of fire produced from (dried) cow-dung and other fuel. When the juice had boiled over, the pitcher was lifted up and the juice poured in a separate pot and kept properly covered.' (Sus'rutasam.hita_. Cikitsa_stha_na, Section 13 of Chapter 11, p.450, Bombay, N.S. Press, 1938; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.164). Betel parcel: bira_ (vid.a_ = ta_mbu_la) of the betel-nut leaves -- consisting of 16 leaves and 5 nuts (AD 1416 inscr. Persian farma_n). vid.i_ small roll of betel-leaves (M.lex.); vi_t.ika_ (Skt.lex.) 'Betel is a small parcel made of aromatic leaves and other ingredients mixed up with a little of the lime made from sea-shells, this colours the lips and mouth red and agreeably perfumes the breath.' (Bernier (c. AD 1660, Travels, London, 1891, pp. 13-14; loc. cit. Hobson-Jobson; P.K. Gode, op cit., p.157). Offering: 'tatah pin.d.e_bhyo_ aks.ata-gandha-pus.pa-dhu_pa-di_pa-vastra-ta_mbu_la_ni datva_... ': articles to be offered with pin.d.as (rice-balls) for the manes of ancestors: ta_mbu_la, flowers, incense perfume etc.; s'ayana-vidhi (use of bed by a house-holder): 'tatah svastriya_ saha sugandhale_pana ta_mbu_la_di se_vama_nah- svape_t': the house-holder should go to bed with his wife after enjoying perfumes and ta_mbu_la. (Smr.yarthasa_ra a work on dharmas'a_stra by S'ri_dhara (AD 1150-1200; A_nanda_s'rama Sanskrit Series, No. 70, Poona, 1912; p.45 and p.70; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p. 137). 'The people of the South such as Pandya, Kerala and other countries are described as decked with garlands, having red teeth, wearing clothes dyed in diverse colours, and having bodies besmeared with powder (gandhacu_rn.a_vacu_rn.itah-)' (MBh. Karn.aparvan, XII,17).

8128.Science of cosmetics: gandhas'a_stra science of cosmetics and perfumery (Skt.lex.) "This science of cosmetics and perfumery is helpful in the worship of gods, which requires the use of auspicious perfumes and incense; it contributes to the pleasures of men; it leads to the attainment of three ends of human life (viz., religious merit, worldly prosperity and sensual enjoyments); it removes one's own poverty; it contributes to the pleasures of kings and it gives the highest delight to the minds of accomplished ladies." "Glossary of aromatic ingredients (gandha-dravya)... found as chapter III of gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara... classified the aromatic ingredients in different vargas or classes as follows: (1) leaves: holy basil leaves etc.; (2) flowers: saffron, campaka flowers, clove etc.; (3) fruits: pepper, nutmeg, cardamum etc.; (4) barks: bark of camphor tree, bark of clove tree etc.; (5) woods: sandal wood, fir wood etc.; (6) roots: nut-grass (cyperus rotundus), pavonia odorata (vala) etc.; (7) exudation from plants: camphor etc.; (8) organic products: musk, honey, lac, ghee etc." (P. K. Gode, 'Indian Science of Cosmetics and Perfumery', Studies in Indian Cultural History, Vol. I, Hoshiarpur, Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1961, p.4, 6. loc. cit. gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara and gandhava_da (anonymous) with a commentary in Marathi, c. 500-1600 A.D.) "Of all trades, the trade of the perfumer is the best; other trades like those of dealers in gold etc. are of no avail. In the case of the trade in cosmetics and perfumery what one purchases for one (rupee) can be sold for hundred (rupees)." (Pacatantra). gandha yaks.a = gandharva "At the commencement of his treatise (gandhasa_ra), Gan:ga_dhara bows to four deities viz. (1) S'iva (2) Gan.apati (3) Sarasvati_ and (4) Gandharva yaks.a or gandha yaks.a, a demi-god attending upon God S'iva." (P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 6-7). gandhayukti art of preparing different cosmetics and perfumery (Skt.lex.) "The six processes mentioned by Gan:ga_dhara (gandhasa_ra) are: (1) bha_vana infusion or saturating powders with fluid; (2) pa_cana ripening or decoction of materials after they have undergone the process of infusion (No.1 above); (3) bodha reviving the scent of a perfume with the help of aromatic ingredients acting as reviving agents; (4) vedha this process is a further development of No. 3 above. As the verses describing the process are textually defective I am unable to understand it properly; (4) dhu_pana fumigating with aromatic vapours of incense etc. and (6) va_sana scenting with the perfumes of flowers etc." (P.K. Gode, op cit., p.7). ambara a fragrant substance used in the recipe for a perfumed powder called manmathodayapis.t.aka (Gandhava_da Folio 27b with Marathi commentary, c. 1300-1600 AD); anbar (Arabic); ambergris perfume (E.); ambara perfume (Skt.lex.) [J. Freyer (AD 1672-1681) in his account of East India and Persia refers to ambergreece as a precious article of trade within the charter of the East India Company and states that grey ambergris is the best and that yields a fragrant odour and feels in substance like beeswax... Ain-i-Akbari (A.D. 1590) refers to 'the preprations of ambergris' with which the presence of the chamber of Emperor Akbar was fumigated constantly... the cost of ambergris mentioned in this work is 'one mohar to three, per tola_... Bernier in his Travels (AD 1656-68) mentions that India imports ambergris from the Maldives and Mozambic... The Arab geographer Yaqubi (c. AD 875) mentions... anbar Hindi which is procured from the coast and then exported to Basra and other places. The anbar which comes from Hind is called karkbatus associated with a community of that name.' (Fryer's Travels, Haklyut Society, London, 1912, Vol. II, p. 142; Ain-i-Akbari Eng. trans. by F. Gladwin, Calcutta, 1897, Vol. I, pp. 65,68,69; Bernier's Travels ed. Constable, London, 1891, p.204; loc. cit. P.K.Gode, op cit., p.10). Use of perforated vessel: Abul Fazl (Pages 68-70, Ain-i-Akbari) deals with 'Natural Perfumes'. The items in this category are: (1) ambergris, (2) laudan 'from the tree found in the island of Cyprus and Chois, (3) camphor 'from a large tree found in the maritime mountains of Hindustan and China', collected from the trunk and branches, (4) civet from Achin 'from an animal resebling a cat', (5) kowrah 'from an animal resembling the civet' found in Achin, (6) myd, something of the above kind but of inferior quality, (7) lignum aloes, root of a tree. Several kinds of it are: Mendely, Jebely, Semendury, Kemary, Kakey, Berry, Cathaiy, Chiny (also called Kemoory), Jelaly, Mytaky, Lemaky,-- of these Mendely is the best, Semendury is blue and burns for a long time on the fire, (8) chuwah is distilled lignum aloes... 'Method of making chuwah: small pieces of lignum aloes... put into a narrow-necked vessel... luted with philosopher's clay... composed of clay, cotton and rice bran. A small space is left at the neck of the vessel which is placed inverted in another vessel, perforated at the bottom, and supported by a three-legged stand, under which is placed a dish full of water, so that the mouth of the first mentioned vessel may touch its surface. Then ther eis made round the inverted vessel a gentle fire of cowdung, which melts the aloes, till it distills into the water. This is colected and repeatedly washed with water and rose-water to take off all smell of smoke.'... (table of perfumes)... Persian saffron, Kahghy saffron, Cashmeery saffron, musk pods, kelumbek, storax, frankincense, essence of fitneh, essence of baidmusk, essence of orange flowers, essence of jasmin, violet roots, scented nails, bah leaves from Guzerath, sugendeh kookelah, alekkhendy, duwalek, kanehleh, saad, akungy, zedoary... (loc. cit. P.K.Gode, op cit., pp. 19-20). 'The gandhi deal in rose-water, perfumed oils and essences, toothpowder and finer kinds of implements used for smoking... The perfumes are also retailed by those who make them... (those who distil perfumes) use a copper still (dola_yantra) which may hold from 150 to 200 lbs. of water, and has a flat head. A tube bent at right angles conveys the vapours into a copper cucurbit, which serves as a recipient and is placed in a wide-mouthed earthen vessel to contain water for condensing the vapour... The artist makes three kinds of water, from roses, from the pandanus (keara-- ketaka or ketaki_) and from the lime (citrus); but the quantity of the two latter is very trifling... The other waters are distilled in the same manner. All their essences consist of sandal-wood oil impregnated with various smells, for imbibing which, this oil has a strong capacity... The sandal wood comes from Malabar... and distilling over into this the waters from various substances such as roses, the flowers of the bel (jasminum sambac), spices, the roots of the andropogon called kus, the flower of the chameli (jasminum grandiflorum), the flower of the mulsari (mimusops elengi), agar wood (agallochum), the flower of the Keara (pandanus), the flower called juhi (jasminum) and even clay... The next most common essence, called motiya is made from bel flower (jasminum sambac), and is cheaper than the common essence of roses. The only other essence commonly used is that impregnated with the odour of the spices and called mujmua. The ingredients vary from 5 to 50, but cloves, nutmegs, greater and lesser cardamoms, and saffron are the most common... (Vide Dr. Sadgopal's article on kewda in 'Soap, Perfumery and Cosmetics, May, 1937. The kewda or pandanus odoratissimus occurs in India, Arabia and Persia. In India occurs in Bengal, South India, Central India, United Provinces and NW Burma. The superior type of kewda is found in Ganjam Dist. of Orissa.)... India, the cradle of Perfume Industry... Those who extract essences have several flower gardens at Patna and Bar... (Buchanan, 'Patna-Gaya Report', Behar and Orissa Research Soceity, Patna, Vol. II, pp. 518-777 (loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 37-42).

buka_ powder; a fragrant substance (included in the list on Folio 27 of the Marathi commentary on Gandhava_da starting with s'ri_khan.d.a etc.)(cf. pukai smoke (Ta.lex.): Folios 36-37 in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara contain recipes for several varieties of buka_ and folio 49 concludes: 'iti buka_ gandhara_ja a_n.i te_liya_ ga_liya_tatha_ sugandha tatha_ ka_ciya_ te_la tatha_ kastu_ri_ci_ pari_ks.a_ va karan.i_ va java_dici_ karan.i_ tatha_ karpu_rakaran.i_ tatha_ dhu_pakaran.i_ go_liya_ tatha_ udabati yituka me_la_va_ paripu_rn.a ja_la_ ase_. iti gandhava_da sampu_rn.a.'ka_ce_la te_l: 'tailyam ca_mbaraka_cari_ ca mahula_ lo_ba_na s'ri_khan.d.akam. ma_m.si ca_garakam..." (Folio 33b in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: su_ks.maila_, lavan:ga, candana, saupha, mo_tha, taja, ku_t.ha, e_la_va_luka, ja_yiphala, candratvak, ja_yipatri_, va_la_ka, kum.kuma, na_gake_sara, pus.pa kan:ko_la, hirad.e_, ro_hisa, dhan.iya_, lavan:gatvaku_, sthu_laila_, patraka, ni_li_, co_rapus.pi_, re_n.uka, padmaka (Folio 7a in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: pancaka, ku_t.a, nali_, e_ka_n:gi_, tagara, s'ailaja, mura_, musta_, co_rapus.pi_, ma_m.si_, ba_la, us'i_ra, te_javati_, na_gake_sara, bo_la, karcu_ra, lata_kastu_ri_, viha_n.i_, karpu_ra, priyan:gu, saupha, madana, ro_hisa, maruva, patraka (Folio 9b in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: ma_m.si_, hirad.e_, na_gake_sara, gad.ivana, sthaile_la_, patraka, mura_, ku_t.a, musta_, va_laka, s'at.i_, taja, e_ka_n:gi_, padmaka, sihla_, saupha, re_n.uka, tagara, lagasa, tvicapatra, us'i_ra, viha_n.a, nakha, e_la_va_lu, campaka (Folio 11a in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: priyan:gu, hari_taki_, s'at.i_, lavan:ga, s'aupha, na_gake_sara, us'i_ra, sthu_laila, su_ks.maila_, mari_cakan:ko_l.a, ku_t.a, ja_yipatri_ (Folio 11b in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: candana, ja_yipatri_, kan:ko_la, lavan:gatvak, ja_yi_phale_, padmaka, ku_t.a, sihla_, tarja, nakha, khadyasa, mura_, indratvak, hirad.e_, e_la_, kum.kuma, e_la_va_luka, lavan:ga, na_gake_sara, aguru, ga_t.hivana, bo_la, karpu_ra, s'at.i_, ma_m.si_ (Folio 12a in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: agaru, candana, de_vada_ru, surabhi_, sihla_, ma_msi_, mura_, va_laka, ku_t.a, musta_, ra_la, laks.a_, guggulu, s'rivarasa, va_la, kunduru, sallaki_, s'ailaja, kum.kuma, na_gake_sara, hirad.e_, gan.t.hi_vana, vaca_, mari_cakan:ko_la, ja_ti_ko_s.a, ja_yiphala, padmaka, sthu_laila_, ta_lisa, tama_la, s'at.i_, nakha, su_ks.maila, khada_sa, karkat.a, lavan:ga, sare_sa, damana, maruva, as'o_ka, maha_sugandha, candratvak, so_pha, gandhamusta, priyagu, la_vatvak, e_la_va_luka, patraja (Folio 16a in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: ko_s.t.a (1), mura_ (62), padmaka (10), sa_riva_ (rr), mo_tha (5), hirad.e_ (50), co_ra (23), patraka (41), lo_dha (18), ke_sara (47), kacu_ra (4), e_ka_n:gi_ (63), va_la (22), kharjurako_ (43), agaru (6), lata_ (51), us'i_ra (61), varn.e_lato_ (17), priyan:gu (64), tagara (3), e_la_va_luka (44), ma_m.si_ (29), bale_ (51), bo_lu (7), su_ks.maila_ (15), kan:ko_la (60), dhan.iya_ (29), saupha (26), s'ri_va_sa (9), kunduru (56), gugulu, sa_lai (40), gandhamusta_ (22), ja_yipatri_ (35), lavan:ga (16), catratvak (57), ra_la (29), nakhi_ (27), nakha (10), de_vada_ru (51), lavan:gatvak (59), ja_yiphala (14), pus.pakan:ko_la (32), ro_hisa (30), damana (55), as'o_ki_ (12), maruva_ (39), vaca_ (26), bo_la (34), re_n.uka (30), taja (59), su_ks.maila_ (13), sarasi_ (39), la_ks.au (#7), tama_lapatra (54), surabhi_ (11), te_javati_ (61), nali_ (2), maha_mo_dha (45), campaka (20), vya_ghranakhi_ (49), s'e_khara (9), su_la (41), tvakyatri_ (21) (Folio 20b in Gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara).

Set of fragrant substances: s'ri_khan.d.a, agaru, nakha, ja_yapatri_, ma_m.si_, sailaja, ta_li_sapatra, va_la, bho_la, pa_ci, ambaru, taja, ye_la_, laban:ga, ko_s.t.a, tu_pa, phula_ca_, va_su, buka_, s'ri_gandha (Folio 27 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: bakula, sariphula, se_vanti_, a_m.be_haladi, ga_n.t.hi_vana, maruva_, se_laja, davana_, brahmi_, se_la_rasa, karpu_ra, ca_m.pe_kali, bhadramusta_, patraka, puna_ve_, ha_ladi, ja_yiphala, ge_ru, karpu_ra, jat.a_ma_m.si_, ba_bari_, tagara, ta_li_, chalira_, davan.a_, campa_, puna_va, candana, karpu_ra, a~_d.i, ga_n.t.hi_vana, gahula_, caum.pe_, musta_, ambara, lauba_na, taja, te_liya_, be_ri_, ba_bari_, kastu_ri_, java_di (Folio 28 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). campe_kali = campakalika_ or flower buds of campaka (Skt.lex.)

Set of fragrant substances: puti_ (mhan.ata_ a~_d.i), nata (mhan.ata_ ga_n.t.hi_vana_), gahule_, bho_lasari_, ka_la_va_la_, puna_va_, tvaca_ (mhan.ata_ chalira_), can.d.a_ (mhan.ata_ chad.a), murtti (mhan.ata_ t.a_n:ka), tr.t.i (mhan.ata_ ye_la_), ka_cari_, kaba_ba, nalika_, kaco_ri_, kr.s.n.a_garu, pala_sya_ (mhan.ati te_liya_), puti (mhan.ata_ a~_d.i), tad.a, tagaru, bho_la, lo_ba_na, de_vada_ru, patraja, guhya_ (Folio 29 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: paitika (mhan.ata_ agaru_), te_lya_, dhu_mra (mhan.ata_ lo_ba_na), pa_ci, bakulapus.pa, puna_ga, chali_ra_, e_la_, ka_la_va_la_, bo_la, candanaye_liya_, tavaks.i_, ko_m.sr., a_gud.hapus.pa (mhan.ata_ davana_), nive_la_, tavaks.i_ra, a~_d.i, se_vantiphula, 'ha_ buka_ sim.ghan.e_ niphajavila_' (i.e. this (buka_ powder) owes its origin to sim.ghan.a, who is probably the Ya_dava king Sin:ghan.a (AD 1210-1247). The reference to sin:ghan.a is also found in the text of Gandhava_da: 'yo_ buka_ sin:ghan.e_ nipa_yo_ ra_javasya karu_ me_ hugava_yo_.' (Folio 30 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da; and foot-note 2 by P.K. Gode, op cit., p.50).

Set of fragrant substances: davan.a_, ko_s.t.a, ca_pa_, kacu_ra, bho_lasari_, ca_m.pe_kali, nata (mhan.ata_ tagaru), go_dha_ (mhan.ata_ gahule_), ka_cari_, 'na_bhiko_s'a (mhan.ata_ kasturi_ce_ kho_lad.e_', ma_n:ke_rasu, ra_ta_jana, ja_yiphala, kan:ko_la, pim.pali_mu_la, pi_t.havani, po_yis (Folio 31 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: aja_mu_tra, be_la_ca_mo_, kasturi_ko_sale_, de_vada_ru_, co_pad.a_, kum.kumake_sara, mahis.i_mu_tra, s'uddhamr.gi_, mo_carasu, go_ro_cana, kat.uki_, ke_vad.e_, ka_tha, ko_carasu, tupa, madhu, 'cuna_ se_r', lo_ba_na, ra_la ('ha_te_m. ragad.ije_), s'uddhasila_rasu, kandakarpura, 'ra_ja_m.na ta_ndula_ca_ bha_tu ra_ndhije_', 'ke_lipatra a_thuruni vari d.ha_lije; ma_ute_m. ke_lipatre_m. dad.apije_; da_van.a bahuta gha_lije_'; 'udayabha_skara'. (Folio 32 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: guhya_, co_pad.a_, me_n.a ra_t.i_ sve_ta, so_malu pi_va_la_, cu_na_, phat.aki_, ke_taki_ dale_m., java_di mastaki, java_dici_ a~_d.i_m., me_n.ate_la, s'uddhabi_ja (Folio 33 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: satapatra, ja_yala, karava_la, javada_n.a, gandhara_ja, tile_la, ma_latipus.pa, 'ka_cakupiye_ t.he_vije_', ka_ce_late_la, s'uddhataila, s'un.t.hi, guggulu, dhan.e_, ji_re_m. (Folio 34 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: bho_las'ri_, tajalika, mari_ca, kan:ko_la, patraja, ka_pra ('co_khat. buka_ ho_ye_'), da_racini_, chalira_, kacu_ra, ca_m.pe_laphula, bhadramo_tha, candanase_na, chali_, chila_rasu, javama_s.arame_ (Folio 35 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). cf. da_rucini_ = cinnamon (Skt.lex.; cf. China-stick, dar-chini (Pers.)

Set of fragrant substances: bho_lasari_, a_m.be_haladi, lavan:gaka_d.i_, ko_m.sr., mo_tha, kaba_ba_, bambara, guha_va, tavaks.ira, ca_mpa_, akho_t.a, te_lya_, bo_las'ri_, candanapa_pad.a_ (Folio 36 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). Synonym: campakalika_ = gandhaphali_ (Amarakos'a, c. AD 500).

Set of fragrant substances: cande_nathapali_, tavaks.ira, karam.ba_la, javada_n.a, lo_ba_nu (Folio 37 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: hirad.e_, la_khabhe_t.a, ra_ka_li_, gulu, 'ka_m.bale_ni ga_luni ghe_yije_'-- 'bho_jara_ja-kr.tava_di,' navani_ta kho_lad.e_, kho_bare_m. june_m., mo_carasu, sadyaghr.ta, madhu, cu_na_, ka_li_ra_la, java_disuddha, po_yim.sara_tim. (Folio 38 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). cf. ka_m.bala ... ga_luni = woolen blanket as a stainer (Skt.lex.) cf. kho_bre_m. june_m. = dried kernel of the cocoanut, coprah; kopparai (Ta.lex.)

Set of fragrant substances: 'ka_capa_tri_ dha_m.ridhe_,' me_n.a co_khat., june_m. kho_bare_m., 'sr.k mhan.ata_ la_kh,' cam.pe_kali_ (Folio 39 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). cf. ka_capa_tri_ = glass bottle (Skt.lex.)

Set of fragrant substances: 'to_n.d.i_ ve_lan.i_ jha_m.pn.i_ di_je_; ve_lan.i_ cichitra,' 'mo_hara baravi_ ki_je_,' 'lo_khan.d.a_ci_ a_d.an.i_,' 'ra_nase_n.i_ tatha_ ko_lise_ bharije_,' ka_capa_tri, sadyatu_pa, dhu_pa, 'mlaks.a mhan.ata_ sila_rasa,' 'co_lya_ mhan.ata_ lo_ba_na,' pa_ta_layantre_m. ka_d.hije_, 'aran.yatulasi_ mhan.ata_ ba_bari_,' 'pi_tagandha mhan.ata_ agaru,' 'ulbin.amhan.ata_ lo_ba_nu,'-- 'kusuma_kara' (Folio 40 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da). cf. ka_capa_tri_ = glass bottle (Skt.lex.)

Set of fragrant substances: 'sim.saka,' 'pi_ta mhan.ata_ agaru,' 'tilaja mhan.ata_ te_la' (Folio 41 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: sa_mbra_n.i_, kacura, hirad.a_, sim.sapa_, nalika_taja, khadira_ca_ d.iku, 'mr.gicarma mhan.ata_ kho_lad.e_' saila, 'krimija mhan.ata_ la_kh,' haladi_, ja_yi_mo_gara_, te_lya (Folio 42 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: brahmi_, sa_khara, babe_ri_, de_vada_ru co_pad.a_, ja_yipatri_, saha_ta, si_saika_t.hi_, kho_lad.e_, bha_jan.i_, te_lya_, lavan:gaka_d.i_, padmaka, siri_sa, chachira_, si_sa_ma_, co_pad.a_, na_ba_ta, me_n.ara_t.i_ (Folio 43 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: saha_ta, ghi_ute_la, hirad.e_da_li, sa_m.bra_yan.i_, chali_ra_, si_sa, harad.a_, go_m.da, pula, haladi_, 'de_vada_ru se_r di_d.hu 1', gulu, sa_khara, ke_vad.a_, ca_m.pe_la (Folio 44 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: candanaga_bha_, 'na_laka_yantre_m. athava_ pa_ta_layantre_m. cad.hava_ve_,' de_vada_ru co_pad.a_, ja_yice_m. phul, ghr.ta, bha_jan.i_ co_khat., surad.i_ junim., jai_, na_ba_ta, 'brahmi_ to_le_ 2,' 'na_gaka_kid.i_ciya_ rasa_.' (Folio 45 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: 'he_ma mhan.ata_ aguru,' 'krimijantu mhan.ata_ la_kha,' patraja, ghali_ra (Folio 46 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: hin:gula, ka_kha, ka_tha, tyatu, khaira_ca_ d.i_ku, 'can.e_ prama_n.e_m. vat.i_ ki_je_,' mo_tha (Folio 47 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

Set of fragrant substances: ca_ni_kastuci_, dha_yaphula, ye_la_va_luka, priyan:gu ja_yapatri_, re_n.uke_m., padmaka, ka_kad.asin:gi_, dura_labha_, kamalaphul, dafte_ a_n.i kala_kha, maji_t.ha, lo_dha, ca_sani_khi kastu_ri_, ka_pu_rva_la_, ke_ra, ye_ran.d.i_ magaja, dhan.iye_, karam.ba_lu, ji_ra_, davan.a_, na_gake_sara, pa_ci(Folio 48 in the Marathi commentary on the Gandhava_da).

bakula mhan.ata_ bho_lasariphula (i.e. bakula = bho_la) P. K. Gode, 'Studies in the history of Indian cosmetics and perfumery: a critical analysis of a rare manuscript of Gandhava_da and its Marathi commentary (between c. A.D. 1350 and 1550)', op cit., pp. 43-52).

'Ga_ga_bhat.t.a (c. 1650-1675), who presided over the coronation of the Maratha King Shivaji the Great in AD 1674, quotes a verse in one of his works defining eight bhogas (objects of enjoyment) viz., (1) perfumes, (2) women, (3) garments, (4) music, (5) betel, (6) dinners, (7) bed, and (8) flowers.' Ma_nasolla_sa (refers to)... perfuming the seeds of tila (sesame) with the strong odour of the flowers of ketaki (pandanus odoratissimus), ja_ti (jasminum grandiflorum), punna_ga (calophyllum inophyllum) and champaka (michelia champaca)... Roots of the following herbs: pa_laka (spinach?), tagara (valeriana wallichii ?), ma_m.si_ (musk-root or Indian spikenard), va_jigandha (winter cherry, as'vagandha), pus.kara (lotus or a kind of costus), kos.t.ha (= kus.t.ha = costus), pat.olaka (snake gourd), musta_ (nut-grass or cyperus rotundus), nis'a_-dvayam (two kinds of nis'a_ viz. (i) turmeric and (ii) tree turmeric or Indian barberry), grandhi-parn.a (artemesia vulgaris); all these roots should be dried up in shade and then blended together by reducing them to powder. Leaves: To this mixture should be added a paste made of the leaves of trees mentioned below: (1) nimba (neem or margosa tree), (2) ra_javr.ks.a (cassia fistula or Indian laburnum), (3) tulasi_ (holy basil), (4) arjaka (sweet basil, ocimum basilicum); Seeds: To the above mixture add the pounded seeds of the following: (1) ela_ (cardamom), (2) ja_ti (jasmine), (3) sars.apa (mustard), (4) tila (sesame), (5) kustumbara (coriander), (6) ba_kuci (veronia anthelmintica), cakramarda (cassia tora). Weeds: To this mixture add the powder of the following weeds: (1) lavan:ga (clove), (2) padmaka (prunus padum), (3) lodhra (symplocos racemosa), (4) s'ri_khan.d.a (sandal), (5) surada_ru (fir tree), (6) agaru (agallochum), (7) sarala (long-leaved pine). Flowers: Flowers of the following plants should be thrown duly blended into the mixtures specified above: (1) na_gake_s'ara (mesua ferrea), (2) punna_ga (calophyllum inophyllum), (3); ka_nta (aglaia roxburghiana), (4) kum.kuma (saffron), (5) campaka (michelia champaca). Fragrances: Lastly the following materials should be pounded in water or rice-vinegar (ka_jika) and added to the above unguent: (1) guggulu (bdellium), (2) saindhava (rock-salt), (3) bola (myrrh), (4) sarjarasa (yellow resin). The person of the kind should be rubbed and cleaned with the application of the above unguents prepared from many aromatic and medicinal ingredients. For removing the grease from the king's person a cake (khali) should be used. The composition of this cake or soap should be as follows: take a quantity of very fine wheaten flour. Mix it with fermented rice-gruel (arana_la) and powdered roots of madana (emetic nut, randia dumetorum) and pis'una (saffron)... An unguent made of the perfumed pulp of the fruits of a_malaka (emblic myrobalan) should be applied by these ladies (female attendants) to the hair of the king... Scented turmeric (haridra_) pulp should then be applied to the king's person... Thus comes to an end the elaborate process of the royal bath. ('Perfumes and cosmetics in the Royal Bath c. 1130 AD,' citing the encyclopaedic Sanskrit work of Somes'vara's Ma_nasolla_sa (Vol.II, 1939), P.K. Gode, op cit., p.53).

Eight processes (karma_s.t.ha) in the manufacture for cosmetics are mentioned in Agnipura_n.a (Chapter 224, Verses 20 and 21), viz. (1) s'auca, (2) a_camana, (3) vire_cana, (4) bha_vana, (5) pa_ka, (6) bo_dhana, (7) dhu_pana, (8) va_sana. (Eight processes : s'o_dhanam, va_sanam in lieu of s'auca and a_camana + 6 i.e. vire_cana etc. are mentioned in the gandhayukti section of the Vis.n.udharmottara Pura_n.a (Khan.d.a II, Chap. 64, pp. 220-221 of Venkateswara Press edition, Bombay; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.74). Gan:ga_dhara, in the paribha_s.a_ section of gandhasa_ra records, however, six processes: bha_vana etc... Substances used for fragrant waters or 19 incense substnaces (dhu_padravyaika vim.s'ati): nakham, kus.t.ham, dhanam, ma_m.si_, spr.kka, s'aile_yajam (jalam), kum.kumam, la_ks.a_, canda, aguru (ni_radam); saralam, de_vaka_s.t.am, karpu_ram, ka_nta_, va_la, kunduruka, kuggulu, s'ri_niva_saka, sarjarasa... two of these substances are mixed with: nakha, pin.ya, kamala, madhu... the mixture is dhu_payo_ga_ i.e. fit to be used as incense... tvaca, na_d.i_, phalam, tailam, kum.kumam make grandhiparvakam... s'aile_yam, tagaram, kra_nta_m., caulam, karpu_ram, ma_m.si_, sura_m., kus.t.am... are sna_nadravya (bath scents or jalava_sa of Gandhasa_ra) (Agnipura_n.a, Chapter 224, Verses 27 and 28)... tvak, mura_, nalada, va_laka_, utpalagandhi: equalling kum.kuma... ja_ti_pus.pa, tagara : equalling vakula... majis.t.ha_, tagaram, co_lam, tvacam, vya_ghranakham, nakham, gandhapatram... make gandhataila (scented oils)... (Verses 30 to 32)... e_la_, lavan:ga, kan:ko_la, ja_ti_phala, nis'a_kara_, ja_ti_patrika... make mukhava_saka_h- (Verse 34)... karpu_ram, kum.kumam, ka_nta_, mr.gadarpam, hare_n.ukam, kan:ko_la, e_la_, lavan:gam, ja_ti_kro_s'akam, tvakpatram, tr.t.i, musta_, lata_m. kastu_rika_, (thorns or kan.t.aka_ni of) lavan:ga, phalapatra, ja_tita, kat.ukam, ra_ma phalam, ka_rs.ika_n... in this powdered mixture... juice of khadira... juice of sahaka_ra... make gut.ika_ (bolus)... for mukhava_sa... pu_gam, pacapallava... kat.ukam, dantaka_s.t.ham, go_mu_tra equal pu_ga... tvak, pathya_, vam.s'a, s'as'ibha_ga: equal na_gavalli_... (Verses 33 to 42).... Aromatic ingredients included in the Cikitsa_stha_na of the Carakasam.hita_: candana, us'i_ra, ke_s'ara, tagara, kus.t.ha, majis.t.ha_, ma_m.si_, kum.kuma, patraila_, aguru, nakha, va_laka ('Verses pertaining to gandhayukti in the Agnipura_n.a (9th century AD) and their relation to the topics dealt with in Gan:ga_dhara's gandhasa_ra, between AD 1300 and 1600', P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 69-73).

kappitha, bilva, jamba, a_mravi_ja, musta_, ambhasa_ dvija, s'us.akam s'us.kam, pacapallava to_ya, hari_taki_, pathya_: for vire_kam; kum.kumam. for bha_vana_; pacapallava-va_rin.am, a_s'vattha, te_na_tha dravyam, ra_ma, kva_tha: for pa_ka; kalkapis.t.ham: for bha_vana_ and also for bo_dhanam. pathya_, gurus'ukti, candana, agaru, karpu_ra, mr.gadarpa: for dhu_pa; flowers of the bakula, ja_ti_ (pus.pairbakula ja_ti_na_m.)... vaca_m., pin.d.anibha_m., mustam, s'aile_yakam, se_vyam, dvijasattama, nirya_sa_, pus.pa_n.a_m... nakham, kus.t.am, dhanam, ma_m.si_, spr.k, tva_, s'aile_yakam, kum.kumam, la_ks.a_, candana, aguru, natam, sarala_, de_vaka_s.t.am, karpu_ram, bo_lam, kandu_raka, guggula, s'ri_niva_saka, sarjarasa: incense substances; take two substances and mix with sarja and pin.ya_kavalaya and madhu... ja_ti_phalam tailam, kum.kumam granthiparn.akam, s'aile_yam, tagaram, ka_s.t.ham, ta_mbu_lam, tagaram, ma_m.si_, sara_va kus.t.ham : nine incense substances... dr.ksura_, nalada, kum.kuma, utpalagandhi: bath scents; ja_ti_ pus.pa, tagara, ba_laka_cana, pa_t.ala_kusuma: equal vakula scent; na_lika_vam.sa, kut.t.ipa_da, a_ryakam, dvike_saram, ve_n.upa_dam, kundapus.pa, s'alapa_da_rtham: make madanakam; majis.t.ha_, tagaram, ba_lam, vya_ghranakham, nakham, gandhapatram: for gandhataila; mustam, se_vyam, vaca_m, nis'a_m, candana, vamanam; vire_kam; e_la_, lavan:ga, kakko_la, ja_ti_phala, nis'a_kara_, ja_tipatrika_: for mukhava_sakam; karpu_ram, kum.kumam, ka_ntam, mr.gadarpam, hare_n.ukam, kakko_la, e_la_, lavan:gam, ja_ti_ko_s'akam, dr.kpatram, tr.t.i, mustam, lata_ kastu_rikam, kan.t.aka_ni of lavan:ga, ja_ti (phala and patra), kat.ukam, ra_ma phalam, kars.ika_n.d.a_: the powders are mixed with khadiram sa_ram; with kan.ya_rasa made into gulika_ : mukhava_sakam; kat.ukam, dantaka_s.t.ham, go_mu_tram and pu_ga; tvak, pas'ya, vam.s'a, sita : equal to na_gavalli_ for mukhava_sa; kat.ukaphala, nata_mbu, tvak, tr.t.i, vya_dhipatra, nalada, nata, sura_, kallo_la, saibhya, s'as'irasa, gandhapatram, karn.apatram ('The gandhayukti section of the Vis.n.udharmottara and its relation to other texts on the gandhas'a_stra', P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 74-87). The chapter called gandha_dhika_ra of a work on erotics called the Na_garasarvasva by a Buddhist author Padmas'ri_ (c. AD 1000) refers to a scented bath: tvak, aguru, mustaka, tagaram, caura, s'at.hi_, grandhiparn.aka, nakham, kastu_ri_: sna_na_ni_ya-cu_rn.ava_sah- (Verse 12) (loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit. p,78). The sus'rutasam.hita_ (su_trastha_na) Chap. 46, verses 201-204 refer to pu_gava_sa and its ingredients : pu_gaphalam saram, ja_ti_ko_s'a, karpu_ram, ja_ti_phala, kat.ukaphala, kakko_lakam, lavan:gam, karpu_ra. (cf. p.441 of Vol. I of Marathi trans. by Krishnashastri Phade, Bombay, 1921; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.80).

Perfumes prescribed for worship in Ka_lika_pura_n.a: gandha is one of the five accessories in worship: gandham pus.pam dhu_pam di_pam naive_dyam (Chap. 73, Verse 101). gandha are of various types: cu_rn.ikr.ta (powdered), ghr.s.t.a (rubbed), da_ha_kars.ita (burnt), rasah- (resin), sammardaja (ground), pra_n.yan:go_dbhava (produced from animal organs); (1) gandhacu_rn.a, gandhapatram, cu_rn.am, patracu_rn.a (gandhavaha_ni); (2) malayajo_ gandha (ghr.s.ta or rubbed), me_ru (cu_rn.i_kr.ta or powdered), aguru (pan:ka = unguent)(to view or to rub); (3) de_vada_ru, aguru, brahma, s'a_las'a_ra, candana (burning resins: da_hajo_ rasah- or da_ha_kars.ito_ gandhah-); (4) sugandha karavi_, bilva gandhini, tilakam (mixed with -- nihpi_dya, raso_ yo_sau = ?turmeric water; called sammardaja); (5) mr.gana_bhisamudbhu_ta (born in an animal's organ or ko_s.a, called pra_n.yan:gaja; mixed with karpu_ra or gandha or with finely ground powder). Incense made of wood (ka_s.t.ha), pollen of flower (para_ga): s'ri_candanam, sarala, s'a_la, kr.s.n.a_guru, udaya, surathaskanda, raktavidruma (the coral tree, bearing reddish precious gems called corals; a kind of perfume), pi_tas'a_la, vimardi_ka_s'ala, name_ru, de_vada_ru, bilvasa_ra, kha_dira, santa_na [one of the five trees of Indra's paradise or its flower; surabhu_ja or pa_rija_ta (Ka.lex.); (cf. surabhi the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera; gum olibanum)(Ka.lex.)], pa_rija_ta (the coral tree, erythrina indica; one of the five trees in svarga; the five trees are: manda_ra [a white variety of swallow-wort, calotropis gigantea; the coral tree, etyrhtina indica (Ka.lex.) cf. arkapatra_n.i = leaves of madar; ruyi_ (M.) = swallow-wort (Br.hat. Sam..)], pa_rija_ta, santa_na, kalpavr.ks.a and haricandana (Ka.lex.)], haricandana [a sort of yellow sandalwood; Synonym: barbara said to smell like a ripe mango (Ka.lex.)]; ara_la (ara_lah- saha su_tre_n.a), s'ri_va_sa (resin of pinus longifolia, turpentine), pat.t.ava_sa, karpu_ra, s'ri_kara, para_gah- s'ri_hara_malau, vara_has'cu_rn.a utkalah-; ja_ti_ko_s.a cu_rn.am, kastu_rika_; yaks.adhu_pa or vr.ks.dhu_pa: s'ri_pis.t.a [resin of the pine tree, turentine, dhu_pa (Ka.lex.)], aguru, jharjara, patriva_ha, pin.d.adhu_pa, sugo_la, kan.t.ha [the madana tree (Ka.lex.)]: these are nirya_sa_ (exudations) dhu_pa_ (incense); the incense are of five types: nirya_sa, para_ga, ka_s.t.ham, gandham, kr.trima [i.e. exudation, pollen, wood, candana, olibanum or benzoin; cf. kr.trima a kind of perfume; benzoin; incense, olibanum (Skt.lex.)]; incenses used for specific gods: yaks.adhu_pam, raktam, vidrumam, mahyam, suratham, kadrilam, putriva_ha, pin.d.adhu_pa, sugo_laka, kr.s.n.a_guru, karpu_ra, vr.kadhu_pa, mado_ [?madana = bakula tree (Skt.lex.)], majja_ sama_yukta_nna dhu_pa [majjam a kind of bdellium, bhu_mijaguggula; bdellium; majjasa_ra a nutmeg (Skt.lex.)], rakta, vidruma, s'a_la, suratha, su_rala, santa_naka, name_ru, ka_la_guru, ja_ti_ko_s.a_ja... (Ka_lika_pura_n.a Venkateswar Press, Bombay, s'aka 1829-1907; Chapter 73, Folio 189; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 82-83).

'The use of incense in Egyptian sacrifice as illustrated by a wall-painting in the Tomb of Two Sculptors (about 1400 BC). No. 92 -- A sacrifice to the Gods-- Neb Amu_n accompanied by his mother, Thepu, pours oil of incense over braziers filled with offerings, among which hot coals have been scattered, thus causing the oil to be ignited. The flames are to be seen against the papyrus mat which holds the four jars of ointment. A formula records the presenting of incense and sacred gum to Amu_n, Osiris, Anu_bis and other deities. A servant assists the performance of the ceremony. (See pp. 34-35 of Egyptian Wall-paintings from Tombs and Palaces of the XVIII and XIX Dynasties (1600-1200 BC), Metropolitan Museum of New York, 1930)' (loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.85).

Dhu_pa: saurabha, utkat.a, la_ks.a_, guggula, karpu_ra, ra_la, kun.t.u, silhakam, s'ri_khan.d.am, da_ru, saralam, laghuko_s.t.ham, ba_laka, ma_m.si_, kum.kuma, pathya_, kastu_ri_, pu_tibi_jaka, s'an:khana_bhi, nakha, sita_, madhu, ghr.tam, gud.ah-: powders, resins; dvigun.am laghukarpu_ram (two types of karpu_ra) mixed with silha, madhu, sarpis.a_; vartidhu_pa (vartiru_pa_n.i s'us.ka_n.i)-- carried in: (ri_tiru_pamaya, suvarn.aghat.ita, samput.a_tmakah- : khaga, mr.ga) (cf. a section called dhu_pabho_ga in the Ma_naso_lla_sa of Ca_lukya King Somes'vara (c. AD 1130); Ma_naso_lla_sa, GOS, Baroda, 1939, Vol. II, pp. 144-145; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp.85-86).

'According to Trailokyapraka_s'a, a work on astrology of the 13th century by Hemaprabha Su_ri, the Sun (bha_numa_n) is the presiding planet for ratnas and Jupiter (br.haspati) for cosmetics and perfumes: man.imukta_ s'r.n:gi ratna_di_na_m na_thastu bha_numa_n; s'ri_khan.d.a_guru karpu_ra kastu_rya_ mo_di vastunah sva_mi_ br.haspatir je_yo_ lagnatattvavidah- punah- (Verses 39 and 40; cf. p.9 of Trailo_kya Praka_s'a ed. by R. S. Sharma, Lahore, 1946; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.88).

sam.sa_re_ sa_rabhu_tam sakalasukhakaram suprabhu_tam dhanam vai; tatsa_dhyam sa_dhake_ndair gurumukha vidhina_ vaks.yate_ tasya siddhayai; ratna_di_na_m vis'e_s.a_tkaran.amiha s'ubham gandhava_dam samagram; ja_tva_ tattatsusuddham hyanubhavapathagam pa_vanam pan.d.ita_na_m (an eulogy to wealth (dhana) as the essence of life bestowing happiness. 'For acquiring this wealth he is explaining in the present chapter the necessary means, viz., the knowledge of the manufactue of ratnas (jewels or precious stones) and cosmetics and perfumes (gandhava_da)...' (P.K. Gode, op cit., p.89). The processes for ratnas covered in this work include: padmara_ga, indrani_la, marakataman.i, go_me_daman.i, pus.para_ga, ni_lama_n.ikya, mukta_phala, prava_la (Verses 1-37). Verses 38-88 are devoted to the manufacture of hin:gu_la, sindu_ra, saindhava, suvarcala, hin:gu, ban:ga, amlave_tasa, mas.i_ (ink) and ghr.ta. Verses 89-131 deal with the preparation of cosmetics and perfumes: candana-karan.am (nimbavr.ks.am, guggulam, rudhva_, mr.llavan.a shrunk in gajaput.a pa_ka); karpu_ra-karan.am (ra_ja_nna tandulam, gava_m ks.i_ra, karpu_ram, kadali_pus.pam, nirya_sa); java_di_na_m kastu_ri_karan.am (panasasya bi_ja, s'un.t.hi_, candanam, campakam, ke_taki_, malli_, ja_ti_pus.pam, kastu_ri_, s'uddhakarpu_ram, ja_va_di); kastu_ri_-karan.am (madhuka taila, tailam (tilo_ttham), mun.d.i_ dra_vam, mallika_, ma_lati_, ja_ti_, ke_taki_, s'atapatrika_, sikthakam, karpu_ram, ma_rja_raja_va_di, bakula pus.pa, ratnama_la_, kastu_ri_carma, musta_cu_rn.a, madana); kum.kuma-karan.am (i) (na_rike_rakapa_lam, nimbaka_s.t.hakam, rajani_ ca_tha, gairikam, rajani); kum.kuma-karan.am (ii)(pa_la_s'apus.pajam kva_tham, kharpara, tandulam, cunnam (vat.ika_h- kr.tva_); divyadhu_pa (i)(kastu_ri_, s'as'i, kum.kumam, nakha, ma_m.si_, sarjarasam, musta_, kr.s.n.a_guru, sita_, candanam: these ten powders are mixed and pounded with guggulu; s'ila_ya_m tailam); divyadhu_pa (ii)(pa_s.a_n.abhe_da cu_rn.am, guggulam, ma_m.si_, musta_, nakham bo_lam, candana, aguru, va_lakam, la_ks.a_, gud.am, sarjarasam, sita_, karpu_ram, kastu_ri, kum.kumam (pounded in ulu_khala), tila-tailam); pus.padruti (vajri_ks.i_ra, ja_ti_pus.pa, cu_rn.ita t.an:kan.am, ks.audram). [A work on alchemy (rasa-vidya_) called the Rasaratna_kara (c. 13th century AD) by Nityana_tha contains a verse [published in Chapter 9 of Va_di-khan.d.a -- also called r.ddhikhan.d.a in 1940 by Rajavaidya J.K. Shastri, pp. 159-171 dealing with the manufacture of ratnas (jewels) and cosmetics (gandhava_da); loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., p.88].

Ingredients for hair-dyes: Some of the ingredients mentioned in As.t.a_n:gahr.daya are: ro_cana_ (= go_ro_cana_ bezoar, gall-stone, serpent-stone), ka_cama_ci_ (= ka_kama_ci_, solanum nigrum, ka_n:go_n.i_), s'a_riva_ = s'a_riba_ [pa_n.d.hari_ ka_val.i_, Indian sarsaparilla (M.)]. (As.t.a_n:gahr.dayako_s.a (c. 8th or 9th century AD, by Va_gbhat.a II), Ed. by K. M. Vaidya, Trichur, 1936; loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 104-107).

Ingredients for hair-dyes: 'The Tenth chapter: Formulae for Hair Dyes: (892 and 893a in Ganga_dhara's Gandhasa_ra) A paste made of prapaun.d.ari_ka and... applied as a plaster, is a remedy for turning grey hair into black. (893b and 894a) Bamboo-manna, garden-nightshade shatapushpa_ (pencedanum graveolens), and sesamum-seeds if applied to the hair, cause them to become as black as antimony. (894b and 895a) Indigo (ni_lika_), rock-salt (saindhava), and long pepper (pippali_), made with water into a paste if applied to the hair, cause them to become as black as antimony. (895b and 896) First let the head be washed with chebulic (abhaya) and emblic (a_malaka) myrobalans; then prepare a paste of alambukam [alambusha_ sphaerantus indicus, la_ja_l.u bhe_da (M.)] and indigo, and with it, while warm, anoint the head; then the hairs will not turn grey. (897 and 898) Sulphate of copper [tuttham = kalkha_pari_ (M.)], mustam [cyperus rotundus, mo_tha_ nutgrass(M.)], suphate of iron [ka_si_sam = hi_ra_kas (M.)], bile of a turtle (kurmmapittam), powdered iron (ayo_raja), danti_ [baliospermum monatum; cf. danti_ croton plant, jatropha montana, ja_ma_lago_t.a (M.)], sahade_va (sida rhomboidea), and bhr.n:garaja [eclipta alba; traling eclipta, ma_ka_ (M.)], one part each, boiled with oil of beleric myrobalan [vibhi_taka; be_had.a_ (M.)], are a remedy for turning grey hair into black... (899 and 900) One prastha of the juice of bhr.n:gara_ja (eclipta alba), the same quantity of milk (payasa), and one pala of liquorice [madhuka; yas.t.i_madhu, sweet-wood; jye_s.t.hi_madham (M.)], boiled in one kud.ava of oil, will make even a crane to turn black... (901 and 902) Two pala of the roots of ra_matarun.a mu_la (rosa alba; ra_ma = as'o_ka) one pala of liquorice (madhuka), half a pala of s'a_baraka [symplocos racemosa; s've_taro_dhra (Lodh tree, white variety)], and ten pala of oil of beleric myrobalan [aks.a taila; aks.a = vibhi_taka; be_had.a_ (M.)], boiled by the heat of the sun in an iron vessel for ten days, and administered as an errhine (nasta)... (903 and 904) One prastha of the juice of emblic myrobalan (a_malaka rasa), the same quantity of clarified butter (sarppi = ghr.tam ghee), and one pala of liquorice (madhuka)-- all this together should be boiled over a gentle fire. Its application as an ointment will give sight to the blind... (907) Fruit of kakubha (terminalia arjuna), and two kud.ava of sesame-oil, and boil the whole in oil of beleric myrobalans (vibhi_taka)... (908)... so says Agastya, the best of teachers. (910-916) Take the three myrobalans (triphala = three myrobalans, hari_taki_, vibhi_taka, a_malaka), flowers of sahacara [barleria cristata; sahacara-patram = leaf of ni_lapus.pa jhin.t.i_, justicia ecbolium; ka_l.a_ ko_ran.t.a_ (M.)], ja_man (jambu_), ka_rs'marya [gmelina arborea; s'ivan.a, ga_mbha_ri_ vr.ks.a (M.)], flowers of kakubha [terminalia arjuna; fruit of arjunavr.ks.a; arjuna sa_dad.a_ (M.)] kernel of the mango (cu_taphala), and fruit of pin.d.a_raka [vangueria spinosa; fruit of vikan:kata tree; pin.d.a_ra = vikan:kata = Mauritius plum (Skt.lex.)], also sulphate of iron (ka_si_sa), flowers of asana (terminalia tomentosa), indigo (ni_li_), blue lotus (ni_lo_tpalam, nymphaea caerulea), knots of the root-stalk of the lotus [(visagranthi_); bisagranthi_ knot on the lotus stalk], sulphide of antimony [ajana; sulphide of lead, surama_ (M.)], black mould (kardama), and powdered iron (lo_hacu_rn.a; lo_ham also means aguru, agallochum), also both kan.t.aka_rika_ [rin:gan.i_ wild eggs plant (M.) = he_rali_ (M.)], both s'a_riva_, madayanti_ (jasminum sambac), juice of bhr.n:gara_ja (eclipta alba), and oil of beleric myrobalan (vibhi_taka). Mix the whole with a decoction of asana [(terminalia tomentosa); flower of kino tree; asan.a_ (M.); cf. gunda (kha_yara) from khadira tree]... add to it one half as much of s'ukta (sukta, vinegar), which had been kept placed in mudga (phaseolus mungo) and ma_s.a (phaseolus roxburghii)... (Chapter 10 of Navani_taka (Prakaran.a II c. 2nd century AD; trans. of Bower MS, by Dr. A.F.R. Hoernle, Calcutta, 1893, pp. 164-166; Verses 891 to 916) loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op cit., pp. 101-110). [madayanti_ may mean madayantika_ mentioned by Sus'ruta. Dallan.a (c. AD 1100) explains madayantika_ as me_ndi_ (henna), with the colour of which woman paint their finger-nails... Sus'ruta mentions madayantika_ an ingredient in an an:ga-ra_ga or unguent for royal use. (loc. cit. P.K. Gode, op. cit., p.106).

8129.Aromatic substances mentioned in Ganga_dhara's Gandhasa_ra:

agastya agati grandiflora

aguru aquilaria agallocha cf. vam.s'ika_

agnis'ikha_ plumbago zeylanica

aja_ ocimum americanum

abhaya_ terminalia chebula cf. pathya_, hari_taki_

amara eulophia campestris

arka, arka-valkala calotropis gigantea

arjuna terminalia arjuna

as'o_ka, as'o_ka-tvak sara indica

a_jya melted butter

a_malaki_ emblica officinalis cf. dha_tri_, vayastha_

a_mra mangifera indica cf. cu_ta, sahaka_ra

a_run.i_ phyllanthus rhamnoides

a_rdraka zingiber officinale

iks.u saccharum officinarum

indumada_rka essence of cinnamomum camphora (camphor) cf. candra, karpu_ra

indra, indra-tvak, s've_takut.aja wrightia tinctoria

utpaladala lotus-leaf

us'i_ra vetiveria zizanioides cf. va_la, vi_ran.a

e_ka_n:gi_ byorassus flabellifer cf. ta_la, ta_larasa

e_la_, e_la_tvak, e_la_va_luka, su_ks.maila_, sthu_laila_ elettaria cardamomum cf. ko_ran:gi_ cf. e_lava_luka, va_luka prunus cerasus

kaco_ra curcuma zedoaria cf. dravid.a, s'at.i_

kan.t.aka daemia extensa

kadamba, da_ru-kadamba, dhu_li-kadamba anthocephalus indicus

kanya_ (kuma_ri_) aloe barbadensis

kapi colocasia esculenta

kapittha feronia elephantum

kapila_ mallotus phillippinensis

karaja pongamia pinnata

karavi_ra nerium indicum

karisambhava rut

karkat.a murica cochin chinensis

karcu_ra hedychium spicatum

karpu_ra, karpu_ra-tvak, ra_ma-karpu_ra cinnamomum camphora cf. candra; indumada_rka, s'as'adhara

kalaka bambusa arundinacea

kas.n.a_ eleusine coracana

kase_ruka scirpus grossus

kastu_ri_ moschus moschiferus

kan:ko_la, pus.pakan:ko_la cubeba officinalis

ka_katun.d.a pentatropis capensis

ka_cana (dhattu_ra) datura metel

ka_nta_ meconopsis aculeata cf. vanita_

ka_nta_laka agave americiana

ka_rpa_sa gossypium indicum

ka_laskandha diospyros embryopteris

ki_re_s.t.ha punica granatum cf. kuca

kuku_raka taxus baccata cf. ga_t.hi_vana, granthiparn.a

kum.kuma crocus sativus cf. kusumbha

kuca punica granatum

kut.aja holarrhena antidysenterica

kunda jasminum multiflorum cf. sada_pus.pa

kunduruka boswellia serrata cf. sallaki_

kube_raka (kurabaka) barleria cristata

kumuda nymphaea stellata

ku_t.a, ko_s.t.ha, ko_s.t.ha_mbu, kus.t.ha, gandha-kus.t.ha, carma-kus.t.ha, bhadra-kus.t.ha saussurea lappa cf. gada

kusumbha crocus sativus cf. kum.kuma

kustumburu coriandrum sativum cf. dhan.iya_

ku_s.ma_n.d.a benincasa cerifera

ke_taki_, ke_taka-kusuma, ke_taka-patra pandanus odoratissimus cf. krakacacchada

ke_sara calophyllum inophyllum cf. pum.nna_ga

ko_ka kydia calycina

ko_drava paspalum scrobiculatum

ko_ran:gi_ (e_la_) elettaria cardamom cf. e_la_, triput.a_

ko_la (kula), ko_la-karn.i_ solanum xanthocarpum

ko_s'a, ko_s'a-patra, ko_s'a-lata_ commeline benghalensis

kaunti_, kunti_ piper aurantiacum cf. re_n.uka

kaus'ika (guggulu) commiphora roxburghii cf. guggulu

krakacacchada (ke_taki_) pandanus odoratissimus cf. ke_taki_

khadira acacia catechu cf. ta_mbu_la areca catechu

kharju_ra phoenix sylvestris

khasa andropogon muricatus

gaja (na_gake_sara) mesua ferrea cf. na_gake_sara

gajapus.pa (s'ata_vari_) asparagus raumosa

gada saussurea lappa cf. kus.t.ha

gandhaka sulphur

gandhama_dani_ sansevieria roxburghiana cf. mura_

ga_t.hi_vana, granthiparn.a taxus baccata cf. sthaun.e_yaka, kuku_raka

ga_laba symplocos chinensis cf. lo_dhra

guggula commiphora roxburghii cf. kaus'ika, jat.a_yu, pura

gud.a, se_hun.d.a, gud.ava_ri, vidyuta-gud.a, sarja-gud.a euphorbia nerifolia (molasses)

gundra_ typha elephantina

gu_d.hapus.pa, bho_las'ri_ mimusops elengi cf. bakula

go_ro_cana_ silicate of magnesia and iron

gauri_patri_ ocimum sanctum (basil) cf. tulasi_

granthi (pippali_) piper longum cf. cacala, capala

granthiparn.a taxus baccata cf. ga_t.hi_vana, kuku_raka, sthaun.e_yaka, ta_li_sa

granthila (kari_ra) capparis dicidua

ghana, ghana-tvaca_ cyperus rotundus cf. musta_, mustaka; cf. jalada

gho_s.aphala luffa acutangula

cacala, capala piper longum cf. granthi, ma_gadhi_

can.aka cicer arientinum

can.d.alavan:ga angelcia glauca

candana, s'ri_gandha, kucandana, candanapus.pa, rakta-candana, s'ri_-candana, hari-candana santalum album cf. barbaraka, malayaja, s'ri_khan.d.a

candra, candrapjala, candra-tvak, candra-mada, candra-rasa, candra_samada, indu, rajani_-karamada, s'as'a_n:ka-mada, s'as'i-mada cinnamomum camphora cf. karpu_ra, s'as'adhara

campaka, cala michelia champaca cf. suvarn.a-pus.pa

carmapatri_ gautharia fragrantissima

cu_ta, cu_tapatra, cu_ta-pus.pa, cu_ta-phala mangifera indica cf. a_mra, sahaka_ra

cu_rn.e_ndu camphor powder

ce_tika_ celastrus paniculatus

co_ra, co_raka, co_la angelica glauca cf. taskara

cha_ga vateria indica

jat.a_ nardostachys jatamansi cf. dhamani_

jat.a_yu commiphora wightti cf. pura

jambu_ syzygium jambos cf. lavan:ga syzygium aromaticum

jalada, jaladhara cyperus rotundus cf. ghana, musta_

jalamusta_ cyperus esculentus

ja_ti_, ja_ti_-kusuma, ja_ti_-ko_s.t.ha, ja_ti_-tvak, ja_ti_-putraka, ja_ti-s'astha jasminum officinale cf. ju_hi_, patri_

ja_ti_phala, ja_ti_-ko_s.a-phala, ja_yiphala myristica fragrans

ja_yapatri_ mace

ju_hi_ jasminum auriculatum cf. patri_, yu_thika_

t.an:kan.a pyrus communis

tagara valeriana wallichii cf. nata

taja cinnamomum cassia cf. tvak cassia bark

tama_la, tama_laka, tama_lapatra cinnamomum tamal cf. tapiccha, patra

taskara, ran.ataskara angelica glauca cf. co_ra, co_raka, co_la

tapiccha cinnamomum tamal cf. tama_la, patra

ta_mbu_la areca catechu cf. pu_ga areca catechu, khadira acacia catechu

ta_larasa, ta_la, ta_laks.i_ra, ta_laparn.i_ borassus flabelliformis cf. e_ka_n:gi_

ta_li_sa, ta_li_sapatra taxus baccata cf. granthiparn.a, ga_t.hi_vana, kuku_raka, sthaun.e_yaka, thun.e_ra_

tila sesamum indicum

turaga-gandha_, as'va-gandha_ withania somnifetra

turus.ka olibanum tree

tulasi_ ocimum sanctum cf. gauri_patri_, bhu_tagni_

te_javati_, te_jini_ zanthoxylon rhesta cf. valkala

tvak, tvak-patri_, tvak-s'r.n:ga cassia bark cf. taja cinnamomum cassia

triput.a_ elettaria cardamom cf. ko_ran:gi_, e_la_

thun.e_ra_ taxus baccata cf. ta_li_sa, ta_li_sapatra, granthiparn.a, ga_t.hi_vana, kuku_raka, sthaun.e_yaka, s'uka

danti_-mu_la baliospermum montanum

damana, damanaka artemisia vulgaris

du_rva_ cyndon dactylon

de_vada_ru, sura-da_ru cedrus deodara cf. pu_ti-ka_s.t.ha

dravid.a curcuma zedoaria cf. karcu_ra, kaco_ra, s'at.i_

dhan.iya_, dha_nya, dha_nyaka coriandrum sativum cf. kustumburu

dhamani_ nardostachys jatamansi cf. jat.a_, ma_m.si_

dha_tri_ emblica officinalis cf. a_malaki_, vayastha_

dhu_pa, dhya_maka, paura-dhya_maka cymbopogon schoenanthus cf. ro_hisa

nakha, nakhi_ ipomodea eriocapra cf. vya_ghra-nakha

nata, nata_pati, natapatra valeriana wallichii cf. tagara

nalini_ lotus

nali_ hibiscus cannabinus

na_gake_sara, na_ga-ja_ti_pus.pa, na_gapatraka, na_gaphala mesua ferrea cf. gaja, bhujan:ga

na_ri_, as'vabala_ medicago sativa

na_lika_ a kind of fragrant grass cf. nali_ hibiscus cannabinus

nimba azadirachta indica

ni_pa anthocephalus indicus

ni_li_ indigofera tinctoria

patra, patrika_, patra-tvak, patra-kva_tha, patrika_cchada cinnamomum tamal cf. tapiccha, tama_la

patraka tamarix dioica

patri_ jasminum auriculatum cf. ja_ti_, ju_hi_, priyamvada_, yu_thika_

pathya_, patha_ terminalia chebula cf. abhaya_, hari_taki_, pu_tana_

padma, padmagandhi, utpalagandhi, padmadhu_li, padmare_nu, padma-ra_ga nelumbo nucifera cf. s'a_lu_ka, kamala-kanda

padmaka prunus cerasoides

pala_s'a butea frondosa

pa_t.ala, pa_t.ala_ stereospermum suaveolens

pa_rija_ta nyctanthes aroortristis cf. s'e_pha_li

picuka celosia argentea

pi_tadruma berberis aristata

pura (guggula) commiphora wightii cf. kaus'ika, jat.a_yu

pum.nna_ga calophyllum inophyllum cf. ke_sara

pus.kara costus speciosus

pu_ga, pu_gi_phala areca catechu cf. ta_mbu_la; khadira acacia catechu

pu_tana_ terminalia chebula cf. abhaya_, pathya_, hari_taki_

pu_ti-ka_s.t.ha cedrus deodar cf. de_vada_ru

pauttikam basella rubra

prahasanti_ hiptage bengalensis cf. ma_dhavi_, ma_dhavi_-lata_

priyan:gu aglaia roxburghiana

priyamvada_ jasminum auriculatum cf. ja_ti_, patri_

priya_, priyaka, mudgara_ jasminum sambac cf. bhu_padi_

bakula mimusops elengi cf. gu_d.hapus.pa, bho_las'ri_

bandhumu_la, bandhuji_va pentapetes phoenicia

barbara, bo_la commiphora myrrha

barbaraka,sugandhi-barbari_ santanum album cf. candana, malayaja, s'ri_khan.d.a

ba_kuci_ psoralea carylifolia

ba_n.abhr.n:ga barleria prionitis Synonym: kuran.t.aka

ba_la-jin:gika_ rubia cordifolia cf. majis.t.ha_

bilvaka, bilva, bilva-pus.pa, sura-bilva aegle marmelos cf. ma_lu_ra, s'a_n.d.ilya

bi_ja-pu_ra citrus medica

bo_la commiphora myrrha cf. barbara

bhalla_taka-phala semecarpus anacardium

bhujan:ga, bhujan:ga-nirmo_ka mesua ferrea cf. na_ga-ke_sara

bhu_ta dolichos soja

bhu_taghni_ ocimum sanctum cf. tulasi_, gauri_patri_, vr.nda_

bhu_padi_ (mudgara_) jasminum sambac cf. priya_, mallika_

bhr.n:ga, bhr.n:ga-ka_ma, bhr.n:ga-re_n.u, bhr.n:ga_ra eclipta protrata

majis.t.ha rubia cordifolia cf. ba_la-jin:gika_, yo_jana-valli_

mada, ran.a-mada phaseolus mung

madana randia dumetorum

madayantika_ lawsonia inermis

madhu, madhu-gandha, madhu-gandha_mbu glycyrrhiza glabra

madhuri foeniculum vulgare cf. mis'i

marica piper nigrum (black pepper)

maru, maruvaka origanum majorana

malayaja, malayava santalum album cf. candana

malli_, mallika_ (mudgara_) jasminum sambac cf. bhu_padi_, priya_

ma_s.a-parn.i_, maha_saha_ teramnus labialis

ma_gadhi_ piper longum cf. pippali_, granthi, capala, cacala, s'ya_ma_

ma_tulun:ga, lin:ga citrus decumana

ma_lati_ jasminum arborescenes

ma_lu_ra aegle marmelos cf. bilva, s'a_n.d.ilya

ma_m.si_, ma_m.si_-rasa, jat.a_ma_m.si_ nardostachys jatamansi cf. dhamani_, jat.a_

mis'i, misi, misi-ko_s'a foeniculum vulgare cf. madhuri_, saum.ph

mucukunda pterospermum acerifolium

musta_, mustaka, gandha-musta_, bhadra-musta_ cyperus rotundus cf. ghana, jalada, mo_tha

mura_, maurvi_ sansevieria roxburghiana cf. gandha-ma_dani_

mr.ga-na_bhi, mr.ga-mada, kastu_ri, mr.ga-gandha, mr.gi_kamada moschus moschiferus (musk)

mo_tha, maha_-mo_tha cyperus rotundus cf. musta_, ghana, jalada

yava hordeum vulgare (barley)

yuvati, tarun.i_ rosa centifolia

yu_thika_, yu_thi_ jasminum auriculatum cf. patri_, ja_ti_, ju_hi_, priyamvada_

yo_jana-valli_ rubia cordifolia cf. majis.t.ha_, ba_la-jin:gika_

ravi (pippala), ravi-ka_nta, ravi-ko_s.ha_mbu, ravi-phala, ravi-ko_s'a, patra-ravi, ravyambu, ravisr.gjalam ficus religiosa

ra_tripus.pi_, rajani_gandha_ polianthes tuberosa

ra_la shorea robusta cf. sarja vateria indica

re_n.uka piper aurantiacum cf. kaunti_, kunti_

ro_hisa, ro_his.a cymbopogon schoenanthus cf. dhu_pa, dhya_maka, paura-dhya_maka

lata_-kastu_ri_ abelmoschus moschatus

lava, la_va, lavan:ga, lavan:ga-tvak syzgium aromaticum

lavali_ cicca acida

las'una allium sativum

la_ks.a_ cateria lacca

la_majaka andropogon iwarancusa

lo_dhra symplocos chinensis cf. ga_labha, s'a_bara

vaca_ acorus calamus

vanita_ meconopsis aculeata cf. ka_nta_

varn.ika_ ficus gibbosa

vayastha_ emblica officinalis cf. a_malaki_, dha_tri_

valkala, valkala_ zanthoxyion rhesta cf. te_javati_, te_jasvini_

vam.s'ika_ aquilaria agallocha cf. aguru

va_ni_ra, jala-ve_tasa salix tetrasperma

va_rs.ika_, tra_yama_n.a_ gentiana kurro royle

va_la, va_la_, va_laka vetiveria zizanioides cf. us'i_ra

va_luka prunus cerasus Homonym: cf. e_la-va_luka elettaria cardamomum

vi_ran.a vetiveria zizanioides cf. va_la, us'i_ra

vr.nda_ ocimum sanctum cf. tulasi_, bhu_ta_gni_, gauri_patri_

vya_ghranakha ipomodea eriocarpa cf. nakha

s'an:kha, s'an:kha-ks.a_ra, s'an:kha-cu_rn.a turbinella rapa

s'at.i_, s'at.hi_ curcuma zedoaria cf. karcu_ra, dravid.a, kaco_ra

s'atapus.pi_, ghan.t.a_-rava crotalaria verrucosa

s'ata_hva_ peucedanum graveolens

s'ara, muja saccharum benghalense

s'as'a-dhara, s'as'i-gandha, s'as'i-tvak, s'as'ina_bhi, s'as'imada cinnamomum camphora cf. candra, indumada_raka, karpu_ra

s'a_n.d.ilya aegle marmelos cf. bilva, ma_lu_ra, s'ailu_s.a

s'a_bara symplocos chinensis cf. ga_laba, lo_dhra

s'a_li_, s'a_lija, vana-s'a_lija oryza sativa

s'a_lu_ka nelumbo nucifera cf. kamala-kanda, padma

s'ikhan.d.i_ ficus bengalensis cf. ravi ficus religiosa

s'igru, s'igru-gandha, s'igru-mu_la, s'igru-rasa moringa oleifera

s'im.s'apa_ dalbergia sissoo

s'uka taxus baccata cf. thun.e_ra_, ta_li_sa, ta_li_sapatra, granthiparn.a, ga_t.hi_vana, kuku_raka, sthaun.e_yaka

s'uka_hva_ corallocarpus epigaeus

s'e_pha_li, s'e_pha_lika_, pa_rija_ta nyctanthes arbortristis

s'ailu_s.a aegle marmelos cf. s'a_n.d.ilya, bilva, ma_lu_ra, s'ri_va_sa

s'ya_ma_ piper longum cf. ma_gadhi_, pippali_, granthi, capala, cacala

s'ri_khan.d.a santanum album cf. barbaraka, sugandhi-barbari_ santanum album cf. candana, malayaja

s'ri_va_sa aegle marmelos, cf. s'ailu_s.a, s'a_n.d.ilya, bilva, ma_lu_ra

saktr. prospis cineraria

sajja_ pennisetum typhoideum

sada_pus.pa jasminum multiflorum cf. kunda

sarala pinus roxburghii

sarja, sarja-gud.a, sarja-da_ru, sarja-rasa, vana-sarja, s'ri_-sarja vateria indica

sars.apa brassica campestris

sallaki_, s'allaki_ boswellia serrata cf. kunduruka

sahaka_ra mangifera indica cf. a_mra, cu_ta

sa_ran.i_, prasa_ran.i_ paedaria foetida

sa_la, s'a_laparn.i_ desmodium gangeticum

silhaka, silha_, silha_-rasa, silha_lava, silho_ta liquidambar orientalis

surataru, surada_ru, surada_ru-taila, sura-pus.pa cedrus deodara cf. pu_ti-ka_s.t.ha, de_vada_ru

suvarca_ helianthus annus (sunflower)

suvarn.a-ta_li_ cassia fistula

suvarn.a-pus.pa michelia champaca cf. campaka, cala

sauvi_ra, ra_ja-badara zizyphus sativa

saum.ph foeniculum vulgare cf. madhuri_, misi

sthaun.e_yaka taxus baccata cf. s'uka, thun.e_ra_, ta_li_sa, ta_li_sapatra, granthiparn.a, ga_t.hi_vana, kuku_raka

spr.kka_ anisomelus malabarica

svarn.apus.pa jasminum humile

hari_taki_, kus.t.ha-hari_taki_ terminalia chebula cf. pu_tana_, abhaya_, pathya_

hare_n.u, vartula-kala_ya pisum sativum

haladi, haridra curcuma longa

hin:gu ferula fotida

hin:gula, in:guda balanites roxburghii

(From : D.C. Sircar, Indian Epigraphical Glossary, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1966).


The compilation of the glossary is based on the indices and glossaries contained in the following works:

A.R. Ep. Annual Report on (Indian or South Indian) Epigraphy

ASLV Administration and Social Life under Vijayanagara, T. V. Mahalingam, pp. 418-76.

BL Bhandarkar List A List of Inscriptions of Northern India in Bra_hmi_ and its derivative Scripts from about 200 A.C., D.R. Bhandarkar, Appendix to the Epigraphica Indica, Vols. XIX-XXIII, pp. 297-365.

Chamba Antiquities of Chamba State, Part II, B. Ch. Chhabra, pp. 180-193.

CII Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vols. I to IV.

CITD Corpus of Inscriptions in the Telingana DIstricts of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, P. Sreenivasachar, Part II, pp. 201-12.

EI Epigraphica Indica, Volmes I, II, VI and XII (Indices).

HA Holy Abu, Muni Jayantavijaya, tr. by U.P. Shah, pp. 198-204.

HD History of Dharmas'a_stra, P. V. Kane, Vol. III, pp. 975-1007.

HRS Hindu Revenue System, U. N. Ghoshal, pp. 289 ff.

IA Indian Antiquary, Vols. VIII, XV, XX (Indices).

IE Indian Epigraphy, D. C. Sircar.

LL Luders' List A list of Bra_hmi_ Inscriptions, H. Luders, Appendix to the Epigraphica Indica, Vol. X, pp. 213-24.

LP Lekhapaddhati, Gaekwad Oriental Series, No. XXI, pp. 97-128.

ML Majumdar's List A List of Kharos.t.hi_ Inscriptions, N. G. Majumdar in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, New Series, Vol. XX, 1924, pp. 35-39.

PJS Pra_ci_na Jaina-lekha Sandoha, Muni Jayantavijaya, p. 61.

SII South Indian Inscriptions, Vols. I, III, and XII, Part ii.

SITI South Indian Temple Inscriptions, T. N. Subramanian, Vol. III, Part ii, pp. i-civ (Annexure).

8130.a_bha_vya (EI 11,16) income or proceeds; cf. ra_ja-ra_ja-purus. a_dibhih- svam. svam = a_bha_vyam. parihartavyam; cf. the income (a_bha_vya) derived from the loads on bullocks going on their way or coming to Na_d.la_i (Ep. Ind., Vol. XI, p.36).

8131.abhaya-s'a_sana grant of shelter; charter of security; a deed offering protection; a grant recording the provision of shelter (EI 12, 27; SITI).

8132.abhija_na a token by which the identity of a person is recognised (LP).

8133.a_bot.i_ an inferior class of bra_hman.as in Rajasthan (EI 11).

8134.acala-pravr.tti a kind of tenure; probably, a permanent holding (SII 11-1).

8135.a_ca_rya an archiect; used in the sense of 'a master', i.e. 'a master-mason (EI 8; IA 14); a_ca_rya (Pali) = a master goldsmith.

8136.accu Tamil (IE 8-8; SITI) name of a coin; cf. a_nai-accu, nall-a_nai-accu, par..a-mudal-a_nai-accu, par..ajala_gai-accu, paduccala_gai-accu, amudan-accu, un.d.i-accu; var..udiy-accu-varggam (SITI) a group of taxes payable in Pa_n.d.ya coins; yakki-accu (SITI) from Sanskrit yaks.i_; name of a coin current in the Kon:gu country; accupanna_yadadhis.t.ha_yaka Kannad.a (IE 8-3) superintendent of the revenue from mints; also called maha_sa_manta_dhipati, maha_pradha_na, bha_nasvergad.e. akkam (SII 3; SITI) Tamil name of a coin; one twelfth of a ka_s'u; a ming; akka-s'a_la_ (SITI) Tamil-Skt. a mint. agasa_i (EI 28) a goldsmith = aks.as'a_lin; akhasa_li (EI 7). aks.a = suvarn.a; aks.a-pat.ala (BL) the department of records and accounts or accounts office. aks.a_va_pa, aks.as'a_lika (HD) an officer in charge of the gambling-hall. arka metal (EI 7).

8137.a_d.a, ad.d.a (CITD), Telugu; a measure of capacity equal to 2 ma_nikas or one-eighth of a tu_m; half, especially half of a fanam or a certain measure called kucamu; a weight representing the eighteenth portion of a vara_ha.

8138.a_da_n.aka, ad.d.a_n.aka (LP) cf. a_da_n.ake mukta_ mortgaged; valita_ya a_da_n.ake muktam, Gujara_ti_ var..at da_n. mukyum. = something mortgaged, the produce of which will pay off the debt in course of time; cf. gr.h-a_d.d.a_n.aka-patra (LP) deed for mortgaging a house. a_dhi (SII 2; LP) a mortgage or deposit; a_dhau kr.tam mortgaged.

8139.a_da_ya (EI 33) income or impost; cf. visen.im-a_da_ya (EI 21) name of a tax. a_deya (EI 7, 12, 15; CII 3) what is taken or levied; a fiscal term = a_da_ya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p. 237).

8140.a_d.ha (IE 8-6), a_d.hika, a_d.haka a land measure also called a_d.ha_va_pa, a_d.hakava_pa (IE 8-6) an area of land requiring one a_d.haka measure of seed grains for being sown. a_d.haka = 264 handfuls or 1/4 dron.a; 16 to 20 seers according to Bengali authors.

8141.adhi, adhika_ra, adhika_rin (LP; SII 1) a revenue officer like the ma_mlatda_r. Tamil adiga_ram (EI 25) a magistrate. adhikaran.a (IE 8-1, 8-8; EI 28) an office; adhikaran.-a_va-dha_ran.a_ official investigation (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p.267). adhikaran.a-lekhaka (HD) the official recorder or scribe (who drew up deeds of sale and the like after having measured the land to be sold)[Ra_jataran:gin.i_, VI. 38). adhika_rin = ve_rgad.e (Kannad.a) = adhyaks.a (Skt.) = superintendent, governor or director. adhis.t.ha_na, adhisha_na (CII 1); cf. dharm-a_dhistha_na the establishment of morality. adhis.t.ha_na (IE 8-3; EI 24, 28, 31; LL) the capital or headquarters of an administrative unit; a city or town; the chief city. adhyaks.a (EI 24; CII 4) the head of a department (Ep. Ind. Vol. XXXI, p. 80).

8142.aga seven (IE 7-1-2); earth or land (SII 3).

8143.a_gama-nigama-da_na tax for importing and exporting (LP).

8144.a_ga_min (IE 8-5; EI 19; SITI) future income, future benefits; one of the 8 kinds of rights in the property; as.t.a-bhoga (IE 8-5; EI 14,17) privileges of the donee of a rent-free holding, enumerated in 8 classes : nidhi, niks.epa, jala, pa_s.a_n.a, aks.i_n.in, siddha and sa_dhya; eight privileges associated with the enjoyment of rent-free land are enumerated as: nidhi, nids.epa, jala, pa_s.a_na, aks.i_n.a, a_ga_min, sacita, taru i.e. (1) a treasure or a hoard, e.g. a mine; (2) a treasure hidden or stored up by some one; (3) waters; (4) stones or hilly areas; (5) permanent or lasting benefits; (6) future benefits; (7) benefits already stored up; (8) trees. cf. as.t.a-bhoga-tejah--sva_mya (IE 8-5; EI 16) ownership endowed with complete authority; translated as 'with the eight rights of full possession'; as.t.a probably means 'all'.

8145.as.t.a_das'a-ja_ti (CITI) 18 castes; Kittel enumerates the 18 castes of the Kannad.a speaking areas: bra_hman.a, ks.atriya, vais'ya, lin:gavanta, ban.ajige, gan:gad.ika_ra-vokkaliga, mad.iva_li, kelasiga, kur-uba, kumba_r-a, kat.uka, bad.agi, akkasa_le_, toerya, uppa_ra, besta, holeya and ma_diga.

8146.adhi-va_sa living in the vicinity; adhiva_sa-sakti_ya (LP) neighbours.

8147.a_gha_t.a (EI 16) boundary; a_gha_t.ana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 264); a_gha_t.i_ (EI 23).

8148.a_ha_ra (IE 8-4; EI 27; CII 1,3,4) a district; a_haran.i_ (IE 8-4; EI 16) a district or its subdivision; a_ha_ra-vis.aya (IE 8-4).

8149.a_ja_ (IE 8-3; EI 27; BL; CII 3) an order or command; the office of the du_taka, who also has the responsibility to give the donee the possession of the gift land (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 362); a_japtti, a_ja_pti the agency that obtains the command; the executor of a grant; cf. Tamil va_y-kkel.vi.

8150.a_kars.aka (EI 5) probably, the extent (of a piece of land).

8151.a_li (CHamba) wet land, irrigable land; also called kohli_, opposed to otad.a dry land, unirrigable land. cf. ali_paka a fiscal expression (of uncertain import) nidha_n-a_li_paka (EI 32).

8152.ama_nta (CII 3) the technical name for the scheme of the lunar months in Southern India, according to which a month ends with the new-moon day, and the bright fortnight precedes the dark.

8153.amara (SITI; ASLV) land or revenue granted by a ruler to his retainers for military service; land assigned to military officers who were entitled to collect only certain revenues with the obligation to raise a contingent of army ready for service whenever called upon and also to pay tribute to the king; same as amara-ma_gan.i estate given to amara-na_yaka a retainer chief enjoying amara.

8154.am.hati, am.hiti a gift (EI 4).

8155.am.s'a a small territorial unit (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 297).

8156.an.d.ika_ weight equal to 1/4 of a ma_s.a; same as copper pan.a; also called dha_naka and regarded as equal to 4 ka_rs.a_pan.as or to 1/12th suvarn.a.

8157.an:ga-bhoga pin-money for the decoration of the image of a deity (EI 17; CITD).

8158.an:gad.a-siddha_ya (CITD) Telugu-Skt. fixed income from shops.

8159.an:ka (IA 19) a name, appellation or biruda; an:ka abbreviation of an:kaka_r-a Te. Ka. = gan.d.a (Skt.) a hero, champion or warrior (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 270); a soldier or warrior who took a vow to defend his master and fight in the latter's cause to death. anaka, anika_ (EI 20) Prakrit suffixes to male and female names respectively, known from early South Indian inscriptions; same as annaka, annika_.

8160.anubhoga-ppor-r--or..uku (SITI) Skt. Ta. renewal of title deeds.

8161.a_pan.a a shop (IE 8-5); a market (CII 4).

8162.abohana (SITI), waste or cultivated; cf. Ta. agovana waste land.

8163.araghat.t.a (EI 10, 14, 22) a water-drawing machine; a well with a water-wheel.

8164.a_rca_ (EI 24) the image of a god; arca_ adoration.

8165.ari six (IE 7-1-2); ari-s.ad.-varga, ari-s.at.ka the group of six enemies (CII 3).

8166.aruvan.a (IA 19), a_ruvan.a (EI 27) the tax of six pan.as levied on ma_nya lands.

8167.arn.ika_ weight equal to 2 ma_s.as.

8168.a_si_ha_ra probably, a kind of channel cf. sa-vanaspaty-udak-a_si_ha_ra-kullaka-pa_ni_ya-same_ta (IE 8-5) 'together with the fruit-trees and with the water-courses and channels'.

8169.astamba cf. samudaya-ba_hy-a_dy-astamba (EI 23) land originally devoid of vegetation which does not yield any revenue to the state. at.t.agam (SII 13) division of land.

8170.asti (Ep., Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 302) a mere particle used to introduce the narration of a grant.

8171.atapika (LL) a Jain monk.

8172.a_t.avika (Ep., Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 303) a kind of grain.

8173.at.ha-ga_ni_ a coin equal to a t.an:ka; there are do-ga_ni_ (1/4 t.an:ka), cau-ga_ni_ (3/4 t.an:ka), ba_rah-ga_ni_ (1 1/2 t.an:ka), caubi_s-ga_ni_ (3 t.an:kas), ad.ota_lis-ga_ni_ (6 t.an:ka).

8174.Escorting fee: a_tiva_hika (HRS) escorting fee paid by the merchants.

8175.atri (IE 7-1-2) seven.

8176.at.t.apati-bhoga share of the market-master (HRS).

8177.at.u (Chamba) a land measure; jilo (Chamba) a land measure.

8178.atyaya (HRS) prescribed fine.

8179.autkhet.ika, utkhet.ayita_ (EI 12; BL; HRS) Assamese records: a tax collector; utkhet.ana an impost levied upon the villagers on specified occasions.

8180.avada_ra (EI 13) cf. pas'ukul-a_vada_ra-karma_nta-kan.akalika_- gan:ga_gra_me; possibly a 'pound' or a 'pen'.

8181.a_van.a (SITI) Tamil: a document; generally a sale-deed; a_van.a-kkal.ari (SITI) a place where documents like sale-deedes etc., are registered. a_va_ra (IE 8-5) cf. a_pan.es.u-a_va_rah- collections to be made from the shops in a market. a_varta cf. sarv-a_varta-yuta_ assigned as the date of payment as it falls annually (Ep., Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 310).

8182.avasara (Ep., Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 347) one of the periods when the worship is performed and offerings are made to the deity in a temple.

8183.avada_na, a_vada_na, a_vedana (EI 28) od.iya_ records; tax in general (Ep., Ind., Vol. XXX, p.115).

8184.a_ya (EI 33; CII 3; SII 1,2) a fiscal term 'revenue, tax'; (SITI) income; general term denoting 'taxes'; cf. var..iy-a_yam (SITI) tolls on the roadway; (CITD) profit, income, reeip; tribute; corn given by the well-to-do villagers to the hereditary servants of the villages as their established fees of office. a_ya_ga-sabha_ (SITI) administration of a village by a group of officers called a_ya_ga_r (village officers and servants). a_ya-s'ulka (EI 33) taxes and tolls. a_yikta (CII 4; HD) lit. 'an officer'. cf. Pa_n.ini (II, 3,40) a servant or office.

8185.a_yaka (EI 21; LL) the entrance pavilion of a Buddhist monastery. a_yatana (EI 30) a temple or shrine.

8186.ba_guli, va_guli od.iya: the bearer of the king's betlel-box; va_rgulika (IE 8-3; EI 28; BL); vet.akila (IE 8-3) prob. the bearer of vit.ika_ (betel); influenced by pat.t.akila village headman.

8187.ba_hya cf. ba_hy-abhyantar-a_da_ya (IE 8-5; Ep. Ind., Vol. XVI, p. 276) income from the sale of things imported in a village; same as Tamil pur-av-a_yam (SITI) revenue from external sources (collected mainly in cash).

8188.bali (IE 8-5; HRS) voluntary gift and tribute from the subjects as indicated by Vedic literature; king's grain share, identical with bha_ga but different from kara (pilgrim's tax).

8189.bandha_n.a (Chamba) a settlement; an agreement.

8190.behara_-maha_pa_tra (EI 28) od.iya: official designation; prob. same as vyavaha_rika (EI 7, 32) an administrator; vyavaha_rika, vyava (LP) a dealer, a money-lender, a merchant; vyavaha_ra-patra a deed relating to a loan or debt; vyavaha_ra-pade (LP) a tax from merchants.

8191.bha_ga grain share; bhoga periodical offerings (HRS); bha_gin (EI 24) a collector of the king's grain share. bhoga lit. enjoyment; possession; property, a ja_gi_r; a territorial unit (IE 8-4; EI 25; CII 4), bhogin, bhogika the owner of a bhoga. bhogapati an officer in charge of ina_m lands or ja_gi_r. bhoktr. id. (Ep., Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p.193); a proprietor (BL); bhokta_ri (EI 11) a free-holder. bhoga-patra (ASLV, SITI) a deed recording conveyance of land; a lease deed; the deed of re-conveyance of land. bhog-a_yaka land held as the result of a mortgage. bhogikapa_la (EI 5; CII 4; BL) superintendent of the ja_gi_r and cess collector. bhogi_na (EI 13) cf. dattida_yaka-sa_dhupratipa_dita-pra_g-bhujyama_n-a_vicchinna-bhogi_na-bhuva_m of the pieces of land in all the places that have been obtained in good manner from liberal donors or (land) under possession. bhog-oddharan.ika (HD) collector of the king's share of the grains. bhoja, bhojaka (IE 8-2; EI 1; 27; HD; LL) a ja_gi_rda_r; title of a feudatory; maha_-bhoja a feudatory ruler; cf. pos'ar (SITI) one who enjoys a thing; the possessor. bhukti (IE 8-4; EI 28, 33) a province including a group of districts called vis.aya or man.d.ala; small territorial unit like a pargana in South India. bhukti (BL) personal property. Tamil: putti, pukti (SITI) enjoyment of a property.

8192.bhakt-a_da_ya (SII 1) same as Tamil pakt-a_da_yam (SITI) revenue in rice or paddy; bhakta-gra_ma, bhatta-gra_ma provision-village; village granted for maintenance (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, pp. 8,92). bhakti_ (EI 8) name of a land measure. bhan:ga (Chamba) a land measure; a share or portion.

8193.bha_s.a_ (IE 8-8; EI 30) prob. a written declaration.

8194.bham. (PJS) abbreviation of bhan.d.a_rin (esp. medieval Jain inscriptions); bhan.d.a, bha_n.d.a (EI 5) a bale of goods; bham.d.i (CITD) a cart; a cart load; bha_n.d.a_ga_r-a_dhikr.ta (EI 12; BL; HRS) an officer employed in the treasury or store-house or the officer in charge of it. Tamil: cf. pan.d.a_ra-kkal (SITI) stone of standard weight used in the treasury; pan.d.a_ra-kkan:ka_n.i treasury officer, supervisor of the treasury; ban.d.a_ra-ppottagam (EI 25) lit. account book of the treasury; a treasury accountant.

8195.bhat.t.a (medieval inscriptions of Eastern India), bhat.a (IE 8-3; CII 3,4; EI 30; HD) a soldier; a pa_ik, barkanda_z or pia_da, i.e. a constable; bhat.t.a-na_yaka (EI 9) chier of a district; pat.t.a-na_yaka (medieval Orissan epigraphs). cf. Ta. por-r-u official designation (EI 25). bhat.t.a_raka (IE 8-2; CII 3; EI 30) often suffixed to the personal names of paramount sovereigns as well as of feudatory maha_ra_jas or yuvara_jas (crown-princes); applied to gods and priests in the sense of 'worthy of worship or sacred'. Tamil pat.t.a_rikai (SITI) name of the goddess Durga_.

8196.bhauli, bhauli_ (Chamba) a share, a portion or allotment.

8197.bha_vya, cf. ra_ja-bha_vya-sarva-pratya_ya-sameta (EI 23) income, levies; same as a_bha_vya = pa_ghd.i_ = tala_r-a_bha_vya (EI 11) tax for payment to the tala_ra or kotwa_l (LP). tala_ra (IE 8-3; EI 22; LP; BL; HD) administrator of a city or prefect of the city police; talavara, tala_ri_, kotwa_l. Talavara of early south Indian inscriptions means a ra_jastha_ni_ya (a Duke or a viceroy) or a kotwa_l (city magistrate). A sub-divion of high class khatris of the Punjab is called ta_lwa_r. tala_va_t.aka (CII, Vol. III, p. 216) possibly the superintendent of temple property, same as Gujara_ti_ tala_t.i_ (a petty revenue officer)(HD).

8198.bhet (IA 11) Punjabi: low lands inundated by rivers.

8199.bhet.a (IE 8-5; EI 29) presents to be offered by a subject or subordinate to a ruler on occasions; same as vanda_pana_; bhet.ana (LP) a present or gift.

8200.bhu_ (IA 17) a land measure or a plot of land (EI 9); equal to four bhu_-ma_s.akas; bhu_mi (EI 3; CII 3) a particular land measure; a territorial divion (CII 4). bhu_mi-cchidra-nya_ya (IE 8-5; EI 30; CII 3,4; HRS) lit. the maxim of the fallow land; the principle of the rent-free enjoyment of land by one who brings it under cultivation for the first time (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIX, p. 86). Old custom allows a person who first brings a plot of fallow land or jungle land under cultivation for the first time, to enjoy it without paying rent.

8201.bhu_mipen.d.e a mark of honour (ASLV).

8202.bhu_ta-p(v)a_ta-pratya_ya (CII 4) excise and octroi duties; lit. the income resulting from storms, earthquakes, changes in the course of a river; pa_ta may be = upa_tta or va_ta.

8203.bigha_, bi_gha_ (IE 8-6) a land measure. bi_sva (EI 28) a land measure equal to 1/20 of a bi_gha_; cf. Skt. vim.s'opaka

8204.bi_jaka, cf. bi_jak (EI 9) an inscribed stone or an inscription.

8205.bilkod.e (EI 28) Ka. tolls.

8206.biruda (SII 1), viruda a surname.

8207.bis'i_ (EI 24) < vis.ayin the governor of a district.

8208.bittuvat.t.a (A.R. Ep., 1958-59, p. 10) Ka. (bittukat.t.e) a portion of the produce derived from the lands irrigated by tanks, or wet land irrigated by a tank, granted to the person who built the tank or repaired it.

8209.bod.iya_ local name of the Gujara_ti_ alphabet.

8210.bot.a, vot.a (CII 3) a termination of geographical names.

8211.bud.ha_len:ka_ (IE 8-3) od.iya_: same as maha_pa_damu_lika, chief attendant.

8212.bullaga-kara (HRS) tax relating to the supervision of meals.

8213.caba (Chamba) wet land, marshy land.

8214.ca_d.a (IE 8-3) head of a Pargana_. ca_t.a (HD) an important privilege of a gift village was 'not to be entered by ca_t.as and bhat.as' except for seizing robbers and those guilty of harm or treason to the king; prob. irregular soldiers. ca_d.a_ (LP) a camp; an attacking party. ca_t.a is used in inscriptions in the sense of a royal official.

8215.cakra a district; cakrin (EI 4) the ruler of a cakra (circle) or district; title of a provincial ruler (EI 4, 19); cakravartin (IE 8-2; EI 21, 28; CII 3,4) a title of paramount sovereignty; the title of an emperor.

8216.ca_li_ (IA 15) a system of land revenue.

8217.caran.d.i (EI 31) G. a narrow passage of water.

8218.cari_ (EI 33) pasture land; grazing tax (EI 21); grazing land. G. ca_ro grass; ca_ri_ (LP) pasture land; grazing tax.

8219.ca-t.i_ abbrev. of an expression 'a mound suitable for planting trees' (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 56).

8220.caturdhara-prati_ha_ra cf. Ka. sodare-vadiyara chief of the royal guards; caudhari in Ka. written as saudore, saudare, caudore, cavudore, cavudari an officer of the royal guard. caudhari_ used in medieval Jain inscriptions.

8221.cavala, cavela (EI 6) name of a coin, 1/8 of a pagoda; ca_mara-ma_d.a (EI 7) name of a coin.

8222.cha (PJS) written as a mark indicating the end of a section of a record or of the whole of it.

8223.chan:ga a measure of grain (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 310).

8224.ci-khi abbrev. of cira-khila (land) never brought under cultivation (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 56).

8225.ci_rika_ (EI 26) a document; cf. kraya-ci_rika_ a deed of purchase.

8226.cit.ala_ (IE 8-5), cot.a_la, cit.ola a tax.

8227.citra-mel.i (SITI), s'ittiramel.i an organization of agriculturists; agricultural corporation of the vel.l.a_l.as.

8228.collika (EI 3), collika_ (EI 10) a load (of leaves); a quantity of betel leaves.

8229.cullaka a pot, a cooking pot (IE 8-5)

8230.cumbaka (EI 13) the balance.

8231.cu_rn.i (EI 29, 33) one hundred cowrie-shells = a pura_n.a or ka_rs.a_pan.a (ka_han.).

8232.da_na_, da_na (ML) a gift; (HRS) known from Maitraka records to mean the so-called voluntary gifts of subjects. da_n.a (IE 8-5; LP) road-cess; customs duties. da_ya a gift to bra_hman.as or temples; da_ni_ land tax. da_n-a_dhika_rin (EI 12) officer in charge of gifts, mentioned along with s'a_san-a_dhika_rika officer in charge of grants (or their writing). da_na-vola_pana (LP) G. vala_van.um. tax. vola_pika (LP) an officer in charge of collecting the tax called vola_pana or vula_vi_. A vola_paka or the men under him accompanied the merchants in their journey for the safety of their goods and the vola_pana tax was collected from the merchants for safeguarding their goods. da_n.i_ (HRS) cf. Caulukya records; 'king's dues'; perquisite of the collector of the duties called da_n.a; da_ni_ (IE 8-5; EI 26) officer collecting tax or corn; officer storing the corn collected as tax from the farmers. da_ni_-vola_pika (LP) the collector of da_ni_ (land cess) and vola_pana_ (tax).

8233.dan.d.a-s'ulka (EI 23) income from fines and tolls.

8234.darvi_karman (EI 21) measurer of land.

8235.datti (EI 23; CII 4; CITD) a gift; da_ya (EI 23) a gift. deya-dharma (EI 1; CII 3; ML) a pious gift; an expression used in numerous donative inscriptions; same as dharma-deya, dharma-da_ya, dharma-da_na. deya-meya (HRS) cf. s'a_tava_na record: king's share in kind and in cash. ditya (EI 9, 12, 28; CII 4; HRS) cf. Maitraka records: name of a tax; prob. the same as datti i.e. a gift or occasional present to be offered to the landlord; Pkt. dijja = Skt. deya to be given. dr.s.t.a (EI 3,23; CII 3) Pkt. dit.t.ham 'has been seen or found correct and approved'.

8236.dhad.a_, dhad.i_ a small measure of capacity (Ind. Ant. Vol. XLI, p. 20).

8237.dhanika, dhanin (LP) the owner; cf. G. dhan.i_ 'one who is spending or lending money' in the Maithili_ documents.

8238.divira (HD) cf. Persian dabi_r a clerk; divira as distinct from ka_yastha (CII, Vol. III, p. 122). divirapati (IE 8-3; EI 5, 28; BL; HD) chief secretary or the chief of the clerks.

8239.d.ohalika_ (EI 13) a piece of land granted to bra_hman.as, sva_mins, sa_dhus and others.

8240.don:gaka (EI 24) a variety of resin or aloe.

8241.dron.a (IE 8-6; Chamba) a grain measure = four a_d.hakas; dron.i, dron.i_ (CII 4; IA 11) treasury; property.

8242.dvi-vallakya (LP) (coins) in which there is a mixture of two va_ls (6 ratis) of a base metal. valla (IE 8-8) name of a weight equal to 3 ratis. gadya_na (EI 3) a gold coin or weight = 48 ratis in weight.

8243.ga_hn.a (Chamba) threshing floor; Skt. ga_hana.

8244.gal-put.t.i_ (CITI), ghad.a-put.t.i (CITD) Telugu: an unknown measure of land. put.t.i (CITD) Telugu: a measure equal to twenty tu_mu; also called khan.d.i = 800/1000 seers. put.t.i = a land and grain measure; a land equal to about 8 acres; pelle-put.t.i = 80 kuca; malaca-put.t.i = 300 to 240 kucas. gha_d.a_, gha_d.ota_ (Chamba) a system by which the tiller receives one half of the produce.

8245.gan.a (SITI) a community or religious guild; (EI 26; CII 4) a guild or corporation; (SII 12) managing committee. Tamil kan.akan- (SITI) a village accountant. Skt. gan.aka (EI 18). gan.a-pan.a communal and professional guilds (EI 20).

8246.gola_ (IA 21) a district; (EI 31) a granary. golla-va_ru (CITD) Telugu: a caste of watchmen (employed as treasure-guards), generally herdsmen.

8247.gon.i_ (CII 4), gon.i_-prasr.ti (EI 1) a measure of capacity, prob. a handful.

8248.gun.t.ha (IE 8-6; EI 28, 31) a land measure of Orissa; equal to one-twentieth of a ma_n.a.

8249.hala (EI 3) prob. arable land.

8250.hobal.i (IE 8-4; ASLV) Ka. a small territorial unit like a Pargana_.

8251.jital (SII 1) a copper coin; Indianised as jithala; 1/48th of a silver t.an:ka of the Delhi Sulta_ns.

8252.jot.ika_ (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 253) a canal; jod.a, jot.i_, jod.i_ (East Indian records).

8253.kaccha (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 177) a field bordering on a stream; land near a well; kacchaka (EI 19) a low hill.

8254.kan.d.a_ra to engrave (Pkt.); kan.d.a_ran.a (Ka.) carving or engraving.

8255.kara-s'a_sana (EI 29,33) charter recording a grant of land for which the donee had to pay rent.

8256.khajjana, khajjan.a, khajja_na, khajjan.aka (IE 8-8; EI 33); kha_jan. (M.Kon.) an area near the sea-shore, on which a thin layer of sand accumulates after the ebbtide coming through inlets; a rice field created out of such an area near a hillock by erecting embankments on the three other sides; a field created by reclaiming a river bed; cultivable land created from the bed of a river which carries the flood-water from the sea; a salty marsh or meadow; a rice field created near the bed of a nullah on the sea shore by putting embankments (Ep. Ind. Vol. XXXIII, pp. 53-54); also called pukkoli-khajjana, pukkoli. pukkoli, pukkolli, pukku_li (IE 8-8) an arecanut palm plantation; an inscription of Kadamba Mr.ges'varman seems to suggest that it really means 'land inundated by floods'.

8257.khalla (IE 8-5) same as od.iya_ kha_l; low land; sa-khall-onnata (EI 12) with low land and high land'.

8258.khan.d.ala (IE 8-4; EI 12, 18) a territorial unit; a district or its subdivision. khan.d.i_, khan.d.a (EI 3) a land measure.

8259.khola (IE 8-3; HD) prob. a kind of messenger.

8260.kod.a-visa (Ka.) an allowance of a visa of grain etc., for every bullock-load that comes into a town, paid to a person employed to check the demands of the toll-collector.

8261.krod.a same as suvarn.a name of a gold coin and also a weight of gold (IE 8-8; EI 28; CII 3); also called aks.a, picu, pa_n.i, binduka, vid.a_lapadaka, ham.sapada, gra_sagraha and tola.

8262.kulam (EI 25) a land measure; equal to 2 hala. kuli (kur..i) (IE 8-6; EI 28) Ta. a small land measure equal to 1/240 of a pa_d.agam. kulika head of a guild (EI 15, 35); an officer in charge of ten villages who was granted a kula of land for his salary (HD). kulya a measure of capacity = 8 dron.a.

8263.kulya_ a channel for irrigation (EI 13).

8264.ku_la (SITI) tax on grains and pulses. ku_lam (SII 1) Ta. a market.

8265.kunnu, kunu (Chamba) a land measure.

8266.ku_t.aka (EI 5) prob. headman of the cultivators.

8267.la_ga (EI 11) a cess.

8268.lagad.aa_ (Ep. Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 309) a load; a bar of metal.

8269.la_had.i_ (Chamba) a land measure.

8270.lan:ka, len:ka a carpenter (EI 19).

8271.maha_-nagara (SITI) merchants' guild of a city. nagara (EI 21; SITI) a commercial guild; guild of merchants; a mercantile town; often spelt in Ka. inscriptions as nakara or nakhara; cf. paca-nagara a mercantile guild (A.R. Ep., 1956-57, No. B 190). nagara Te. inscriptions (CITD): a territorial assembly like the sabha_ and u_r; the merchant community in general or the organization of the merchant community of a town. The word is sometimes used to indicate occupational groups like s'a_leyanagarattom. nagaratta_r (ASLV; SITI) members of a guild of a town; member of a mercantile guild. nagara-s'res.t.hin (IE 8-3; EI 15, 21; BL; HD) the city banker or guild president of the town. nagara-sva_min (SITI) headman of the merchants. navara od.iya_: = Skt. nagara, capital city; palace. nakhara (Ka.); nakara = nagara (Skt.) nagar-set.h, nagara-s'res.t.hin = s'et.t.i (ASLV) nagarset.h was the chairman of the board called cauthiya_ in late medieval Rajasthan. s'et.t.i-pattan.asva_min (ASLV) designation of the president of a mercants' guild. s'res.t.hin a banker or merchant or the foreman of a guild; mentioned in the list of the king's officials and subordinates addressed by him while making a grant (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 276). vais'ya-va_n.iya-nagaratta_r (SITI, ASLV) Skt. vais'ya-va_n.ija-nagarastha a corporation of the merchants; the guild of a class of merchants.

8272.mahara (EI 1) prob. mahattara a village-headman or a member of the village paca_yat or assembly. mehara (EI 33) village headman.

8273.maha_van.d.avyavaha_rin, maha_vad.d.avyavaha_rin (EI 19; SITI) the great banker of chief merchant; head of a mercantile guild. vad.d.avyavaha_ri the principal money-changer; chief of the na_na_des'i (non-local) merchants. vad.ava_ (EI 22,27) M. record-keeper.

8274.man.d.a weight = 5 ma_s.a.

8275.man.d.apa (IE 8-3) customs house; M. ma_n.d.avi_ < Skt. man.d.apika_ a market place (H. man.d.i_ perh. due to the location of toll-stations in market-places). man.d.apika_ (EI 1,3,33) customs house; s'ulka-man.d.apika_ (Ind. Antiq. Vol. XI, p. 339). ma_n.d.apika a collector of tolls (IE 8-2); mam.d.avika (Pkt.) man.d.avo (EI 22) market place.

8276.man:gan.i, man:gan.i_, man.an.i_ (Chamba) a tax in kind.

8277.man.i-gra_ma (SITI) a mercantile guild.

8278.manneya (CITD) Te. same as Skt. ma_nya; a respectable man; a chieftain; a commander; a chief. manni_d.u, manniya (CITD).

8279.ma_nya (IE 8-5; EI 20, 23; ASLV) a rent-free holding, tax-free land; stha_na-ma_nya (EI 13) land either liable to a trifling quit-rent or altogether exempt from tax.

8280.ma_rgan.aka (EI 3; IA 18; CII 4; HRS) a levy; a kind of cess or tax; benevolences of a general character, as distinguished from special types called prasthaka and skandhaka; ma_rgan.ika (IE 8-5).

8281.maulika (EI 8-5; EI 32) a tax; the principal or main tax or the perquisites of hereditary officers.

8282.meya (IE 8-5; EI 31; HRS) the share of grains to be paid to the king or landlord; revenue from agricultural land paid in kind; same as bha_ga; tulya-meya tax on commodities brought to market for sale or what is weighed and measured.

8283.mu_d.a_ (LP), mu_d.aka, mu_l.aka a measure of capacity = 100 or 24 maunds in the Surat district. M. mu_t.h a bullock's pack-saddle.

8284.mudala (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 18) Orissa inscriptions: royal order (regarding the grant of land or its execution). mudal (EI 25) an official designation; mudali (SII 12; SITI) Ta. a chief. modaliga a chief, a headman; na_ga, mukhya (Ka.lex.)

8285.mukhya (EI 32) city elder; (CII 1) chief officer.

8286.murun.d.a (EI 14, 19) s'aka title of a chief; a title or tribal name; supposed to be derived from a Scythian word meaning 'a king'. mutud.a, mudud.a, mul.ud.a (EI 27) prob. headman of a village.

8287.na_khuda_ Arabic: captain or commander of a ship (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 143).

8288.na_la-bhu_mi (IE 8-1) cultivated land; na_la (IE 8-5; EI 14); cf. sa-khila-na_la id. nalu, na_luka_ (EI 7; CII 4) a measure of land; same as nalva; 400 or 100 or 120 square cubits.

8289.naya a territorial division like a pargana (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, pp. 318ff.)

8290.nibandha an endowment; a register; the fixed requirements of a temple; nivandakka_rar (SII 2) temple servants who attend to the nibandha; nivanda or nimanda in Ta.

8291.nika_ya (EI 7) a religious corporation.

8292.od.aya (CITD) Te.Ka. a king, ruler, master or leader.

8293.ohoru (IE 8-5), od.iya_: cf. dan.d.oa_si-ohoru tax for the maintenance of watchmen. dan.d.ua_si village watchman (Or.) < Skt. da_n.d.apa_s'ika.

8294.om the pran.ava sometimes found at the commencement of inscriptions; often represented by a sign which should not be confused with the symbol standing for the auspicious word siddham.

8295.on.t.uda_ru (EI 27) Te. a revenue officer.

8296.pa_d.aga (IE 8-6) Ta. = Skt. pa_t.aka; a land measure = 240 kur..i; and 6 1/4 of which made one ve_li. pa_da_varta (IE 8-6; EI 4,21,24; CII 3) a land measure; 100 pa_da_varta = 100 feet eacy way or 10,000 square feet.

8297.padma-nidhi (IE 8-8) a sacred deposit made in the temple treasury.

8298.padraka (IE 8-4; CII 3) a village; pa_dar, padra common-land, land adjacent to a village left uncultivated.

8299.pa_hud.a, Skt. pra_bhr.ta; cf. pa_hud.a-prama_n.ena (LP) in proportion to the gift given by him. pra_bhr.ti_kr.ta (EI 14) presented. prabha_ (SII 2) an aureole or nimbus; prabha_-valaya id. (Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 16). cf. prabhr.ta presented (RV. x. 116.4; TS. iv. 2.3.4; prabhr.tama_sye_ tr.n.am niks.iptam VS. xxv.31); prabhr.ti offering (RV. iii.38.2); commencement (RV. ii.24.1); throw (RV. v.32.7); prabhr.tha offering, oblation (RV. v.41.19; i.122.12; v.33.5)(Vedic.lex.) For semant. 'throw' cf. prahuta offered up; prahuti oblation (RV. vii.90.2); prahr. to throw a missile (ABr.)(Vedic.lex.)

8300.pa_khi_ (IE 8-6) B. a land measure in parts of Bengal, which is smaller than the bi_gha_.

8301.pan:ga, pa_n:ga (IE 8-5; EI 30, 33) Te. Ka. one-fourteenth of the produce sometimes collected from rent-free holdings in the possession of gods and bra_hman.as; a kind of tax. pan:ka (EI 33) a share; cf. pan:gu Ta.

8302.pan.ya-sam.stha_ (HRS) various dues collected for the king by the superintendent of the market and the superintendent of merchandise.

8303.parasvat (CII 1) a rhinoceros.

8304.par-r-u (IE 8-4) Ta. a small territorial unit.

8305.pa_s'a a land measure (IA 18).

8306.pa_tra (EI 9) a donee.

8307.pat.t.i a measure of land; same as nivartana (IE 8-6; EI 8); pat.t.i_ a plot of land (EI 9).

8308.pautava (HRS) various dues collected by the superintendent of weights and measures.

8309.paid.i (CITD) gold.

8310.pit.ha, pid.a_, ped.a_, pyod.a_ (Chamba) a grain measure.

8311.pra_harikya (LP); cf. G. pahero a guard or custodian.

8312.prama_n.a (EI 6; SII 1; SITI) a document; a title deed. (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 109), authority; witness. mu_laprama_n.a original order (SII 12); prama_n.a-yas.t.i (LL) measuring rod. prama_tr. (BL) lit. measurer (of the king's grain share); a civil judge (HD); cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 321. prama_ta_ra (HD) an officer concerned with the administration of justice (Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 211). pramattava_ra (EI 21) official designation.

8313.pran.aya (IE 8-5; HRS) emergency tax or benevolence; pran.aya-kriya_ id.; cf. a-hiran.ya-dha_nya-pran.aya-pradeya an epithet of rent-free land.

8314.pratiha_ra, prati_ha_ra (EI 23; BL) a door-keeper of the city gate.

8315.pra_t.ivedhanika (HRS) punching-fee collected from merchants at the time of the inspection of weights and measures.

8316.pravan.i (CII 4) a banker.

8317.pravarta a land measure (EI 32).

8318.pustapa_la (IE 8-3; EI 28; CII 4; HD) record-keeper; cf. epigraphs in the Damodarpur plates of the Gupta age (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 13).

8319.pu_ti (EI 12, 14) also read as yu_ti epithet of a gift village; tr.n.a pu_ti may mean 'grass-land'. put.t.i (EI 4, 27) a land and grain measure.

8320.ra_dha_ (EI 8) a posture of standing with the feet a span apart.

8321.rajjuka (IE 8-3; HD), Pkt. rajuka or laju_ka (EI 2) an officer of the land survey and revenue department.

8322.ranna_ name of the sun-god's wife in west Indian mythology; rannes'a a name of the sun-god; the name of the sun-god worshipped at Thanwala near Pushkar was Ranna_ditya (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXII, p. 343). cf. ra_ sun-god (Egyptian). prob. ra_ji_.

8323.rekha_ (EI 19) a land measure.

8324.rohi_ (IA 11) P. uplands.

8325.sa_da (EI 28) name of a tax.

8326.sagara (IE 7-1-2) seven.

8327.s'aivara, s'aibara a revenue term; a levy in kind; prob. the same as s'eri_ (M.) arable land originally excluded from the village assessment; may also be a tax on farm houses (cf. s'ibara).

8328.sala_t.a (PJS) G. also called sala_vat.a a stone-cutter or mason.

8329.sama_hartr. (EI 27; HD; HRS) the collector-general; officer in charge of the collection of various branches of revenue; comparable to qa_nungo of Mughal times (Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 141). san:grahi_tr. (HD) prob. a collector of the king's grain share. sannidha_tr. (EI 27) official in charge of the receipt of various articles into the king's treasury; superintendent of the construction of the royal treasury, store houses.

8330.samaya-patra (SII 1; SITI; LP) an agreement; a document containing an agreement.

8331.s'ambala (LP) provisions; sambha_ra (ML) provision.

8332.samprati (SITI) senior accountant; the manager of a temple.

8333.samuda_ya (ASLV) same as gan.a-bhoga; a tenure in which land is enjoyed by a group of people.

8334.san:gha (ASLV) a social organisation; (BL) a community of Buddhist monks; (HA) a Jain congregation. san:gam Ta. an assembly of ancient Tamil poets.

8335.san:kara (EI 9), san:kuru a double-sack.

8336.s'arabhan:ga (IE 8-3; 8-8; EI 23) a leader of forces; an officer of the military department; possibly, a military governor; same as Persian sarhang and Hindi sera_n:g; also spelt sarabhan:ga, sarobhan:ga. sarhang a commander; a term generally applied in India to the headman of a native crew, whether on board a ship or a boat; also to the headman of a gang of natives attached to artillery, dragging guns, or to the army in general, as tent-pitchers, and the like, or to the head of gangs of a superior order of labourers employed in public or private works, in docks, buildings. giligitta_-sara_n:gha the chief of the army at Gilgit (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 228).

8337.sa_rthava_ha (IE 8-3; EI 24, 31; BL; LL) a trader, a merchant; designation of a member of the mercantile community represented on an administrative board like the paca_yat.

8338.s'a_sana (EI 19; IA 20) order, a royal edict; any royal record; (IE 8-4; EI 13, 23; CII 3; BL) a charter; land or village granted by a charter; rent-free land or village; ta_mra-s'a_sana (IE; EI 23; CII) deed of conveyance on copper-plates; also, gift land. s'a_sana-pat.a_ (Chamba) charter.

8339.sattra (SII 1; CII 3,4) a charitable feeding house; an alms-house

8340.s'au abbreviation of s'aulkika (IE 8-3; CII 3,4; EI 30; HD) toll-collector or customs officer; or s'aun.d.ika (IE 8-5) vintner.

8341.setika_ (IE 8-5; EI 25); Pkt. seia_, seiga_ a measure of weight = 2 handfuls.

8342.sekyaka_ra (EI 12; BL) a brazier; secondarily, an engraver; B. sen:kra_ goldsmith.

8343.s'ikhara (SITI; CITD) top portion of the turret built over the main shrine and the gateway of a temple; the top of the gopura or vimaof a temple.

8344.ser (Chamba), also called seri crown land; state demesne.

8345.s'evid.u (SITI) Ta. a small grain measure; 1/5 of an a_r..a_kku.

8346.s'ilotara (EI 32), s'ilotari_, s'ilotra, s'ilotri_, s'ilottara name of a tax or income.

8347.s'i_rs.aka (EI 28) village headman; same as mutud.a or mul.ud.a in south Indian inscriptions.

8348.si_ta_ (EI 31) cultivated land; produce of the royal farms.

8349.s'i_ta_ri (SITI) Ta. burning of incenses.

8350.skandaka (HD) a petty officer; prob. the head of the village administration. skandhaka (EI 3; HRS) G. name of a tax; prob. a cess at a certain rate per shoulder-load.

8351.s'ol.aga Ka. a land measure (IE 8-6).

8352.s'ot.i_ (IE 8-8; EI 30) prob. pot for measuring liquids like wine; a ladleful; name of a measure.

8353.s'ra_van.a (SITI), s'ra_van.a-patra a sale deed (a_van.a-s'ala_van.am).

8354.s'ri_karan.a (IE 8-3; EI 11,21,31; HD) the drafting of documents; a scribe; record office; record officer (EI 30; CII 4). s'ri_-malaya = tirumalai Ta. (SITI) sacred hill. s'ri_-mukha (SII 12; SITI) royal order or charter; Ta. tirum-muga-kka_n.am expenses as wages etc. paid to the person who brings the tiru-mugam (royal order) to the village.

8355.s'r.n:ga (EI 14) mentioned in relation to a tank.

8356.s'rotra (IE 8-5; EI 32) prob. a tax in kind collected from farmers by a lessee of state lands; same as M. s'ilotara. s'rotaka a kind of rent.

8357.sthal. (IA 15) a standard for measuring gardens.

8358.sthala-vr.tti (EI 13) a tenure in which payment of a tax was made in kind from the produce. tala-vr.tti endowment of the adjoining land; land granted for the maintenance of a temple or deity at the time of its consecration (EI 13, 15, 21, 33; IA 7; SII 11-1; SITI).

8359.su_ri (EI 9) title of Jain religious teachers; often used as their name-endings.

8360.sva_mya (SITI) ownership; right to property; ubhaya-sva_mya (EI 5), tejah--sva_mya; manneya-sva_mya (SII 11-1), tenure held by a manneya.

8361.svasti (CII 3,4) welfare; auspicious word used at the beginning of some inscriptions to ensure success of the undertaking; an exlamation used at the commencement of inscriptions. Sometimes used as a neuter noun, with astu in the man:gala at the end of documents.

8362.tailika-ra_ja (EI 23) chief of a guild o oilmen; designation of the chairman of the oilmen's guild.

8363.ta_la (SII 2) Ta. a dish.

8364.ta_la (EI 21; SITI) Ta. the treasury.

8365.tantra (ASLV) army, government; tantrin Ta. in south Indian inscriptions: a soldier; a trooper; a temple priest.

8366.t.haka (IA 6), t.haka-purisa a trader.

8367.ti_mmira (EI 11) a land measure; timpi_ra, timpira, t.impira in Orissa records (IE 8-6; EI 23, 24, 29).

8368.tri (IE 7-1-2) three. tripada (LP) the three chief account books, viz., rojmol, kha_ta_-vahi_ and pa_vti_-vahi_.

8369.tu_nk (HA) Jain: top of a mountain or hill on which there is a shrine or several shrines.

8370.turya (IE 7-1-2) four.

8371.torai (SITI) Ta. a standard linear measure of four fingers' breadth.

8372.udama_na (IE 8-6; EI 29) a small land measure; unma_na, uda_na.

8373.udaya (EI 24) the produce of a field.

8374.ukka, ukka_ (Chamba) the total sum; a lump sum.

8375.ucha tolls (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 89).

8376.urod.e (IA 8) Ka. the village headman; urod.eya (IA 12) Ka.

8377.utkot.a (IE 8-5, 8-8; EI 33) Pkt. ukkod.a; a levy; customary presents to be made on occasions to the king or landlord and others.

8378.ut-kr. to engrave; cf. Pkt. kan.d.a_ra used in Ka. inscriptions.

8379.vallava (IE 8-3; 27; LL) officer in charge of the king's cattle; Skt. vallabha herdsman.

8380.va_mana-mudra_ (SITI) figures of s'an:kha and cakra marked on the boundary stones set up to demarcate the lands of a Vis.n.u temple. va_mana-kkal boundary stone of land granted for religious purposes.

8381.va_ra (BL) a board of administrators (formed by the s'res.t.hins, sa_rthava_has and others); va_ra-gos.t.hi_ (EI 5,23) a committee's assembly. va_rakr.ta (EI 23) official designation. va_rika (IE 8-8; EI 30, 32) a class of officials; the priest or superintendent of a temple like a pa_n.d.a_ of modern times. Ta. va_riyan- a supervisor. va_riyam (SITI) Ta. an executive committee. ba_rika (EI 5,19) a village official; one entrusted with putting an official seal or stamp to a document; cf. ba_rika-jana-hasta.

8382.va-sa_ (PJS) prob. an abbreviation of van.ik-sa_dhu a merchant; cf. sa_hu, sa_dhu a merchant.

8383.va_-t.i_ abbreviation of va_stu-t.i_kara a mound containing land suitable for building houses (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXX, p. 56).

8384.vat.t.am (SITI) money-changer's commission; trade discount.

8385.vela_pura, vela_ura (IA 10,14) a harbour; same as vela_kula (IE 8-4; EI 31; LP).

8386.va_t.ika_, ve_li land measure = 5120 square dan.das of 4 cubits length; 4.48 acres.

8387.vetrika (EI 9; CII 4) the chamberlain.

8388.vinaya (IE 8-8; EI 30) fines.

8389.vraja-bhu_mi (IE 8-4) grazing land.

8390.yas.t.i (EI 33; CII 4; ML) a memorial pillar; a relic pillar raised in memory of the dead. ya_s.t.ika (HD) staff bearer; an attendant on the king (Pa_n.ini, IV, 4.59); cf. vetrika.