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Ancient philosophy, earliest enlightened teachers (Tirthankaras) mentioned in Rig Veda

Modern Founder Vardhaman Mahavira (2500 years ago)

Major Scriptures : The Jain Agamas Siddhantas

Universe is neither created not sustained by a Supernatural being, it is beginning-less, endless and operates in accordance of natural law

Reality has two categories, jive (soul) and ajiva (without soul)

Ahimsa doctrine of non-killing, non-violence and non-injury

Belief in Law of Karma in the sense of cause and effect

Himsa (violence), nirdaya (lack of compassion), krodha (anger), mada (pride), maya (infactuation), lobha (greed), dvesha (hatred), trishna (craving) are the primary causes of suffering and injustice in the world.

Attachment to material objects is the primary cause of bondage and leads to greed and jealousy, which further leads to suffering and injustice

Renouncing attachment to material object is a necessary condition for attaining peace and joy in the world and thereafter

Rejects the ritualistic content of the Vedas but does not necessarily deny their higher teachings.

Does not believe in existence of God as creator, sustainer and moral governor of the world.

Goal of life according to Jain dharma is to attain kevala (liberation) whereas in other Hindu philosophies the goal is moksha. Both are similar, in that both emphasize transcending the world of names and forms to realize the truth.

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