| Ancient philosophy,
earliest enlightened teachers (Tirthankaras) mentioned in Rig Veda
Modern Founder Vardhaman Mahavira (2500 years ago)
Major Scriptures : The Jain Agamas Siddhantas
Universe is neither created not sustained by a Supernatural
being, it is beginning-less, endless and operates in accordance of natural law
Reality has two categories, jive (soul) and ajiva (without
Ahimsa doctrine of non-killing, non-violence and non-injury
Belief in Law of Karma in the sense of cause and effect
Himsa (violence), nirdaya (lack of compassion), krodha
(anger), mada (pride), maya (infactuation), lobha (greed), dvesha (hatred), trishna
(craving) are the primary causes of suffering and injustice in the world.
Attachment to material objects is the primary cause of
bondage and leads to greed and jealousy, which further leads to suffering and injustice
Renouncing attachment to material object is a necessary
condition for attaining peace and joy in the world and thereafter
Rejects the ritualistic content of the Vedas but does not
necessarily deny their higher teachings.
Does not believe in existence of God as creator, sustainer
and moral governor of the world.
Goal of life according to Jain dharma is to attain kevala
(liberation) whereas in other Hindu philosophies the goal is moksha. Both are similar, in
that both emphasize transcending the world of names and forms to realize the truth.